CN112616739A - Method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in salt pan shrimp culture - Google Patents

Method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in salt pan shrimp culture Download PDF

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CN112616739A
CN112616739A CN202011614844.7A CN202011614844A CN112616739A CN 112616739 A CN112616739 A CN 112616739A CN 202011614844 A CN202011614844 A CN 202011614844A CN 112616739 A CN112616739 A CN 112616739A
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shrimps
shrimp
culture
pond
day
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陈锚
刘云飞
武心华
刘会均
高德昌
于胜涛
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Bohai Fisheries Technology Binzhou Co ltd
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Guangzhou Meiyixian Trading Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/13Prevention or treatment of fish diseases
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/10Animal feeding-stuffs obtained by microbiological or biochemical processes
    • A23K10/12Animal feeding-stuffs obtained by microbiological or biochemical processes by fermentation of natural products, e.g. of vegetable material, animal waste material or biomass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/20Animal feeding-stuffs from material of animal origin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/20Animal feeding-stuffs from material of animal origin
    • A23K10/22Animal feeding-stuffs from material of animal origin from fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/80Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for aquatic animals, e.g. fish, crustaceans or molluscs
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
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  • Sustainable Development (AREA)
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  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Water Supply & Treatment (AREA)
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Abstract

A method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in the culture of salt pan shrimps comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of pond trimming, stress-resistant variety selection, taura virus detection, shrimp fry coarsening and salinization, whole-process feeding of brine shrimp, water quality regulation, water quality detection, biological prevention and control, physical prevention and control and stress prevention.

