CN113973758A - Method for effectively preventing and treating EHP (enterotoxin-associated protein) in salt pan shrimp culture - Google Patents

Method for effectively preventing and treating EHP (enterotoxin-associated protein) in salt pan shrimp culture Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113973758A
CN113973758A CN202011626711.1A CN202011626711A CN113973758A CN 113973758 A CN113973758 A CN 113973758A CN 202011626711 A CN202011626711 A CN 202011626711A CN 113973758 A CN113973758 A CN 113973758A
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shrimps
shrimp
ehp
pond
day
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CN202011626711.1A
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Inventor
陈锚
陈洁
赵延霞
于洋
孙青郁
陈清
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Bohai Seafood Co ltd
Southwest University
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Bohai Seafood Co ltd
Southwest University
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Priority to CN202011626711.1A priority Critical patent/CN113973758A/en
Publication of CN113973758A publication Critical patent/CN113973758A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/13Prevention or treatment of fish diseases
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A method for effectively preventing and controlling EHP (ethylene propylene glycol) in the culture of shrimps in a salt pan comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of pond trimming, stress-resistant variety selection, EHP pathogen detection, shrimp fry coarsening and salinization, whole-process feeding of brine shrimp, water quality regulation, water quality detection, biological prevention and control, physical prevention and control and stress prevention.

Description

Method for effectively preventing and treating EHP (enterotoxin-associated protein) in salt pan shrimp culture
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of aquatic products, and particularly relates to a method for effectively preventing and treating EHP (EHP) in salt pan shrimp culture.
Background
The intestinal microsporidian (EHP) belongs to Phylum Apicomplex (Phyllum Apicomplex), Class Sporozoa (Class Sporozoa), order Cryptosporidia (Cryptosporidium) and family Microsporozoaceae of intestinal epithelium, is widely distributed, is a coccidioid parasite parasitized in a single cell and an obligate cell, and can cause opportunistic pathogenic protozoa of animal digestive tract lesion. Currently, there are about 20 more species of cryptosporidium that have been isolated from a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, crustaceans and fish.
In recent years, the EHP infection rate of the prawns can reach more than 60 percent, and the most obvious characteristics are that the prawns grow slowly, the individual difference of the prawns is large, and white feces are accompanied; the severe patients have enteritis, muscular atrophy and hepatopancreatic atrophy, do not have turbid muscle, and do not cause the death of prawns in large quantities. There is currently no effective treatment, the only one being to reduce the chances of infection through strict management. However, single prevention and control is often ineffective.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a method for effectively preventing and treating EHP (EHP) in the culture of shrimps in a salt pan, which comprises the following steps:
1. big change, shallow change and deep change: most of the primary evaporation ponds of the seawater salt field are 1000-5000 mu, and the water level is 50-60 cm. The water body is large, which is not beneficial to artificial regulation and control; the water body is shallow, which is not beneficial to the prawn to avoid the adverse weather and the enemy. Transformed into a single 100-500 mu water level of 120-150 cm. And (3) arranging ring ditches outside 10-20 meters of the four side slopes, wherein the width of each ring ditch is 20-30 meters, and the depth of each ring ditch is 40-60 cm.
2. Trimming the pond: in non-production seasons, draining water, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, properly using multiple purposes at low-lying positions, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days.
3. Selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties which are bred by focusing on stress resistance characters. The species with the growth speed is emphasized, so that the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp culture mode is increased.
EHP pathogen detection: the germ plasm, the larva and the fry are selected to check an EHP pathogen detection report, and all links are negative and can be used as the fry for the cultivation of the shrimps in the salt pan.
5. And (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill to 65 per mill to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan, water is changed once every 2 days after the qualified P5 shrimps are stabilized for 3 days, the water is increased by 4 to 5 per mill each time, the concentration of brine for increasing the salinity is mixed with 100 to 150 per mill prepared normal seawater until the salinity is 15 to 20 per mill higher than that of a primary pond, the brine is added into the primary pond for increasing the salinity, the brine is changed twice every day after the salinity is adjusted to 40 per mill, the salinity is increased by 2.5 per mill to 3.5 per mill each time until the salinity is 65 per mill.
6. One-to-one crude salt formation: in the 4 processes, a small pond can be built in the conditional pond according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, a plastic greenhouse is covered for heat preservation, the salinity can be matched with the same, the transportation link of the shrimp seeds can be omitted, the standard thickness can be properly increased, and the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside is increased.
7. Feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: the artemia protein content is high, the crude protein content is 50-60%, the amino acid content is 21-29%, the artemia amino acid composition is similar to the shrimp body amino acid composition, the weight increase of prawns is facilitated, and the growth speed of the prawns eating the artemia is high. And (3) culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting. The fairy shrimp is fed on the day of seedling release, the fairy shrimp is hatched in a secondary brine pond (with the salinity of 65-95 per mill) in advance, 1-1.5 kilograms per mu is fed, and the quantity is increased by 5-10% every day in two times. If the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, the artemia stop feeding, the water change amount is increased, and minced fillet of the lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) fermented by lactic acid bacteria is supplemented.
