CN112931332A - Method for cultivating green food prawn breeding shrimps - Google Patents

Method for cultivating green food prawn breeding shrimps Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112931332A
CN112931332A CN202110175655.2A CN202110175655A CN112931332A CN 112931332 A CN112931332 A CN 112931332A CN 202110175655 A CN202110175655 A CN 202110175655A CN 112931332 A CN112931332 A CN 112931332A
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water
shrimps
pond
per
days
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陈锚
张新峰
何娟
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Bohai Fisheries Technology Binzhou Co ltd
Bohai Seafood Co ltd
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Bohai Fisheries Technology Binzhou Co ltd
Bohai Seafood Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/13Prevention or treatment of fish diseases
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A method for cultivating green food prawn seeds comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of transformation, pool bottom pretreatment, early-stage water treatment, seedling release, feeding, water quality regulation and control, disease prevention and control and shrimp culture enhancement.

Description

Method for cultivating green food prawn breeding shrimps
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of mariculture, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating a green food prawn seed.
Background
China is a big south America white shrimp breeding country, starts to become an important breed for breeding the shrimps in China in 1999, rapidly develops in the three provinces in south, and has become a shrimp breeding breed which is generally popularized in China and has the top yield up to now; the method has the advantages that while the production is developed at a high speed, serious problems of uneven seedling quality, virus carrying, slow growth and the like occur, and the sustainable development of the penaeus vannamei boone breeding industry in China is directly threatened; since 2017, the cultivation success rate of southern Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and other provinces is reduced sharply, and the cultivation of northern Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin and other provinces in a salt pan special ecological system in the cities of Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin and other provinces is raised regardless of cultivation area, yield, success rate and product quality; the area of the salt pan in the east coastal region of China is 505.5 ten thousand mu, which is far larger than the area of 195 ten thousand mu of the seawater culture pond in China; the salinity of the original group of the penaeus vannamei boone is 10-25 per mill optimally, and the salinity of a special ecosystem of a salt pan is only about 10 percent of 25-30 per mill; the salinity is 30-50 per mill and 50-60 percent, and the salinity is 50-65 per mill and about 30 percent; in addition, the area of the general pond of the salt pan is large and varies from hundreds of mu to thousands of mu, and the water level is only 60-70 cm; the growth period in the north is short; the southern small-area pond culture technology is difficult to copy to a special ecosystem of a salt pan; how to improve the culture area and the yield of the penaeus vannamei boone in the special ecosystem of the salt pan by using the culture mode of the special ecosystem of the salt pan is the problem existing at present.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a method for cultivating green food prawn seeds, which comprises the following steps:
1. a conversion period:
the culture of the penaeus vannamei boone is used as closed water area culture, and the conversion period is converted according to the green food standard. The primary brine evaporation pond of the seawater salt field which is not cultured originally is transformed.
2. Parallel production:
all shrimps were done according to green food standards, and regular breeding was not allowed in the farm.
3. And (3) introducing and controlling shrimp larvae:
the introduced shrimp larvae are green food shrimp larvae.
4. Site selection of the farm:
a) the natural water area beside the water surface of the culture base can not be polluted, and the water quality conforms to the NY/T391 regulations. The aquatic ecology around the farm is balanced with the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems around the farm, which is helpful to keep the biodiversity of the water area. The original seawater salt field primary evaporation tank with the water level of 60-70 cm and more than one thousand mu to several thousand mu is reformed into a single seawater salt field primary evaporation tank with the water level of 50-100 mu (a water treatment tank is configured according to the ratio of 5: 1-10: 1), and the water level is 120-150 cm. And 5-10 meters of the four side slopes are provided with annular grooves, the width of each annular groove is 10-20 meters, and the depth of each annular groove is 40-60 cm. Each pond is provided with an independent water inlet and drainage system.
b) The culture area is isolated from the outside by adopting a dam, a production road and a large drainage channel, and is favorable for checking the water quality production environment.
5. The cultivation water quality requirement is as follows:
the water quality must meet the requirements of NY/T391 fishery water quality standard.
6. Providing bait:
the invention relates to a green food for culturing penaeus vannamei boone, which is used for killing and feeding fairy shrimp (eggs) and assisting in feeding green food feed.
7. Artificial breeding:
1) and pool bottom pretreatment: draining off water, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, properly using the quicklime in low-lying places for multiple purposes, mechanically ploughing by 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days.