Description

Method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in salt pan shrimp culture
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of aquatic products, and particularly relates to a method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in the culture of salt pan shrimps.
Background
Taura syndrome, commonly known as "red tail disease", is a severe infectious prawn disease caused by Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV), with shrimp bodies becoming red and soft-shelled during acute infection and irregular blackening of the keratinized epithelium during transitional infection. The animal epidemic notification directory of 2019 version is officially effective in 2019, 1 month and 1 day of 2019, in the world animal health Organization (OIE). One of the 9 crustacean diseases reported by OIE is Taglar syndrome. The taura syndrome mainly occurs in the molting stage of prawns, the prawns do not eat food, the water surface slowly swims, the bodies of sick prawns are weak, red pigmentation exists in gastropods, sometimes the whole bodies of the prawns become red, and necrosis focuses appear on individual parts of the bodies of the prawns. The mortality rate is more than 95%.
At present, no effective treatment measures are available for the taura syndrome of prawns in the outbreak stage, so that the prevention and control can be only adopted in the breeding process. However, single prevention and control is often ineffective.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in the culture of salt pan shrimps, which comprises the following steps:
1. big change, shallow change and deep change: most of the primary evaporation ponds of the seawater salt field are 1000-5000 mu, and the water level is 50-60 cm. The water body is large, which is not beneficial to artificial regulation and control; the water body is shallow, which is not beneficial to the prawn to avoid the adverse weather and the enemy. Transformed into a single 100-500 mu water level of 120-150 cm. And (3) arranging ring ditches outside 10-20 meters of the four side slopes, wherein the width of each ring ditch is 20-30 meters, and the depth of each ring ditch is 40-60 cm.
2. Trimming the pond: in non-production seasons, draining water, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, properly using multiple purposes at low-lying positions, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days.
3. Selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties which are bred by focusing on stress resistance characters. The species with the growth speed is emphasized, so that the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp culture mode is increased.
4. Detecting the taura virus: the germplasm, the larvae and the seedlings are selected, the detection report of the taura virus is checked, and all links are negative and can be used as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan.
5. And (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill to 65 per mill to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan, water is changed once every 2 days after the qualified P5 shrimps are stabilized for 3 days, the water is increased by 4 to 5 per mill each time, the concentration of brine for increasing the salinity is mixed with 100 to 150 per mill prepared normal seawater until the salinity is 15 to 20 per mill higher than that of a primary pond, the brine is added into the primary pond for increasing the salinity, the brine is changed twice every day after the salinity is adjusted to 40 per mill, the salinity is increased by 2.5 per mill to 3.5 per mill each time until the salinity is 65 per mill.
6. One-to-one crude salt formation: in the 4 processes, a small pond can be built in the conditional pond according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, a plastic greenhouse is covered for heat preservation, the salinity can be matched with the same, the transportation link of the shrimp seeds can be omitted, the standard thickness can be properly increased, and the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside is increased.
7. Feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: the artemia protein content is high, the crude protein content is 50-60%, the amino acid content is 21-29%, the artemia amino acid composition is similar to the shrimp body amino acid composition, the weight increase of prawns is facilitated, and the growth speed of the prawns eating the artemia is high. And (3) culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting. The fairy shrimp is fed on the day of seedling release, the fairy shrimp is hatched in a secondary brine pond (with the salinity of 65-95 per mill) in advance, 1-1.5 kilograms per mu is fed, and the quantity is increased by 5-10% every day in two times. If the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, the artemia stop feeding, the water change amount is increased, and minced fillet of the lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) fermented by lactic acid bacteria is supplemented.
8. Water quality regulation and control: the water quality can be regulated by using the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus, and the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus is used once every half month. Bacillus was used on day 1, lactic acid bacteria on day 6 and lactic acid bacteria on day 11 of each cycle.
9. And (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio is administered every three days. The vibrio treating method comprises the following steps: reducing feed (oral administration lactobacillus), and increasing fairy shrimp amount; the water exchange amount is increased. The taura virus was detected every 15 days.
10. Biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, the prawn grows for about 5cm, 4-5 cm of lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) with consistent salinity with the target pond is released per mu and domesticated, the ratio of the fish to the prawn is 500-1000: 1, reeds can be planted in the saline-alkali soil around the culture pond to attract some birds to lay eggs, the habitat is increased, and the birds can timely clean diseased and weak shrimps floating on the water surface, and the method is also one of effective means for disease biological control.
11. Physical prevention and control: when the shrimps grow to about 7-8 cm, by utilizing the characteristics that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pool and attached to the water surface, a shrimp guide net is placed every 40-50 mu, the shrimp guide net is pulled to a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope to 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, the shrimp guide net is arranged at one end far away from the side slope, the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are induced into hubs, and the shrimps are cleaned once every 2-3 days, so that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are prevented from being eaten by healthy shrimps and the infection source is cut off.
12. Stress prevention: the weather mutation causes the prawns to generate stress, the stress is an important factor for the occurrence of the diseases of the prawns, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a whole pool before and after the weather mutation (cold flow, strong wind, high temperature and the like).
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the invention changes the primary evaporation pond of the seawater salt pan into a single culture pond, thereby enlarging the culture area.
2. The fermented minced fish of the lobster and tiger fish and wheat bran are used as the organic fertilizer water in the whole process.
3. The shrimp larvae are thickened, the standardized breeding is carried out in the early stage, and the salinization thickening is carried out in the later stage, so that the survival rate of the shrimps can be improved, and the yield per mu and the total output are greatly improved.
4. The whole process of the shrimp breeding is carried out by the fairy shrimp, which provides high-quality basic bait for the shrimp larvae, not only reduces the feed coefficient and the water pollution, but also can increase the survival rate and accelerate the growth speed of the shrimp larvae.
5. The disease prevention and control is the combination of biological prevention and control and physical prevention and control: the physical prevention and control is to arrange a shrimp guide net to eliminate the sick shrimps by utilizing the characteristics that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pond and are attached to the water surface; the biological prevention and control is to attract birds to clean up sick shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time by using the tail of the lance goby and the planted reed.
6. Detecting the taura virus: the germplasm, the larvae and the seedlings are selected, the detection report of the taura virus is checked, and all links are negative and can be used as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan.
The invention takes good effect from comprehensive prevention and control measures such as variety selection, fry detection, pond trimming in cultivation, crude salt marking of shrimp fries, nutrition enhancement, biological prevention and control, physical prevention and control and the like.
Detailed Description
Example 1
A method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in the culture of salt pan shrimps comprises the following steps:
