CN111066695B - Method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of fugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach - Google Patents

Method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of fugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach Download PDF

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CN111066695B
CN111066695B CN201911366536.4A CN201911366536A CN111066695B CN 111066695 B CN111066695 B CN 111066695B CN 201911366536 A CN201911366536 A CN 201911366536A CN 111066695 B CN111066695 B CN 111066695B
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pond
water
obscurus
stocking
shrimps
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CN111066695A (en
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施永海
谢永德
张忠华
徐嘉波
陆根海
刘永士
乔燕平
税春
曹祥德
袁新程
杨明
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Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute Shanghai Fisheries Technical Extension Station
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/60Fishing; Aquaculture; Aquafarming

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of aquaculture, in particular to a method for three-dimensional breeding of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach, which comprises 8 production steps of pond preparation, breeding of takifugu obscurus, breeding of penaeus vannamei larvae, planting of water spinach, bait feeding, daily management, growth monitoring and harvesting. The invention changes the cultivation mode of the fugu obscurus, establishes a multi-species and multi-nutrition-level pond ecological system in a low-carbon, low-pollution and high-efficiency ecological three-dimensional cultivation mode of the fugu obscurus, fully utilizes the water body space of the fugu obscurus cultivation pond, improves the water body utilization rate of the pond, reduces the production cost and improves the economic benefit; the total feed utilization rate of the cultivation of the takifugu orientalis is improved, the total bait coefficient is reduced, the waste water discharge is reduced, the aquaculture energy efficiency is improved, and the fishery efficiency and fisherman income are promoted. In addition, the invention has simple operation and is easy to be accepted and popularized by people.

Description

Method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of fugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of aquaculture, in particular to a method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach.
Background
Takifugu obscurus (Takifugu obscurus), commonly known as globefish, belongs to the order Fugu, sub-order Fugu, genus Takifugu. The meat food has white and frosted muscles, is delicious, fresh, tender and tasty, is rich in protein and nutrition, and is praised as the first of the three delicacies of Yangtze river. The traditional habit of eating puffer fish is existed in China from ancient times, and the puffer fish is always regarded as a treasure on a dining table, especially in Jiang Zhe. Tetrodotoxin can be extracted from globefish liver and ovary, and has high economic value and medicinal value, and wide prospect of earning foreign exchange. At present, the annual total yield of domestic fugu obscurus reaches 2.0-5.0 ten thousand tons, and the variety with the largest culture area and the highest culture yield in the fugu obscurus is the fugu obscurus. Especially in 2016 for 9 months, the office of Ministry of agriculture and the State food and drug administration jointly release the 'processing and management of conditional releasing cultivated Takifugu rubripes and cultivated Takifugu obscurus', so that the cultivated Takifugu obscurus is protected by law for safe eating and the cultivation area of the Takifugu obscurus is increasingly enlarged. However, as the culture area is gradually enlarged, the total output is improved, the price of cultured fugu obscurus is gradually increased to the cost price, the price of the commercial fish of the fugu obscurus in the next half year of 2018 is 16-18 yuan/jin, and a plurality of farmers lose the cost.
Penaeus vannamei (Penaeus vannamei), a scientific name of Litopenaeus vannamei, is a wide-temperature and wide-salinity tropical shrimp, can grow under the conditions of 18-32 ℃ and 1-40 per mill of salinity, and is an excellent desalination culture variety. The penaeus vannamei boone has the advantages of large size, quick growth, low nutritional requirement, strong disease resistance and the like, has strong adaptability to the change of water environment factors, low requirement on the protein content of feed, high meat yield of more than 65 percent, long water leaving survival time and the like, is an excellent variety for intensive high-yield cultivation, and is a shrimp seed with the highest single yield in three cultivated penaeus vannamei boone in the world at present.
Swamp cabbage, the academic name of swamp cabbage (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), is an annual herb, can float in water, can grow in Yangtze river basin in each province for 4-10 months, and is widely cultivated as a vegetable at present. Besides being eaten by vegetables, the feed is also a better feed.
