CN111955333B - Cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruiting bodies - Google Patents

Cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruiting bodies Download PDF

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CN111955333B
CN111955333B CN202010894571.XA CN202010894571A CN111955333B CN 111955333 B CN111955333 B CN 111955333B CN 202010894571 A CN202010894571 A CN 202010894571A CN 111955333 B CN111955333 B CN 111955333B
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seedlings
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seedling
bud
grafting
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CN111955333A (en
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吴文浩
王克春
陈自华
彭干
郁世军
尚楚
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Jiangsu Shuimu Nongjing Co ltd
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Jiangsu Shuimu Nongjing Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/30Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Developmental Biology & Embryology (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivation method of large container seedlings of pecans with fruits on thin-shelled Chinese walnuts, and belongs to the technical field of forest seedling cultivation. The method comprises the steps of medium container seedling cultivation, large container cultivation, primary tree form pruning and cultivation for 3 years after grafting to obtain fruits. The method has high survival rate of transplantation and rapid growth of nursery stock. The time diameter of the seedlings can reach 3.5-4cm when the seedlings are out of the nursery, the height of the seedlings is more than 2.5m, and the crown width of the seedlings is more than 4m, which is obviously higher than that of the field seedlings with the same specification for building the garden. The seedling root system is promoted to grow a large number of fibrous roots in the growth process by using the large-size root control container pieces for seedling culture, and the excessive growth of the main roots is controlled by two measures of transplanting seedlings into a middle container and then transplanting the seedlings into a large container and carrying out root cutting treatment twice. The large-container seedlings cultivated by the method are planted in the garden with high survival rate and remarkable growth amount, and fruits continue to be hung in the same year or the next year, so that the effect of forming the garden is achieved, and the time from garden building to benefit is greatly shortened for a planting person.

Description

Cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruiting bodies
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of forest seedling cultivation, and particularly relates to a cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruiting bodies.
Background
The main seedling form of the carya illinoensis still takes bare-rooted seedlings as the main part, and the bare-rooted seedlings selected during garden building have low survival rate and long seedling revival period. If the orchard is expected to enter the high-yield period early, big trees which grow for 3-5 years and enter the bearing period are generally selected, but when seedlings are lifted in a nursery land, the damage to root systems is serious, the transplanting survival rate and the slow seedling period are greatly influenced, and the aim of early fruiting and high yield is difficult to achieve. And (3) selecting more container seedlings to be grafted for 1 year for garden construction, wherein the time of at least 3-5 years is needed for entering a fruit bearing period after garden construction, and the period is long. In order to achieve the aim of early fruiting and high yield, the cultivation of the container seedlings is changed to a large fruit-bearing container.
1. Container selection
The existing method generally adopts a root control piece container which is half buried underground, and the root system can not be completely controlled by drilling into underground soil from the container. After transplanting, the seedling revival stage similar to that of soil ball seedling is produced. The size of the container is too large, the transportation of the seedlings with the container is not easy, or the container is too small, and the number of root systems is not enough.
2. Cultivation method
In the prior art, 1 year-old rootstocks are planted in a container, grafted after growing for 1 year, and cultured in the container for 2 years again to reach the ground diameter of 4-5cm, and grow in the container for 3 years totally, so that root systems are aged, the growth is uneven, and the seedling rate of commercial seedlings is low.
3. Selection of substrate
In the prior art, the selection of the matrix is not careful enough, soil is taken as the main material, the water permeability and the air permeability are poor, the late-stage topdressing is inconvenient, and the growth amount of the nursery stock is limited. In addition, the soil content is high, the soil balls are heavy, and the long-distance transportation is inconvenient.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a cultivation method of a large container seedling of carya illinoensis for bearing fruit, which is characterized in that the cultivation method comprises the steps of container seedling cultivation, large container cultivation, preliminary tree shape pruning and the like, cultivation is carried out for 3 years after grafting for bearing fruit, and the problems of long fruiting period and slow income in the process of building a garden with carya illinoensis are solved.