2) Earlier stage water treatment: 15-20 days before putting seedlings, killing wild trash fishes and other aquatic animals (simultaneously having the function of fertilizing water) by using tea bran of 20 g/m 3, stirring the wild trash fishes and other aquatic animals at intervals of 3 days by using a prepared spear goby (C.stigmaias) meat mincer, soaking and fermenting the minced wild trash fishes and other aquatic animals for 3-7 days by using lactic acid bacteria, and using 0.5-1 kg per mu according to the transparency; the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria is used at intervals, and 2-3 kilograms of the wheat bran are used per mu until the water transparency is 40-60 cm. The later stage water inlet is filtered by a 40-mesh filter bag. The soil blocking dam separates the organic culture area to prevent aquatic organisms of other culture systems from entering the organic culture farm and preying on the organic aquatic organisms, and meanwhile prevents the aquatic organisms of the organic culture farm from entering other culture water bodies.
3) And seedling releasing: the water temperature reaches 21-25 ℃, the standard coarse shrimp larvae are about 2.0-2.5 cm, and the test is carried out on various viruses, vibrios and enterocoelia entomosis and the emergency test; after water testing, the survival rate of the seedlings can be released within 95% in 24 hours, and the number of released seedlings per mu is 1.2-1.5 ten thousand.
4) Feeding: the fairy shrimp is fed on the day of seedling release, the fairy shrimp is hatched in a secondary brine pond (with the salinity of 65-95 per mill) in advance, 1-1.5 kilograms per mu is fed, and the quantity is increased by 5-10% every day in two times. If the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, the artemia stop feeding, the water change amount is increased, and minced fillet of the lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) fermented by lactic acid bacteria is supplemented. And (3) starting auxiliary feeding of the compound feed when the shrimp body length is larger than 6cm, feeding 2-3 meals every day, adjusting the feeding quantity according to a bait observation platform, normally feeding on the bait observation platform, and leaving about 2% of the feeding quantity of each time on the bait observation platform to test the reasonable feeding quantity of the prawns.
5) And water quality regulation and control: and (3) taking all the water for the breeding pond of the shrimp seeds from the water treatment pond, and disinfecting and aerating by 5-10 PPM (PPM) effective chlorine in the water treatment pond. The water quality can be regulated by using the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus, and the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus is used once every half month.
6) Disease prevention and control: when the shrimps grow to about 7-8 cm, by utilizing the characteristics that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pool and attached to the water surface, a modified shrimp guide net is placed every 1-20 mu, from the side slope, a 30-50 m 60-mesh net is pulled from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, the guide net is arranged at one end far away from the side slope, the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are induced into hubs, and the shrimps are cleaned every 2-3 days, so that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are prevented from being eaten by healthy shrimps and the infection source is cut off. 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool before and after the sudden change of weather (cold flow, strong wind, high temperature and the like) in each mu of land. Reeds can be planted in the saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract some birds to lay eggs, so that habitat is increased, the birds can timely clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface, and the method is also one of effective means for preventing and controlling disease organisms.
7) And screening the breeding shrimps, and when the breeding shrimps are cultured for 120-130 days, using a 1.7-1.8 cm-mesh fanning matrix or a groundsill to begin to harvest the shrimps of more than 30 g, wherein the appearance morphological characteristics of the penaeus vannamei boone specified by SC 2055 plus 2006 are met. The body surface is smooth and clean, no attachments or deformities exist, the skull, the sternum, the appendages and the tail fan are intact and have no damage, and the frontal angle is intact and has no fracture; has no symptoms of red limbs, gill rot, tail rot, etc. The swimming aid is sensitive to external stimulation, struggles and struggles in hands, moves normally, and positively creeps on the water bottom and does not lie on the side when not moving. The ratio of frontal angle length (mm) to skull length (mm) should be less than 0.60.
8) And (3) intensive breeding of the breeding shrimps: and transferring the breeding shrimps indoors, enabling the breeding salinity to be +/-1% of that of the external pond, stabilizing for 2-3 days, and then changing water by 5-10% every day by using 28-33% of normal seawater. Natural seawater is subjected to precipitation, 5-10 PPM effective chlorine disinfection and aeration. And pumping water into a water storage tank of the workshop for secondary aeration when the residual chlorine is 0.2-0.3 PPM, and neutralizing the residual chlorine by using sodium thiosulfate after 24 hours. Before use, the filter is filtered by a polyester filter bag with the filtering precision of 10 mu m.
Air stones are arranged along the edge of the indoor cultivation pool at intervals of 50-80 cm, chlorine-containing disinfectants are used for soaking for 1d (15 mg/L of available chlorine), the indoor cultivation pool is cleaned, then potassium permanganate is used for disinfecting at an amount of 50-100 mg/L, and the indoor cultivation pool is washed clean by fresh water.