At present, the cultivation mode of the fugu obscurus mainly comprises two modes of pond cultivation and industrial cultivation, the pond cultivation mode is abundant, the fugu obscurus is generally cultivated by adopting a single variety, the fugu obscurus is used as carnivorous fish for cultivation of the single variety, the waste of feed and the outbreak of diseases are easily caused, meanwhile, the high-density high-water-changing cultivation mode of the single variety has great influence on the water area environment, and then the water source of cultivation water is polluted in reverse, so that the yield reduction of fishery and the income reduction of fishermen are caused. Therefore, in order to solve the problem of the bottleneck of pond culture of single variety of the fugu obscurus, the culture mode and the pond culture variety structure of the fugu obscurus are urgently needed to be adjusted, the low-carbon, low-pollution and high-efficiency ecological three-dimensional culture mode of the fugu obscurus is researched and developed, the fugu obscurus is mainly cultured, the culture density and the unit yield of the fugu obscurus are reduced, benthos and aquatic plants are increased, a multi-species and multi-nutrition-level pond ecosystem is established, the feed conversion rate is improved, the total bait coefficient is reduced, the waste water discharge is reduced, the aquaculture energy efficiency is improved, the purposes of energy conservation and emission reduction, green ecology, high quality and high efficiency are realized, and the win-win purpose of ecological restoration and fishery synergy is finally realized.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach.
In order to realize the aim, the invention provides a method for three-dimensional breeding of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach, which comprises 8 production steps of pond preparation, takifugu obscurus stocking, litopenaeus vannamei stocking, water spinach planting, bait feeding, daily management, growth monitoring and harvesting, and comprises the following steps:
A) preparing a pond: selecting a soil pond in Jiangzhe area with a flat bottom, wherein the depth of the pond is 2m, the water level is 1.5m, the area is 2.5-5.0 mu, and the pond is preferably rectangular, 1-2 1.5kw of oxygen-increasing machines are arranged in each pond, a 60-mesh silk mesh bag is sleeved at a water inlet for filtering, and the pond is thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before use, so that wild trash fish and shrimps are thoroughly removed;
further, in the step A, in order to thoroughly remove the harmful organisms drilled in the bottom mud of the pond, adding water to submerge the bottom of the pond for soaking before the pond is used, finely dissolving 50-80 jin/mu of bleaching powder in water, spraying the supernatant into the pond for disinfection, opening an aerator during spraying and within half an hour after spraying, then turning off the aerator, standing the pond water for 3-4 days, completely draining the disinfectant water after the pond water is clear and at the bottom, adding fresh water to submerge the bottom of the pond before the pond is used for thoroughly eliminating residual chlorine at the bottom of the pond, and draining and solarizing for later use after soaking for 2 days;
B) d, breeding Fugu obscurus: selecting and stocking the overwintering fingerlings of the takifugu obscurus in the middle ten days of 4 months, wherein when the water temperature of an outer pond rises to 15-18 ℃, the fries are easier to eat due to the fact that the takifugu obscurus fingerlings with undersized specifications are not easy to be too small, the stocking specification of the fingerlings is 80-160 g/tail, the threat to the survival of the intercropped litopenaeus vannamei is caused due to the fact that the stocking density of the takifugu obscurus is too high, the carrying capacity and the breeding capacity of organisms of the whole pond are also considered, the stocking density of the takifugu obscurus fingerlings is 800 plus one fish and 1000 tail/mu, water is fed in one week before stocking, the aerator is started for 1-2 hours every day after water feeding, the aerator is started for 2 hours in advance during stocking, and when the takifugu obscurus fingerlings are stocked, the number of each fingerling is required to be fed into the pond for thoroughly removing the mixed fishes in the fingerlings;
C) stocking the south America white prawn fries: in order to timely peel and grow the stocking shrimp larvae and reduce the killing of takifugu obscurus, the stocking time of the stocking shrimp larvae is selected in the middle and last ten days of 5 months, the water temperature of a pond is above 22 ℃, the stocking penaeus vannamei is the desalted shrimp larvae, considering that takifugu obscurus fish species can absorb the shrimp larvae, the specifications of the shrimp larvae cannot be too small, the stocking density cannot be too low, the stocking specification of the shrimp larvae is 0.8-1.0cm, the salinity of the shrimp larvae is required to be desalted below 2, and the stocking density of the shrimp larvae is 1.1-2.0 ten thousand per mu;
furthermore, in the step C, considering that the released shrimp seeds can escape from the killing of the fugu donacus and adapt to the water quality environment of the culture pond as soon as possible, the shrimp seeds put into the pond can be temporarily cultured in the net periphery of the pond for 1 week in a conditional place, a water-proof net periphery is formed on the side of the pond by using a plastic film, and the area of the net periphery is 10-20m2The water depth is 0.8-1.2m, before stocking, the salinity of water body in the net enclosure is controlledThe salt or bittern is used to increase the original salinity of the shrimp seeds out of the pond, and the stocking density in the net enclosure is 0.8-1.2 ten thousand/m2And continuously inflating the inside of the net enclosure, replacing the water in the net enclosure with pond water outside the net enclosure every day by about 30 percent, removing the plastic film net enclosure after one week, and placing the shrimp seeds with thick marks into the pond downstream.