In order to solve the problems, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
a cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruit bearing comprises the following steps:
(1) germination acceleration on a seedbed: sowing the carya illinoensis seeds in a seedling raising pool, paving a layer of stones in the seedling raising pool, and paving a layer of mixed matrix on the upper layer of the stones; watering thoroughly after seeding, and additionally arranging a small arched shed, wherein the water content of the matrix is controlled to be 40-50% in the cultivation process; keeping the temperature of the substrate in the arched shed at 20-25 ℃;
(2) the medium container is excessive: selecting 3-5 pieces of seedlings with the height of 15-20cm and the half lignification of the base part of the seedlings reaching two thirds, and transplanting the seedlings; after the seedlings are pulled up, root cutting treatment is carried out, and the length of the reserved roots is 8-10 cm; then transplanting into a non-woven fabric container with the diameter of 20-30cm and the height of 30-35 cm;
(3) bud grafting in summer: grafting the rootstock with the thickness of more than or equal to 0.8cm at the position of 10cm of the overground part by adopting a square budding method;
(4) large container culture: selecting well-grown 1-year-old grafted seedlings to be transferred to a root control piece container of 40cm multiplied by 55cm, mounting a tray at the bottom of the root control piece container, forming a gap between a matrix and the ground, keeping the components of the matrix in a large container and the matrix in a middle container consistent, removing the middle container during transplanting, and cutting off a packing; after the scion bud sprouts in the next spring, the main stem and the side bud are controlled in time; keeping the water content of the mixed matrix at 60-70%, topdressing urea once with the dosage of 5-15 g per plant, and timely removing weeds and controlling plant diseases and insect pests;
(5) preliminary tree control: at the end of the 1 st year after transferring to a large container, cutting off the trunk at the position of 1.5-1.8 m higher of the seedling to promote the growth of the first layer of branches; in the 2 nd year, high-standard management is continued, and the shape of a fruiting tree is initially formed at the end of the 2 nd year; in the 3 rd year, continuously culturing the main trunk while continuously carrying out high-standard water and fertilizer management and pest control on the nursery stock; before flower bud differentiation, applying more phosphorus-potassium fertilizer to promote flower bud differentiation, bearing fruit in the current year, and outplanting at the end of the year.
The cultivation method of the carya illinoensis fruiting large container seedling comprises the following steps of pretreating seeds before seedbed germination acceleration: selecting healthy, full and mechanically-damaged-free seeds, soaking the seeds, and then carrying out sand storage treatment.
The cultivation method of the large container seedlings of the carya illinoensis fruiting bodies adopts 800 times of 50% carbendazim solution to soak for 5-7 days; and (4) performing layering sand storage treatment after seed soaking, wherein each layer of seeds is preferably not laminated, the periphery of each layer of seeds is preferably in full contact with wet sand, the thickness of each layer is 3-4cm, and the sand storage time is 30 days.
According to the cultivation method of the large container seedlings with the pecan fruits, the seedling raising pool is 80-100cm wide and 30cm deep, the bottom of the seedling raising pool is built into a V shape, a PVC pipe with the diameter of 6-8cm is placed at the bottom of the V shape, water seepage holes are reserved on the upward surface of the V-shaped bottom, the density of the water seepage holes is 15-25 holes/meter, and the water seepage holes are covered by water-permeable anvil cloth; then covering the upper part of the anvil cloth with stones and a mixed matrix; spraying potassium permanganate solution with the mass percentage concentration of 0.5 percent on the bed surface for disinfection and leveling.
The cultivation method of the large container seedlings of the carya illinoensis fruit comprises the steps of enabling the thickness of stones to be 5cm, enabling the thickness of a mixed matrix to be 20-25cm, and enabling the seeding density to be 330 grains/m2And covering a 3-5cm mixed matrix above the sowed seeds.
According to the cultivation method of the large container seedlings for the pecan fruiting, the mixed matrix is a mixture of turfy soil and perlite, and the volume ratio of the turfy soil to the perlite is 3: 2.