The male and female are cultivated in separate pools, and the cultivation density is preferably 10 per square meter to 15 per square meter. After cutting off the eye stems on one side of the female shrimps, gradually raising the temperature at the amplitude of 1 ℃/d, and finally controlling the water temperature to be 27-30 ℃; the water quality index requirement is as follows: pH8.0-8.3, total ammonia nitrogen is less than 0.6 mg/L, and dissolved oxygen is more than 5 mg/L; the illumination intensity is 500 lx-l 000 lx, so that direct light is avoided; the gas is slightly boiled. Fresh and live baits such as clamworms, oysters, squids, cuttlefishes and the like are alternately fed in the gonad ripening stage of the parent shrimps, the daily feeding amount is 10-25% of the weight of the parent shrimps, wherein the clamworms account for more than 30% and 3 times/d-5 times/d, the water depth of a breeding pond is kept between 50cm and 60cm, the female shrimps start to absorb dirt and change water after cutting off the unilateral eyestalk for 2 days, the water change amount is 80-120% daily, and the temperature difference between the added fresh water and the original pond water is not more than 0.5 ℃.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the invention changes the primary evaporation pond of the seawater salt pan into a single culture pond, thereby enlarging the culture area.
2. The fermented minced fish of the lobster and tiger fish and wheat bran are used as the organic fertilizer water in the whole process.
3. The whole process of the shrimp breeding is carried out by the fairy shrimp, which provides high-quality basic bait for the shrimp larvae, not only reduces the feed coefficient and the water pollution, but also can increase the survival rate and accelerate the growth speed of the shrimp larvae.
4. The disease prevention and control is the combination of biological prevention and control and physical prevention and control: the physical prevention and control is to arrange a shrimp guide net to eliminate the sick shrimps by utilizing the characteristics that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pond and are attached to the water surface; the biological prevention and control is to attract birds to clean up sick shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time by using the tail of the lance goby and the planted reed.
Detailed Description
Example 1
A method for cultivating green food prawn seeds is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) modification: reconstructing an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with water level of 60-70 cm and water level of more than one thousand mu to several thousand mu into a single culture pond; the cultivation pond is a single 100-500 mu, the water level is 120-150 cm, a circular ditch is arranged outside 10-20 meters of four side slopes of the primary evaporation pond, the width of the circular ditch is 20-30 m, the depth of the circular ditch is 40-60 cm, and each cultivation pond is provided with an independent drainage system.
(2) Pretreatment of the pool bottom: draining water, using 50-200 kg of quicklime in each mu of seawater salt pan culture pond, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) early-stage water treatment: taking all the water for the breeding pond of the shrimps from the water treatment pond, and disinfecting and aerating by 5-10 PPM (PPM) effective chlorine in the water treatment pond; 15-20 days before putting the fries, mincing the fries of the tail lobster and tiger fish mincer prepared before the fries are put into the meat mincer, soaking and fermenting the minced fries for 3-7 days by lactic acid bacteria, and using 0.5-1 kg of the minced fries per mu according to the transparency; the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria is used at intervals, and 2-3 kilograms of the wheat bran are used per mu until the water transparency is 40-60 cm;
(4) seedling releasing: the water temperature reaches 21-25 ℃, the standard coarse shrimp larvae are 2.0-2.5 cm, and the test of various viruses, vibrios and enterohepatic hydatid and emergency test are carried out; after water testing, the survival rate of the seedlings can be released within 95 percent in 24 hours, and the number of released seedlings per mu is 1.2-1.5 ten thousand;
(5) feeding: feeding the fairy shrimp on the seedling releasing day, wherein the fairy shrimp are hatched in a secondary brine pond in advance, 1-1.5 kg of the fairy shrimp is added twice every day by 5-10 percent; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, stopping feeding the artemia cystokiniana, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lobster and tiger fish fermented by lactic acid bacteria;
(6) water quality regulation and control: taking all the water for the breeding pond of the shrimps from the water treatment pond, and disinfecting and aerating by 5-10 PPM (PPM) effective chlorine in the water treatment pond; the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month;
(7) disease prevention and control: when the shrimps grow to 7-8 cm, a modified shrimp guide net is placed every 1-20 mu according to the characteristic that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface, a 30-50 m 60-mesh net is pulled from the side slope to the position of 30-50 cm under water to 5-10 cm above the water surface, the shrimp guide net is arranged at one end far away from the side slope, the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are induced into hubs and cleaned once every 2-3 days, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is used for sprinkling in a full pool per mu before and after a weather mutation; bulrush is planted in the saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract some birds to lay eggs, so that habitat is increased, and the birds can clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(8) screening seed shrimps, and using a ground cage with a mesh of 1.7-1.8 cm to harvest more than 30 grams of shrimps when the seed shrimps are cultured for 120-130 days;
(9) and (3) intensive breeding of the breeding shrimps: transferring the seed shrimps indoors, enabling the culture salinity to be +/-1% of that of the external pond, stabilizing for 2-3 days, and then changing water by 5-10% every day by using 28-33% of normal seawater; culturing the male and female in separate pools, wherein the culture density is 10 per square meter to 15 per square meter; after cutting off the eye stems on one side of the female shrimps, gradually raising the temperature at the amplitude of 1 ℃/d, and finally controlling the water temperature to be 27-30 ℃; the water depth of the culture pond is kept between 50cm and 60cm, the female shrimps start to absorb sewage and change water after cutting off the unilateral eyestalk for 2d for 1 to 2 times per day, the daily water change amount is 80 to 120 percent, and the temperature difference between the added fresh water and the original pond water is not more than 0.5 ℃.