D) Planting water spinach: after the penaeus vannamei boone is released for breeding, in order to enable the penaeus vannamei boone to avoid the residual fish of takifugu obscurus and plant water spinach in time, water spinach is planted in the middle 6 months, in order to reduce the planting cost of the water spinach and simplify the operation, the water spinach is planted by adopting a suspension rope method, the suspension rope is 75 strands, the diameter of the suspension rope is 3.0mm, when the water spinach is planted, the suspension rope is pulled to be reversely unscrewed, the water spinach is directly inserted into the suspension rope at intervals of 30cm, due to the buoyancy of the water spinach, the suspension rope floats on the water surface, the sunlight irradiation area of a pond water body is reduced due to excessive water spinach area, the stability of pond water quality and the growth of the shrimps are not facilitated, the water spinach quantity can be ensured, the water spinach quality can be effectively purified, and the planting area is controlled to be 15-30% of the breeding area;
furthermore, in the step D, considering the water flow direction when the pond aerator is started, selecting to firstly pull the suspension ropes in the rectangular pond in parallel to the transverse pond stems, tying two ends of the suspension ropes to pile heads at the water surfaces of the two longitudinal pond stems of the pond, considering the permeability of the water body of the pond, distributing the area of the water spinach into small blocks, pulling a first suspension rope at the water surface position of about 3-4m away from the transverse pond stems, then pulling a suspension rope at intervals of 3m, and pulling 3 suspension ropes while pulling one transverse pond stem, so that 6 suspension ropes are pulled in each pond generally.
E) Feeding baits: after the fugu obscurus is put into the breeding, eel powder feed with 45 percent of crude protein content is fed every day from the next day (Changxing brand, produced by everlasting Quanxing nutritional additive limited company of Jiangsu province, Xieyongde, applied to the Never sea, Zhang Haiming and Xujiabo. the growth characteristics of first-age overwintering fish species of the fugu flavidus cultivated in ponds [ J ]. Zhejiang ocean academy of academic (Nature edition), 2012,31(04): 340-; after the south America white shrimps are put into the pond for 1 month, the south America white shrimps are fed with prawn pellet feed (Minghui brand feed, produced by Zhejiang Minghui feed Co., Ltd., models 9131 and 9132), in order to enable the south America white shrimps to absorb residual feed and excrement of the takifugu orientalis after eating as much as possible, the south America white shrimps are fed with the prawn pellet feed 2 hours after feeding the takifugu orientalis with feeding time of 10:00 and 16:00 every day, and the feeding is finished after half an hour of feeding.
F) Daily management: after the fugu obscurus is put into the breeding pool, timely starting an aerator, starting the aerator for 1h at noon in sunny days in 4-6 months, starting the aerator for 8-10h at night, starting the aerator for 10-12h in nights in 7-9 months, starting the aerator for 1h at noon in sunny days in 10-12 months, starting the aerator for 10-12h at night, and increasing the starting time in bad weather; changing water for 1 time every half month, wherein the water change amount is 1/3 each time; the water spinach is cut into stubbles, the water spinach grows too fast, the water spinach of each suspension rope is intertwined, the water permeability is poor, meanwhile, the pond is covered too much, the water spinach on the suspension rope grows more than 1m in an epitaxial manner, and the stubbles are required to be cut; meanwhile, tender leaves and buds can be picked and listed;
G) and (3) growth monitoring: monitoring the growth of the takifugu obscurus for 1 time per month, randomly measuring the body length and the body weight, pulling one corner of the pond by using a pull net with the mesh specification of 3.5cm multiplied by 3.5cm in order to prevent shrimps from entering the net, and randomly sampling 30 fishes in each pond; monitoring the growth of the shrimps for 1 time every two weeks, and capturing the shrimps by combining a ground cage and a material platform, wherein 30 tails of each pond are sampled every time;
H) harvesting and catching: the method comprises the following steps that 1, at the bottom of 8 months to the beginning of 9 months, the south America white shrimps are in a specification of more than 17 g/tail, the south America white shrimps are caught by using a cage net, in order to prevent fugu obscurus from entering a ground cage to eat the south America white shrimps, each inlet of the ground cage is covered by a net with the mesh specification of 3.5cm multiplied by 3.5cm, when the ground cage is caught, the placing time of the cages in a pond is increased by half an hour compared with the conventional method, the south America white shrimps are caught every other day, and after 7-10 times of general catching, more than 90% of the shrimps can be caught; beginning at the beginning of 10 months, beginning to catch the Fugu obscurus with the specification of 300-.