According to the cultivation method of the large container seedlings with the pecan fruits, the seedlings are thoroughly watered immediately after being transplanted into a middle container, and the water content of the mixed matrix is controlled to be 30% -40% in the later period; in the early stage after the seedlings are transplanted into the container, covering a seedling raising greenhouse with a plastic film, covering a sunshade net on the outer layer to shade, controlling the temperature in the greenhouse not to be higher than 35 ℃, lifting the plastic films on two sides of the greenhouse when the temperature is too high, and ventilating and cooling; after 20-25 days, the sunshade net on the top of the greenhouse is removed.
The cultivation method of the large container seedlings of the carya illinoensis fruiting bodies comprises the following square budding steps: the grafting height is 10cm above the stock root; selecting a to-be-used grafting bud, marking a bud piece with the length of 3.5cm and the width of 1-1.2cm on the grafting bud by using a grafting knife, pressing the side surface of a bud handle by using a thumb to slightly push, taking down the grafting bud, and positioning the bud at a position close to the middle part of the bud piece; cutting a cortex layer with the same size as the scion bud at the position to be grafted of the rootstock by the same operation method, and reserving a 2-3mm wide and 2cm long wound opening at one side of the lower end of the cut; rapidly attaching the grafting buds to the cuts of the stocks, aligning three edges, and then binding the grafted parts tightly by using a plastic grafting film; and (3) 25-30 days after grafting, the interface callus forms good grafted seedling after unbinding.
According to the cultivation method of the large container seedlings of the carya illinoensis fruiting body, the high-standard management in the initial tree form control stage is as follows: 5. dressing urea, namely 1:1 mixed fertilizer of the compound fertilizer for 1 time in late ten months in 6 and 7 months, and applying 20g of fertilizer to each seedling on average by adopting a dotting and hole-sowing method; spraying 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time every 15 days after 9 months; determining main branches by means of bamboo pole binding; and (4) carrying out measures such as topping, short-cutting and picking off on the first layer of branches and part of newly-grown branches, and simultaneously keeping small short branches.
According to the cultivation method of the carya illinoensis fruiting large container seedling, the medium formula in the middle container and the large container is turfy soil, organic fertilizer and urea, and the volume ratio of the turfy soil, the organic fertilizer and the urea is 5:3: 2.
Has the advantages that: compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
(1) the invention discloses a cultivation method of a large container seedling of carya illinoensis for bearing fruit, which comprises the steps of cultivating 1-year-old grafted seedlings through container seedlings, transferring the grafted seedlings to a large container for continuous cultivation for 2 years, primarily pruning tree forms and the like, cultivating the large container seedling for bearing fruit, and planting the large container seedling for bearing fruit continuously in the current year or the next year, so that the problems of long fruiting period and slow yield in the process of building a garden with carya illinoensis are solved.
(2) The cultivation method of the large container seedlings with the carya illinoensis fruit bearing has the advantages of high transplanting survival rate, rapid seedling growth and no seedling revival stage. The seedling rate of the commercial seedlings is high, the culture period of a large container is reduced from 4 years to 3 years, the efficiency is improved, and the culture period is shortened. The physiological age of the finished seedlings is increased by 1 year, and the seedlings can enter the full fruit period in advance.
(2) The invention uses large-scale root control container pieces to grow seedlings, so that a large number of fibrous roots of seedling roots are promoted in the growth process, and meanwhile, the seedlings are transplanted to a middle container and then to a large container, and the excessive growth of main roots is controlled through two root breaking treatments.
(3) The large-container seedlings cultivated by the method disclosed by the invention are planted in a garden with high survival rate and remarkable growth amount, and fruits continue to be hung in the current year or the next year after field planting, so that the effect of forming the garden is achieved. Greatly shortens the time from garden building to benefit for the planting people.
Detailed Description
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with examples are described in detail below.
Example 1
A cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruit bearing comprises the following steps:
(1) seed treatment
Selecting healthy, full and mechanically-damaged-free seeds, soaking the seeds in 800 times of 50% carbendazim solution for 5-7 days, taking out the seeds, and then carrying out lamination sand storage treatment, wherein each layer of seeds is suitable for the seeds not to be laminated, the periphery of the seeds is fully contacted with wet sand, the thickness of each layer is 3-4cm, and the sand storage time is 30 days.