(1) big change, shallow change and deep change: reconstructing an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with water level of 60-70 cm and water level of more than one thousand mu to several thousand mu into a single culture pond; the cultivation pond is a single 100-500 mu, the water level is 120-150 cm, a circular ditch is arranged outside 10-20 meters of four side slopes of the primary evaporation pond, the width of the circular ditch is 20-30 m, the depth of the circular ditch is 40-60 cm, and each cultivation pond is provided with an independent drainage system
(2) Trimming the pond: draining off water in non-production seasons, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties with emphasis on stress resistance character breeding, and increasing the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp breeding mode by emphasizing the growth speed;
(4) detecting the taura virus: the germplasm, the larvae and the seedlings are selected, the detection report of the taura virus is checked, and all links are negative and can be used as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan.
(5) And (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of the qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill-65 per mill so as to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan;
(6) one-to-one crude salt formation: building a small pond according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, covering a plastic greenhouse, and properly increasing the standard thickness of the pond to increase the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside;
(7) feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting; feeding the fairy shrimp 1-1.5 kg per mu on the seedling releasing day, and increasing by 5-10% every day in two times; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, stopping feeding the artemia cystokiniana, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lobster and tiger fish fermented by lactic acid bacteria;
(8) water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month; using bacillus on day 1, lactobacillus on day 6 and lactobacillus on day 11 of each cycle;
(9) and (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio every three days; detecting the taura virus once every 15 days;
(10) biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, 4-5 cm of larval tail gobies with consistent salinity with a target pond are released per mu, and the ratio of fishes to shrimps is 500-1000: 1; reed is planted in saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract birds to lay eggs, a habitat is increased, and the birds clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(11) physical prevention and control: when the prawn grows to about 7-8 cm, placing a prawn guide net every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristics that the sick prawn and the weak prawn move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface; pulling a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope and from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, arranging a shrimp guide net at one end far away from the side slope, inducing the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps into hubs, and cleaning once every 2-3 days to avoid the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps from being eaten by healthy shrimps and cutting off the infection source;
(12) stress prevention: before and after the sudden change of weather, 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool per mu of land.
The above-described embodiments are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention, and all equivalent changes or modifications of the structures, features and principles described in the claims of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. A method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in the culture of salt pan shrimps is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) big change, shallow change and deep change: reforming an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with 1000-5000 mu and 60-70 cm water level into a single culture pond;
(2) trimming the pond: draining off water in non-production seasons, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties with emphasis on stress resistance character breeding, and increasing the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp breeding mode by emphasizing the growth speed;
(4) detecting the taura virus: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking a taura virus detection report, and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative;
(5) and (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of the qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill-65 per mill so as to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan;
(6) one-to-one crude salt formation: building small ponds according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, covering a plastic greenhouse, properly increasing the standard thickness and increasing the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside, wherein the salinity is matched the same;
(7) feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting;
(8) water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month; using bacillus on day 1, lactobacillus on day 6 and lactobacillus on day 11 of each cycle;
(9) and (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio every three days; detecting the taura virus pathogen once every 15 days;
(10) biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, 4-5 cm of larval tail gobies with consistent salinity with a target pond are released per mu, and the ratio of fishes to shrimps is 500-1000: 1; reed is planted in saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract birds to lay eggs, a habitat is increased, and the birds clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(11) physical prevention and control: when the prawn grows to about 7-8 cm, placing a prawn guide net every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristics that the sick prawn and the weak prawn move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface; pulling a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope and from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, arranging a shrimp guide net at one end far away from the side slope, inducing the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps into hubs, and cleaning once every 2-3 days to avoid the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps from being eaten by healthy shrimps and cutting off the infection source;
(12) stress prevention: the prawn is stressed by the sudden change of weather, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool per mu of land before and after the sudden change of weather.
2. The method for effectively preventing and treating the taura syndrome in the salt pan shrimp culture as claimed in claim 1, wherein the culture ponds in step (1) are 100-500 mu, the water level is 120-150 cm, the ring ditches are arranged outside 10-20 m of four slopes, the width of the ring ditches is 20-30 m, the depth of the ring ditches is 40-60 cm, and each culture pond is provided with an independent drainage system.
3. The method for effectively preventing and treating the taura syndrome in the salt pan shrimp culture process of claim 1, wherein the fairy shrimp is fed in the whole process of the step (7): feeding the fairy shrimp 1-1.5 kg per mu on the seedling releasing day, and increasing by 5-10% every day in two times; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, feeding by the fairy shrimp, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lance tail goby fermented by lactic acid bacteria.
CN202011614844.7A 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 Method for effectively preventing and treating taura syndrome in salt pan shrimp culture Pending CN112616739A (en)

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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112889721A (en) * 2021-02-07 2021-06-04 陈锚 Method for physically preventing and controlling prawn breeding diseases
CN113575481A (en) * 2021-09-08 2021-11-02 全国水产技术推广总站 Ecological breeding method for saline-alkali soil pond salt pan shrimps by taking fairy shrimp as main natural bait

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CN110122386A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-16 渤海水产股份有限公司 A method of being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110250061A (en) * 2019-07-18 2019-09-20 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of thick method of mark being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn

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CN110122386A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-16 渤海水产股份有限公司 A method of being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110250061A (en) * 2019-07-18 2019-09-20 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of thick method of mark being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn

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夏金树等: "对虾健康养殖综合集成技术", 《河北渔业》 *
杨秀峰: "捕养良性循环-山东滨州生态盐田虾年产8万吨稳居全省首位", 《HTTP://M.CE.CN/BWZG/202009/23/T20200923_35800452.SHTML》 *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112889721A (en) * 2021-02-07 2021-06-04 陈锚 Method for physically preventing and controlling prawn breeding diseases
CN113575481A (en) * 2021-09-08 2021-11-02 全国水产技术推广总站 Ecological breeding method for saline-alkali soil pond salt pan shrimps by taking fairy shrimp as main natural bait

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