During harvesting, the survival rate of the fugu obscurus is more than 90 percent, the yield per mu is 400-700 jin, and the feed coefficient is 2.5-3.0; the specification of the south America white shrimps is 20-30 kg/jin, the survival rate is 50-80%, the yield per mu is 200 jin and 400 jin, the feed coefficient is 0.6-1.0, the total feed coefficient after overlapping the fishes and the shrimps is 1.3-1.9, and the benefit per mu is 2000 yuan and 7000 yuan.
The invention aims at the bottleneck problems of the current cultivation of the takifugu obscurus in a single-variety pond, such as high bait coefficient, particularly scattering of the takifugu obscurus when biting feed, bottom sinking and rotting of a large amount of feed fragments and water pollution, changes the cultivation mode of the takifugu obscurus, establishes a low-carbon, low-pollution and high-efficiency ecological three-dimensional cultivation mode of the takifugu obscurus, establishes a pond ecosystem with multiple species and multiple nutrition levels, and has the outstanding characteristics relative to the prior art that:
1) the water space of the fugu obscurus culture pond is fully utilized, the water utilization rate of the pond is improved, the production cost is reduced, and the economic benefit is improved;
2) the benthic organisms such as shrimps and the like are used for absorbing the settled feed, the pond water quality and the bottom mud environment are improved, the feed coefficient is reduced, and the takifugu obscurus can prey the cultured sick shrimps or dead shrimps in turn, so that the outbreak of prawn virus diseases can be controlled, and the ecological comprehensive disease prevention effect of fish, shrimp and the like is achieved;
3) the prawn crawls at the bottom of the pond, the bottom mud is turned, the bottom material of the pond is improved, the water body is provided with sufficient nutrients, aquatic plants are planted in the water body of the pond to absorb nutrient salts in the system, so that the eutrophication of the water body is reduced, and the water quality of the pond is more stable;
4) the growth speed of the penaeus vannamei boone is increased due to the low breeding density, the marketing specification and the quality of the penaeus vannamei boone are improved, the marketing specification is from 35-50 yuan/jin to 20-30 yuan/jin, the price is also improved from 20-22 yuan/jin to 23-26 yuan/jin, and the economic benefit is increased;
5) according to the invention, the average survival rate of the fugu obscurus is more than 80%, the unit yield of the white shrimps is more than 150 jin, the total bait coefficient is reduced by more than 5%, and the benefit per mu is increased by 2000-7000 yuan;
6) the total feed utilization rate of the cultivation of the takifugu orientalis is improved, the total bait coefficient is reduced, the waste water discharge is reduced, the aquaculture energy efficiency is improved, and the fishery efficiency and fisherman income are promoted. In addition, the invention has simple operation and is easy to be accepted and popularized by people.
Detailed Description
The following examples are provided to illustrate specific embodiments of the present invention.