(2) Seedbed germination acceleration
A seedling raising pool with the width of 80-100cm and the depth of 30m is built in a seedling raising greenhouse, the bottom of the seedling raising pool is built into a V shape, a PVC pipe with the diameter of 6-8cm is placed at the V-shaped bottom, water seepage holes (the density is about 20 holes/m) are reserved on the upward surface of the V-shaped bottom, and the V-shaped bottom is covered by water-permeable anvil cloth. Then paving stones with the thickness of 5cm (the grain diameter is 1-2cm), paving mixed matrix with the thickness of 20-25cm (the volume ratio of turfy soil to perlite is 3:2) on the upper layer, spraying potassium permanganate solution with the mass percentage concentration of 0.5% on a bed surface for disinfection, and leveling. Sowing the seeds of the carya illinoensis in a seedling pool with the density of 330 grains/m2And 3-5cm of mixed matrix is covered above the seeds. After seeding, watering thoroughly, additionally arranging a small arch shed, installing a sprinkling irrigation facility, controlling the water content of the matrix to be between 40 and 50 percent, and replenishing water in due time according to the water demand condition of the matrix. Keeping the temperature of the matrix in the arched shed at 20-25 deg.C for more than 15 days, and germinating.
(3) Middle container transition
And after seedling emergence for 20 days, selecting and transplanting seedlings with 3-5 unfolded leaves, the height of 15-20cm and half lignification of the base part of the seedlings reaching two thirds. After the seedlings are pulled up, root cutting treatment is carried out, and the length of the reserved roots is 8-10 cm; then transplanting into a non-woven fabric container with the diameter of 20-30cm and the height of 30-35cm, slightly pulling the substrate at the center of the container outwards by using moso bamboo chips with the width of about 3cm, putting the young seedling into the container, slightly returning soil to ensure that the root system of the young seedling is fully contacted with the substrate, righting the young seedling and slightly compacting the root. And (4) immediately watering the transplanted container seedlings thoroughly, controlling the water content of the soil matrix to be 30% -40% in the later period, and performing spray irrigation and water supplement according to the humidity condition of the soil matrix. In the early stage after the seedlings are transplanted into the container, the seedling raising greenhouse is covered with a plastic film, a sunshade net is covered on the outer layer to shade, the temperature in the greenhouse is controlled not to be higher than 35 ℃, when the temperature is too high, the plastic films on the two sides of the greenhouse are lifted, and the temperature is ventilated and reduced. After 20-25 days, the sunshade net on the top of the greenhouse is removed.
(4) Bud grafting in summer
And (3) grafting the rootstock which meets the grafting standard (the thickness of the overground part is more than or equal to 0.8cm) by adopting a square bud grafting method. Selecting a grafting bud to be used at the position 10cm above the stock root, marking a bud sheet 3.5cm long and 1-1.2cm wide on the grafting bud by using a grafting knife (the grafting knife is a double-edged knife with the width of about 3.5 cm), pressing the side surface of a bud handle by using a thumb to lightly push, and taking down the grafting bud which is positioned at the position close to the middle part of the bud sheet. The same operation method is used for cutting a cortex layer with the same size as the scion bud block at the position of the stock to be grafted, and a bleeding hole with the width of 2mm-3mm and the length of 2cm is reserved on one side of the lower end of the cut. The grafting bud is quickly attached to the cut of the stock, three edges of the grafting bud are aligned, then the grafting part is tightly bound by a plastic grafting film, the bleeding wound is not completely blocked, and ventilation and light transmission of the grafting part are ensured. Within 3-5 days after grafting, irrigation and fertilization are not performed; and (4) unbinding the grafted seedlings with good interface callus formation (if bud grafting is exposed, unbinding can be carried out after leaves fall) 25-30 days after grafting.