8. Water quality regulation and control: the water quality can be regulated by using the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus, and the wheat bran fermented by the bacillus and the lactobacillus is used once every half month. Bacillus was used on day 1, lactic acid bacteria on day 6 and lactic acid bacteria on day 11 of each cycle.
9. And (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio is administered every three days. The vibrio treating method comprises the following steps: reducing feed (oral administration lactobacillus), and increasing fairy shrimp amount; the water exchange amount is increased. EHP was measured every 15 days.
10. Biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, the prawn grows for about 5cm, 4-5 cm of lance tail goby (C.stigmaias) with consistent salinity with the target pond is released per mu and domesticated, the ratio of the fish to the prawn is 500-1000: 1, reeds can be planted in the saline-alkali soil around the culture pond to attract some birds to lay eggs, the habitat is increased, and the birds can timely clean diseased and weak shrimps floating on the water surface, and the method is also one of effective means for disease biological control.
11. Physical prevention and control: when the shrimps grow to about 7-8 cm, a modified shrimp guide net is placed every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristic that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pool and attached to the water surface, a 30-50 m 60-mesh net is pulled from the side slope to 5-10 cm above the water surface under the water by 30-50 cm, the shrimp guide net is arranged at one end far away from the side slope, the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are induced into hubs, and the shrimps are cleaned once every 2-3 days, so that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps are prevented from being eaten by healthy shrimps and the infection source is cut off.
12. Stress prevention: the weather mutation causes the prawns to generate stress, the stress is an important factor for the occurrence of the diseases of the prawns, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a whole pool before and after the weather mutation (cold flow, strong wind, high temperature and the like).
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the invention changes the primary evaporation pond of the seawater salt pan into a single culture pond, thereby enlarging the culture area.
2. The fermented minced fish of the lobster and tiger fish and wheat bran are used as the organic fertilizer water in the whole process.
3. The shrimp larvae are thickened, the standardized breeding is carried out in the early stage, and the salinization thickening is carried out in the later stage, so that the survival rate of the shrimps can be improved, and the yield per mu and the total output are greatly improved.
4. The whole process of the shrimp breeding is carried out by the fairy shrimp, which provides high-quality basic bait for the shrimp larvae, not only reduces the feed coefficient and the water pollution, but also can increase the survival rate and accelerate the growth speed of the shrimp larvae.
5. The disease prevention and control is the combination of biological prevention and control and physical prevention and control: the physical prevention and control is to arrange a shrimp guide net to eliminate the sick shrimps by utilizing the characteristics that the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps move along the sides of the pond and are attached to the water surface; the biological prevention and control is to attract birds to clean up sick shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time by using the tail of the lance goby and the planted reed.
6. Detection of EHP pathogens: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking an EHP (infectious EHP) pathogen detection report, and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative.
The invention takes good effect from comprehensive prevention and control measures such as variety selection, fry detection, pond trimming in cultivation, crude salt marking of shrimp fries, nutrition enhancement, biological prevention and control, physical prevention and control and the like.
Detailed Description
Example 1
A method for effectively preventing and controlling EHP (ethylene propylene glycol) in the culture of shrimps in a salt pan comprises the following steps:
(1) big change, shallow change and deep change: reforming an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with 1000-5000 mu and 60-70 cm water level into a single culture pond; the cultivation pond is a single 100-500 mu, the water level is 120-150 cm, a circular ditch is arranged outside 10-20 meters of four side slopes, the width of the circular ditch is 20-30 m, the depth of the circular ditch is 40-60 cm, and each cultivation pond is provided with an independent drainage system.
(2) Trimming the pond: draining off water in non-production seasons, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties with emphasis on stress resistance character breeding, and increasing the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp breeding mode by emphasizing the growth speed;
(4) detection of EHP pathogens: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking an EHP (EHP pathogenic detection report), and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative;
(5) and (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of the qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill-65 per mill so as to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan;
(6) one-to-one crude salt formation: building small ponds according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, covering a plastic greenhouse, properly increasing the standard thickness and increasing the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside, wherein the salinity is matched the same;
(7) feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting; feeding the fairy shrimp 1-1.5 kg per mu on the seedling releasing day, and increasing by 5-10% every day in two times; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, stopping feeding the artemia cystokiniana, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lobster and tiger fish fermented by lactic acid bacteria;
(8) water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month; using bacillus on day 1, lactobacillus on day 6 and lactobacillus on day 11 of each cycle;
(9) and (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio every three days; EHP pathogen was detected every 15 days;
(10) biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, 4-5 cm of larval tail gobies with consistent salinity with a target pond are released per mu, and the ratio of fishes to shrimps is 500-1000: 1; reed is planted in saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract birds to lay eggs, a habitat is increased, and the birds clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(11) physical prevention and control: when the prawn grows to about 7-8 cm, placing a prawn guide net every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristics that the sick prawn and the weak prawn move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface; pulling a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope and from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, arranging a shrimp guide net at one end far away from the side slope, inducing the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps into hubs, and cleaning once every 2-3 days to avoid the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps from being eaten by healthy shrimps and cutting off the infection source;
(12) stress prevention: the prawn is stressed by the sudden change of weather, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool per mu of land before and after the sudden change of weather.