Example 1:
the invention relates to a method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of fugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach, which comprises the following steps:
1) preparing a pond: selecting a Jiangzhe area soil pond with a flat pond bottom, wherein the pond is preferably rectangular and has the depth of 2m, the water level of 1.5m, the area of 2.5-5.0 mu, and each pond is provided with 1-2 1.5kw of oxygen-increasing machines, a water inlet is sleeved with a 60-mesh sieve silk mesh bag for filtration, thoroughly cleaning the pond before use and disinfecting, thoroughly removing wild trash fish and shrimps, adding water to submerge the pond bottom for soaking, dissolving 50-80 jin/mu of bleaching powder in water for fine dissolution, spraying supernatant into the pond for disinfection, opening the oxygen-increasing machines during spraying and within half hour after spraying, then turning off the oxygen-increasing machines, standing the pond water for 3-4 days, completely draining disinfectant water after the pond water is clear and at the bottom, then adding fresh water to the pond bottom, submerging for 2 days, draining water and solarizing for later use;
2) d, breeding Fugu obscurus: selecting and stocking Fugu obscurus overwintering fish seeds in the middle ten days of 4 months, wherein when the water temperature of an outer pond rises to 15-18 ℃, the stocking specification of the fish seeds is 80-160 g/tail, the stocking density is 800 plus one 1000 mu, water is fed in a week before stocking, after water is fed, an aerator is started for 1-2 hours at noon every day, during stocking, the aerator is started for 2 hours in advance, and during stocking the Fugu obscurus fish seeds, the number of each fish seed is required to enter a pond for thoroughly removing the wild fishes mixed in the fish seeds;
3) stocking the south America white prawn fries: selecting desalted young shrimps of the Penaeus vannamei Boone which are released and cultured in the middle and last ten days of 5 months, wherein the water temperature of the pond is 22-26 ℃, the releasing and culturing specification of the young shrimps is 0.8-1.0cm, the salinity of the young shrimps is required to be desalted to be below 2, and the releasing and culturing density of the young shrimps is 1.1-2.0 ten thousand/mu; in a conditioned place, shrimp larvae put into the pond can be temporarily cultured in a net enclosure of the pond for 1 week thick, a water-tight net enclosure is formed on the side of the pond by using a plastic film, and the area of the net enclosure is 10-20m2The water depth is 0.8-1.2m, before stocking, the salinity of water body in the net enclosure is usedThe salt or bittern is increased to the original salinity of the shrimp seeds discharged from the pond, and the stocking density in the net enclosure is 0.8-1.2 ten thousand per meter2Continuously inflating the inside of the net enclosure, replacing water in the net enclosure with pond water outside the net enclosure every day by about 30 percent, removing the plastic film net enclosure after one week, and placing the shrimp seeds with the larger size into the pond in a downstream manner;
4) planting water spinach: selecting to plant swamp cabbage in the middle ten days of 6 months, planting the swamp cabbage by a rope suspension method, wherein the specification of the rope suspension is 75 strands, the diameter is 3.0mm, firstly, pulling the rope suspension in a rectangular pond in parallel to a transverse pond stalk, tying two ends of the rope suspension to pile heads at the water surfaces of two longitudinal pond stalks of the pond, pulling a first rope suspension at the water surface of about 3-4m away from the transverse pond stalk, then pulling a rope suspension every 3m, and pulling 3 rope suspensions on the side of one transverse pond stalk, so that each pond generally pulls 6 rope suspensions; when the water spinach is planted, the suspension ropes are pulled to be reversely unscrewed, the water spinach seeds are directly inserted into the suspension ropes at intervals of 30cm, the suspension ropes float on the water surface due to the buoyancy of the water spinach, and the planting area is about 15-30% of the culture area;
5) feeding baits: feeding eel powder feed with crude protein content of 45% in proportion of 1:1 and water into dough form for 2 times per day (8: 00; 14:00) from the second day after the Takifugu obscurus is released, wherein the feeding is finished after 1 h; after the penaeus vannamei boone is put into the pond for 1 month, the penaeus vannamei boone feeding is started, 2 times (10: 00; 16:00) are carried out every day, and the feeding is finished after half an hour.