The above-described embodiments are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention, and all equivalent changes or modifications of the structures, features and principles described in the claims of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. A method for cultivating green food prawn seeds is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) modification: reconstructing an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with water level of 60-70 cm and water level of more than one thousand mu to several thousand mu into a single culture pond;
(2) pretreatment of the pool bottom: draining water, using 50-200 kg of quicklime in each mu of seawater salt pan culture pond, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) early-stage water treatment: taking all the water for the breeding pond of the shrimps from the water treatment pond, and disinfecting and aerating by 5-10 PPM (PPM) effective chlorine in the water treatment pond; 15-20 days before putting the fries, mincing the fries of the tail lobster and tiger fish mincer prepared before the fries are put into the meat mincer, soaking and fermenting the minced fries for 3-7 days by lactic acid bacteria, and using 0.5-1 kg of the minced fries per mu according to the transparency; the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria is used at intervals, and 2-3 kilograms of the wheat bran are used per mu until the water transparency is 40-60 cm;
(4) seedling releasing: the water temperature reaches 21-25 ℃, the standard coarse shrimp larvae are 2.0-2.5 cm, and the test of various viruses, vibrios and enterohepatic hydatid and emergency test are carried out; after water testing, the survival rate of the seedlings can be released within 95 percent in 24 hours, and the number of released seedlings per mu is 1.2-1.5 ten thousand;
(5) feeding: feeding the fairy shrimp on the seedling releasing day, wherein the fairy shrimp are hatched in a secondary brine pond in advance, 1-1.5 kg of the fairy shrimp is added twice every day by 5-10 percent; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, stopping feeding the artemia cystokiniana, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lobster and tiger fish fermented by lactic acid bacteria;
(6) water quality regulation and control: taking all the water for the breeding pond of the shrimps from the water treatment pond, and disinfecting and aerating by 5-10 PPM (PPM) effective chlorine in the water treatment pond; the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month;
(7) disease prevention and control: when the shrimps grow to 7-8 cm, a modified shrimp guide net is placed every 1-20 mu according to the characteristic that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface, a 30-50 m 60-mesh net is pulled from the side slope to the position of 30-50 cm under water to 5-10 cm above the water surface, the shrimp guide net is arranged at one end far away from the side slope, the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are induced into hubs and cleaned once every 2-3 days, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is used for sprinkling in a full pool per mu before and after a weather mutation; bulrush is planted in the saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract some birds to lay eggs, so that habitat is increased, and the birds can clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(8) screening seed shrimps, and using a ground cage with a mesh of 1.7-1.8 cm to harvest more than 30 grams of shrimps when the seed shrimps are cultured for 120-130 days;
(9) and (3) intensive breeding of the breeding shrimps: transferring the seed shrimps indoors, enabling the culture salinity to be +/-1% of that of the external pond, stabilizing for 2-3 days, and then changing water by 5-10% every day by using 28-33% of normal seawater; culturing the male and female in separate pools, wherein the culture density is 10 per square meter to 15 per square meter; after cutting off the eye stems on one side of the female shrimps, gradually raising the temperature at the amplitude of 1 ℃/d, and finally controlling the water temperature to be 27-30 ℃; the water depth of the culture pond is kept between 50cm and 60cm, the female shrimps start to absorb sewage and change water after cutting off the unilateral eyestalk for 2d for 1 to 2 times per day, the daily water change amount is 80 to 120 percent, and the temperature difference between the added fresh water and the original pond water is not more than 0.5 ℃.
2. The method for cultivating the green food of the seed shrimps as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cultivation pond in the step (1) is 100-500 mu per unit, the water level is 120-150 cm, a circular ditch is arranged outside 10-20 m of four side slopes of the primary evaporation pond, the width of the circular ditch is 20-30 m, the depth of the circular ditch is 40-60 cm, and each cultivation pond is provided with an independent drainage system.
CN202110175655.2A 2021-02-07 2021-02-07 Method for cultivating green food prawn breeding shrimps Pending CN112931332A (en)

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CN113317249A (en) * 2021-06-30 2021-08-31 渤海水产育种(海南)有限公司 Breeding method for reducing diseases of seed shrimps

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