(5) Large container culture
After the stock seedling stops growing in the grafting current year, the part above the grafting part of the stock can be completely cut off. Transferring well-grown 1-year-old grafted seedlings into a 40cm x 55cm root control container, mounting a tray at the bottom of the root control container, forming a gap between a matrix and the ground, keeping the components of the matrix in the large container and the matrix in the medium container consistent, wherein the volume ratio of turfy soil to organic fertilizer to urea is 5:3: 2. And removing the middle container during transplanting, and cutting off the packing. And after the scion bud sprouts in the next spring, the main stem bud and the side buds are controlled in time. Keeping the water content of the mixed matrix to be 60-70%, dressing urea once with the dosage of 5-15 g/plant, dressing according to the situation, timely removing weeds and treating plant diseases and insect pests, timely tying new and slightly skewed grafted seedlings with bamboo poles, and ensuring the water supply of the seedlings by using a drip irrigation facility.
(6) Preliminary tree control
At the end of the 1 st year after transferring to a large container, the seedlings are cut to be dry at the position of 1.5-1.8 m high, and the first layer of branches are promoted. In the 2 nd year, high-standard management is continued, 1 time of urea and 1:1 mixed fertilizer is applied in the late ten days of 5, 6 and 7 months, and 20g of fertilizer is applied to each seedling averagely by adopting a dotting and hole application method; spraying 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time every 15 days after 9 months; the main trunk branches are established by means of bamboo pole binding. And (3) carrying out measures such as topping, short-cutting and picking off on the first layer of branches and part of newly-grown branches, and meanwhile, keeping small short branches to initially form a fruit tree at the end of the 2 nd year. And in the 3 rd year, continuously culturing the main trunks while continuously carrying out high-standard water and fertilizer management and pest control on the nursery stocks. Before flower bud differentiation, applying more phosphorus-potassium fertilizer to promote flower bud differentiation, bearing fruit in the current year, and outplanting at the end of the year.
The index of building the nursery of the large container seedlings for bearing fruits of carya illinoensis shows that the average ground diameter is 3-4cm when the carya illinoensis is outplanted, the time required for culturing to outplanting is 3-4 years, the survival rate of transplanting reaches 98%, the carya illinoensis can be cultured and bearing fruits after transplanting, and the time required from seed culture to building the garden and bearing fruits is 3-4 years.

Claims (7)

1. A cultivation method of large container seedlings of carya illinoensis fruit bearing is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) and (3) seedbed germination acceleration: sowing the carya illinoensis seeds in a seedling raising pool, paving a layer of stones in the seedling raising pool, and paving a layer of mixed matrix on the upper layer of the stones; after sowing, watering thoroughly, and additionally installing a small arched shed, wherein the water content of the mixed matrix is controlled to be 40-50% in the cultivation process; keeping the temperature of the mixed matrix in the arched shed at 20-25 ℃; the mixed matrix is a mixture of turfy soil and perlite, and the volume ratio of the turfy soil to the perlite is 3: 2;
(2) the medium container is excessive: selecting 3-5 pieces of spread leaves with height of 15-20cm and half lignification of the base part to two thirds, and transplanting; after the seedlings are pulled up, root cutting treatment is carried out, and the length of the reserved roots is 8-10 cm; then transplanting into a non-woven fabric container with the diameter of 20-30cm and the height of 30-35 cm;
(3) bud grafting in summer: grafting the rootstock with the thickness of more than or equal to 0.8cm at the position of 10cm of the overground part by adopting a square budding method; after the stock seedling in the current year stops growing, cutting off all parts above the grafted part of the stock;
(4) large container culture: selecting well-grown 1-year-old grafted seedlings to be transferred to a root control piece container of 40cm multiplied by 55cm, mounting a tray at the bottom of the root control piece container, forming a gap between a matrix and the ground, keeping the matrix components in a large container and a medium container consistent, removing the medium container during transplanting, and cutting off packing; after the scion bud sprouts in the next spring, the main stem and the side bud are controlled in time; keeping the water content of the matrix to be 60-70%, dressing urea once with the dosage of 5-15 g per plant, and timely removing weeds and controlling plant diseases and insect pests; the matrix formula comprises turfy soil, organic fertilizer and urea; the volume ratio of the turfy soil to the organic fertilizer to the urea is 5:3: 2;
(5) preliminary tree control: at the end of the 1 st year after transferring to a large container, cutting off the trunk at the position of 1.5-1.8 m higher of the seedling to promote the growth of the first layer of branches; in the 2 nd year, high-standard management is continued, 1 time of urea and 1:1 mixed fertilizer is applied in the late ten days of 5, 6 and 7 months, and 20g of fertilizer is applied to each seedling averagely by adopting a dotting and hole application method; spraying 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1 time every 15 days after 9 months; determining main branches by means of bamboo pole binding; carrying out topping, short-cutting and removing measures on the first layer of branches and part of newly-grown branches, and simultaneously reserving small short branches; the fruit tree shape is initially formed at the end of the 2 nd year; in the 3 rd year, the high-standard management and the pest control of the nursery stock are continuously carried out, and meanwhile, the main stem is continuously cultured; before flower bud differentiation, applying more phosphorus-potassium fertilizer to promote flower bud differentiation, bearing fruit in the current year, and outplanting at the end of the year.