6) Daily management: after the fugu obscurus is put into the breeding pool, timely starting an aerator, starting the aerator for 1h at noon in sunny days in 4-6 months, starting the aerator for 8-10h at night, starting the aerator for 10-12h in nights in 7-9 months, starting the aerator for 1h at noon in sunny days in 10-12 months, starting the aerator for 10-12h at night, and increasing the starting time in bad weather; changing water for 1 time every half month, wherein the water change amount is 1/3 each time; the water spinach stubble is cut, the water spinach grows too fast and covers the pond too much, and the water spinach on the suspension rope grows more than 1m in an epitaxial manner and needs to be cut; meanwhile, tender leaves and buds can be picked and listed;
7) and (3) growth monitoring: monitoring the growth of the takifugu obscurus for 1 time per month, randomly measuring the body length and the body weight, pulling one corner of the pond by using a pull net with the mesh specification of 3.5cm multiplied by 3.5cm in order to prevent shrimps from entering the net, and randomly sampling 30 fishes in each pond; monitoring the growth of the shrimps for 1 time every two weeks, and capturing the shrimps by combining a ground cage and a material platform, wherein 30 tails of each pond are sampled every time;
8) harvesting and catching: the method comprises the following steps that 1, at the bottom of 8 months to the beginning of 9 months, the south America white shrimps are in a specification of more than 17 g/tail, the south America white shrimps are caught by using a ground cage net, in order to prevent the fugu obscurus from entering a ground cage, each inlet of the ground cage is covered by a net with the mesh specification of 3.5cm multiplied by 3.5cm, when the ground cage is caught, the placing time of the ground cage in a pond is prolonged by half an hour compared with the conventional method, the south America white shrimps are caught every other day, and after 7-10 times of general catching, more than 90% of the shrimps can be caught; beginning at the beginning of 10 months, beginning to catch the Fugu obscurus with the specification of 300-.
During harvesting, the survival rate of the fugu obscurus is more than 90 percent, the yield per mu is 400-700 jin, and the feed coefficient is 2.5-3.0; the specification of the south America white shrimps is 20-30 kg/jin, the survival rate is 50-80%, the yield per mu is 200 jin and 400 jin, the feed coefficient is 0.6-1.0, the total feed coefficient after overlapping the fishes and the shrimps is 1.3-1.9, and the benefit per mu is 2000 yuan and 7000 yuan.
Example 2:
by adopting the method, three experimental ponds (numbered 2) for carrying out three-dimensional planting and breeding modes of takifugu orientalis, penaeus vannamei and water spinach in 2019 in Shanghai aquatic product research institute#East, 2#West, 4#Middle) and single-culture fugu rubripes three control ponds (number 4)#East, 4#West, 2#Middle) and three parallel groups were set, each area was 2.5 mu, 4 months and 25 days, and fugu obscurus (average size: 154.61 g/tail), stocking 2000 tails/pond in the three-dimensional breeding test pond, wherein the stocking density is 800/mu, stocking 2500 tails/pond in the single-breeding control pond, and the stocking density is 1000 tails/mu; and 5, 21 days per month, 2.9 million tails of the Penaeus vannamei Boone larvae are released in each pond in the three-dimensional breeding test pond, the releasing specification of the prawn larvae is 0.8-1.0cm, the salinity of the prawn larvae is required to be reduced to be below 2, and the releasing density of the prawn larvae is 1.16 million/mu. Good three-dimensional planting and breeding mode is obtained through 4-month cultivationThe culture effect is as follows: the takifugu obscurus has the yield per mu of 228.4 kg/mu, the average specification of 293.30 g/tail, the average survival rate of 97.38 percent, the feed coefficient of 2.83, the unit yield of the white shrimps of 203.8 kg/mu, the specifications of 22.48 g/tail and 44.5 tail/kg, the average survival rate of 78.17 percent, the feed coefficient of 0.68 percent, and the total feed coefficient of the overlapped fishes and shrimps of 1.39; the control group of the single culture mode of the takifugu obscurus: the average specification of the takifugu rubripes is 297.53 g/tail, the average survival rate is 94.60%, the yield per mu is 270.38 kg/mu, and the feed coefficient is 2.91. And (3) benefit measurement: the method is characterized in that fish seeds are counted according to 7 yuan/tail, desalted shrimp seedlings are counted according to 350 yuan/ten thousand tail, fish materials are 10.5 yuan/kg and shrimp materials are 9.3 yuan/kg, the selling price of fish is 53 yuan/kg according to the actual average price and the selling price of mixed culture shrimps is 51 yuan/kg, for convenience of comparison, only fry, feed and electricity charges are added without the cost of manpower and the like (the electricity charges are counted according to 500 yuan/mu on average), water spinach is not harvested and sold, and therefore the income of serving vegetables can be theoretically added. The test group has 6845 yuan per mu of synergism on the premise of reducing the tail water discharge of cultivation by 11.1% (Table 1).