The above-described embodiments are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention, and all equivalent changes or modifications of the structures, features and principles described in the claims of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. A method for effectively preventing and controlling EHP (ethylene propylene glycol) in the culture of shrimps in a salt pan is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) big change, shallow change and deep change: reforming an original seawater salt pan evaporation pond with 1000-5000 mu and 60-70 cm water level into a single culture pond;
(2) trimming the pond: draining off water in non-production seasons, using 50-200 kg of quicklime per mu, mechanically ploughing for 20-30 cm, and airing for more than 30 days;
(3) selecting stress-resistant varieties: selecting excellent varieties with emphasis on stress resistance character breeding, and increasing the disease prevention and control difficulty of the salt pan shrimp breeding mode by emphasizing the growth speed;
(4) detection of EHP pathogens: selecting germplasm, larvae and seedlings, checking an EHP (EHP pathogenic detection report), and taking the seedlings as the seedlings for the culture of the shrimps in the salt pan after all links are negative;
(5) and (3) marking the shrimp larvae to be coarsely salted: the salinity of the qualified P5 shrimps in life is gradually increased from 25 per mill to 40 per mill-65 per mill so as to adapt to the culture environment of a salt pan;
(6) one-to-one crude salt formation: building small ponds according to the proportion of 100-200: 1, covering a plastic greenhouse, properly increasing the standard thickness and increasing the resistance of the shrimp seeds to the outside, wherein the salinity is matched the same;
(7) feeding fairy shrimp in the whole process: culturing the artemia within 65-95 per mill, and feeding the shrimps with different salinity after harvesting;
(8) water quality regulation and control: the water quality is regulated and controlled by the cooperation of the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria, and the bacillus and the wheat bran fermented by the lactic acid bacteria are used once every half month; using bacillus on day 1, lactobacillus on day 6 and lactobacillus on day 11 of each cycle;
(9) and (3) water quality detection: the conventional water quality indexes DO, Ph and transparency are respectively once a day in the morning and at the evening, and the salinity, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite are respectively once a day; vibrio every three days; EHP pathogen was detected every 15 days;
(10) biological prevention and control: 1.2-1.5 million seedlings are released per mu, the prawn grows for 15-20 days, 4-5 cm of larval tail gobies with consistent salinity with a target pond are released per mu, and the ratio of fishes to shrimps is 500-1000: 1; reed is planted in saline-alkali soil around the aquaculture pond to attract birds to lay eggs, a habitat is increased, and the birds clean diseased shrimps and weak shrimps floating on the water surface in time;
(11) physical prevention and control: when the prawn grows to about 7-8 cm, placing a prawn guide net every 40-50 mu by utilizing the characteristics that the sick prawn and the weak prawn move along the sides of the pond and close to the water surface; pulling a 30-50 m 60-mesh net from the side slope and from 30-50 cm underwater to 5-10 cm above the water surface, arranging a shrimp guide net at one end far away from the side slope, inducing the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps into hubs, and cleaning once every 2-3 days to avoid the sick shrimps and the weak shrimps from being eaten by healthy shrimps and cutting off the infection source;
(12) stress prevention: the prawn is stressed by the sudden change of weather, and 30 g of Vc raw powder is splashed in a full pool per mu of land before and after the sudden change of weather.
2. The EHP method for effectively controlling the cultivation of the shrimps in the salt pan as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cultivation ponds in step (1) are 100-500 mu single, the water level is 120-150 cm, the circular ditches are arranged outside the four slopes with the length of 10-20 m, the width of the circular ditches is 20-30 m, the depth of the circular ditches is 40-60 cm, and each cultivation pond is provided with an independent drainage system.
3. The method for effectively controlling EHP in the salt pan shrimp culture of claim 1, wherein the brine pan shrimp culture of step (7) is fed with fairy shrimp throughout: feeding the fairy shrimp 1-1.5 kg per mu on the seedling releasing day, and increasing by 5-10% every day in two times; if the water quality transparency is more than 60cm, the feeding amount of the fairy shrimp is reduced to a half; if the water quality transparency is more than 80cm, feeding by the fairy shrimp, increasing the water change amount, and supplementing minced fillet of the lance tail goby fermented by lactic acid bacteria.
CN202011626711.1A 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 Method for effectively preventing and treating EHP (enterotoxin-associated protein) in salt pan shrimp culture Pending CN113973758A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107466934A (en) * 2017-10-19 2017-12-15 孙振平 A kind of culture of Penaeus vannamei method
CN110122386A (en) * 2019-06-12 2019-08-16 渤海水产股份有限公司 A method of being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110250061A (en) * 2019-07-18 2019-09-20 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of thick method of mark being suitble to high salinity mariculture prawn
CN110278898A (en) * 2019-08-16 2019-09-27 渤海水产股份有限公司 A kind of method of suitable salt-soda soil cultivation litopenaeus vannamei

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