2. A method of cultivating a large container of pecan fruiting plantlet as claimed in claim 1, wherein the seeds are pre-treated before germination on seedbed: selecting healthy, full and mechanically-damaged-free seeds, soaking the seeds, and then carrying out sand storage treatment.
3. A method for cultivating large container seedlings of pecan nuts according to claim 2, wherein 800 times of 50% carbendazim solution is used for soaking for 5-7 days; and (4) performing layering sand storage treatment after seed soaking, wherein each layer of seeds is preferably not laminated, the periphery of each layer of seeds is preferably in full contact with wet sand, the thickness of each layer is 3-4cm, and the sand storage time is 30 days.
4. The cultivation method of the pecan fruiting large container seedling as claimed in claim 1, wherein the seedling pool is 80-100cm wide and 30cm deep, the bottom of the seedling pool is built into a V shape, a PVC pipe with the diameter of 6-8cm is placed at the bottom of the V shape, water seepage holes are reserved on the upward surface of the V shape, the density of the water seepage holes is 15-25 holes/m, and the water seepage holes are covered by permeable felt cloth; then covering the stone and the mixed matrix on the felt cloth; spraying potassium permanganate solution with the mass percentage concentration of 0.5 percent on the bed surface for disinfection and leveling.
5. A cultivation method of pecan fruiting large container seedling as claimed in claim 1, wherein the thickness of the stone is 5cm, the thickness of the mixed matrix is 20-25cm, and the seeding density is 330 grains/m2And covering a 3-5cm mixed matrix above the sowed seeds.
6. A cultivation method of pecan fruiting large container seedlings according to claim 1, characterized in that the seedlings are transplanted into a medium container and immediately watered thoroughly, and the water content of the matrix is controlled to be 30% -40% in the later period; in the early stage after the seedlings are transplanted into the middle container, covering a seedling raising greenhouse with a plastic film, covering a sunshade net on the outer layer to shade, controlling the temperature in the greenhouse not to be higher than 35 ℃, lifting the plastic films on two sides of the greenhouse when the temperature is too high, and ventilating and cooling; after 20-25 days, the sunshade net on the top of the greenhouse is removed.
7. A method for cultivating a large container of pecan fruit seedlings according to claim 1, wherein the square budding is: the grafting height is 10cm above the stock root; selecting a to-be-used grafting bud, marking a bud piece with the length of 3.5cm and the width of 1-1.2cm on the grafting bud by using a grafting knife, pressing the side surface of a bud handle by using a thumb to slightly push, taking down the grafting bud, and positioning the bud at a position close to the middle part of the bud piece; cutting a cortex layer with the same size as the scion bud at the position to be grafted of the rootstock by the same operation method, and reserving a 2-3mm wide and 2cm long wound opening at one side of the lower end of the cut; rapidly attaching the grafting buds to the cuts of the stocks, aligning three edges, and then binding the grafted parts tightly by using a plastic grafting film; and (3) 25-30 days after grafting, the interface callus forms good grafted seedling after unbinding.
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