TABLE 1 comparison of input and output (Yuan/mu) in Fengxian base two modes
Example 3:
by adopting the method, in 2019, a three-dimensional planting and breeding mode of the takifugu obscurus, the penaeus vannamei and the water spinach is developed in Qingpu scientific research base of Shanghai aquatic product institute, and a contrast breeding test is carried out on the takifugu obscurus and the penaeus vannamei in a single breeding mode, and two parallel groups are respectively arranged. 24 days after 4 months, breeding the takifugu obscurus (average specification: 160 g/tail), wherein the breeding density of the stereoscopic breeding test pond is 800/mu, and the breeding density of the single breeding takifugu obscurus pond is 1000 tails/mu; and 5, 27 days per month, stocking the litopenaeus vannamei fries in each pond in the three-dimensional breeding test pond, wherein the stocking specification of the litopenaeus vannamei fries is 0.8-1.0cm, the salinity of the litopenaeus vannamei fries is required to be reduced to be below 2, and the stocking density of the litopenaeus vannamei fries is 1.2 ten thousand/mu. After 4 months of culture, the growth of the fish all reaches the expected target: the takifugu obscurus has the acre yield of 242.65 kg/mu, the average specification of 321.1 g/tail, the average survival rate of 93.3 percent, the feed coefficient of 2.74, the unit yield of the penaeus vannamei of 114.65 kg/mu, the specifications of 17.54 g/tail and 57 tail/kg, the average survival rate of 51.55 percent, the feed coefficient of 0.95 and the total feed coefficient of 1.86 after overlapping the fishes and the shrimps; the control group of the single culture mode of the takifugu obscurus: the average specification of the takifugu rubripes is 329.55 g/tail, the average survival rate is 94.25%, the yield per mu is 310.3 kg/mu, and the feed coefficient is 2.4. And (3) benefit measurement: the method is characterized in that fish seeds are counted according to 7 yuan/tail, desalted shrimp seedlings are counted according to 350 yuan/ten thousand tail, fish materials are 10.5 yuan/kg and shrimp materials are 9.3 yuan/kg, the selling price of fish is 59 yuan/kg according to the actual average price, and the selling price of mixed culture shrimps is 46 yuan/kg. The test group has the effect of increasing by 2085 yuan per mu on the premise of reducing the tail water discharge of the culture by 11.1% (Table 2).
TABLE 2 input-output comparison (Yuan/mu) in Qingpu base in two modes
While the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the invention is not limited thereto, and that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and the scope of the appended claims is to be accorded the full range of equivalents.

Claims (4)

1. A method for three-dimensional breeding of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and swamp cabbage is characterized by comprising 8 production steps of pond preparation, takifugu obscurus stocking, prawns stocking, swamp cabbage planting, bait feeding, daily management, growth monitoring and harvesting and catching, and comprises the following steps:
A) preparing a pond: selecting a soil pond in Jiangzhe area with a flat bottom, wherein the depth of the pond is 2m, the water level is 1.5m, the area is 2.5-5.0 mu, and the pond is preferably rectangular, 1-2 1.5kw of oxygen-increasing machines are arranged in each pond, a 60-mesh silk mesh bag is sleeved at a water inlet for filtering, and the pond is thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before use, so that wild trash fish and shrimps are thoroughly removed;
B) d, breeding Fugu obscurus: selecting and stocking Fugu obscurus overwintering fish seeds in the middle ten days of 4 months, wherein when the water temperature of an outer pond rises to 15-18 ℃, the stocking specification of the fish seeds is 80-160 g/tail, the stocking density is 800 plus one 1000 mu, water is fed in a week before stocking, after water is fed, an aerator is started for 1-2 hours at noon every day, during stocking, the aerator is started for 2 hours in advance, and during stocking the Fugu obscurus fish seeds, the number of each fish seed is required to enter a pond for thoroughly removing the wild fishes mixed in the fish seeds;
C) stocking the south America white prawn fries: selecting desalted young shrimps of the Penaeus vannamei Boone which are released and cultured in the middle and last ten days of 5 months, wherein the water temperature range of the pond is above 22 ℃, the released and cultured specification of the young shrimps is 0.8-1.0cm, the salinity of the young shrimps is required to be desalted below 2, and the released and cultured density of the young shrimps is 1.1-2.0 ten thousand per mu;
D) planting water spinach: selecting to plant water spinach in the middle ten days of 6 months, planting the water spinach by adopting a rope suspension method, wherein the specification of the rope suspension is 75 strands, the diameter of the rope suspension is 3.0mm, when the water spinach is planted, pulling the rope suspension to reversely unscrew, and directly inserting the water spinach seeds into the rope suspension at intervals of 30cm, wherein the rope suspension floats on the water surface due to the buoyancy of the water spinach, and the planting area is 15-30% of the culture area;
E) feeding baits: feeding eel powder feed with crude protein content of 45% in the ratio of 1:1 and water are made into dough, 2 times a day, and the feeding is finished after 1 hour; feeding the Penaeus vannamei Boone with pellet feed for 1 month after stocking in the pond, and feeding the feed for the Penaeus vannamei Boone 2 hours after feeding the feed for the Takifugu orientalis 2 times a day until the feed is taken up after half an hour after feeding;
F) daily management: after the fugu obscurus is put into the breeding pool, timely starting an aerator, starting the aerator for 1h at noon in sunny days in 4-6 months, starting the aerator for 8-10h at night, starting the aerator for 10-12h in nights in 7-9 months, starting the aerator for 1h at noon in sunny days in 10-12 months, starting the aerator for 10-12h at night, and increasing the starting time in bad weather; changing water for 1 time every half month, wherein the water change amount is 1/3 each time; cutting the swamp cabbage, wherein the swamp cabbage on the suspension rope grows for more than 1m in an epitaxial manner, and then needs to be cut; meanwhile, tender leaves and buds can be picked and listed;
G) and (3) growth monitoring: monitoring the growth of the takifugu obscurus for 1 time per month, randomly measuring the body length and the body weight, pulling one corner of the pond by using a pull net with the mesh specification of 3.5cm multiplied by 3.5cm in order to prevent shrimps from entering the net, and randomly sampling 30 fishes in each pond; monitoring the growth of the shrimps for 1 time every two weeks, and capturing the shrimps by combining a ground cage and a material platform, wherein 30 tails of each pond are sampled every time;
H) harvesting and catching: the south America white shrimps are caught by using a cage net at the bottom of 8 months to the beginning of 9 months, the specification of the south America white shrimps is more than 17 g/tail, in order to prevent the fugu obscurus from entering a ground cage, each inlet of the ground cage is covered by a net with the mesh specification of 3.5cm multiplied by 3.5cm, when the ground cage is caught, the placing time of the ground cage in a pond is increased by half an hour compared with the conventional method, the catching is carried out every other day, and more than 90% of the shrimps can be caught after 7-10 times of catching; beginning at the beginning of 10 months, beginning to catch the Fugu obscurus with the specification of 300-.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein in step a, the pond is soaked in water until the pond bottom is submerged, 50-80 jin/mu of floating powder is dissolved in water, the pond is disinfected by spraying the supernatant, the aerator is opened during spraying and within half an hour after spraying, then the aerator is turned off, the pond water is still for 3-4 days, the disinfectant is completely drained after the pond water is clear, the pond water is soaked in water for 2 days, and then the pond water is drained and exposed to the sun for standby.
3. The method for three-dimensional cultivation of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and water spinach as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step C, the shrimp fries put into the pond are temporarily cultivated in the net enclosure of the pond for 1 week under the condition that the shrimp fries are put into the pond, a water-impermeable net enclosure is formed on the side of the pond by using a plastic film, and the area of the net enclosure is 10-20m2The water depth is 0.8-1.2m, before stocking, the salinity of water body in the net enclosure is raised to be the same as that of salt or bitternThe original salinity of the shrimp seeds out of the pond and the stocking density in the net enclosure are 0.8-1.2 ten thousand/m2And continuously inflating the inside of the net enclosure, replacing the water in the net enclosure with pond water outside the net enclosure every day by 30 percent, removing the plastic film net enclosure after one week, and placing the shrimp seeds with thick marks into the pond downstream.
4. The method for three-dimensional cultivation of takifugu obscurus, penaeus vannamei and swamp cabbage as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step D, the suspension ropes are firstly pulled in the rectangular pond in parallel to the transverse pond stems, the two ends of the suspension ropes are tied to the pile heads at the water surfaces of the two longitudinal pond stems of the pond, the first suspension rope is pulled at the water surface of 3-4m away from the transverse pond stems, then one suspension rope is pulled at intervals of 3m, and 3 suspension ropes are pulled at the side of one transverse pond stem, so that 6 suspension ropes are pulled in each pond.
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