CN110637665B - Rapid cutting propagation method for citrus limonum - Google Patents

Rapid cutting propagation method for citrus limonum Download PDF

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CN110637665B
CN110637665B CN201911061495.8A CN201911061495A CN110637665B CN 110637665 B CN110637665 B CN 110637665B CN 201911061495 A CN201911061495 A CN 201911061495A CN 110637665 B CN110637665 B CN 110637665B
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rooting
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citrus
slips
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CN110637665A (en
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马先锋
朱志媚
邓子牛
盛玲
李大志
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Hunan Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings

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Abstract

A rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limonum comprises the following steps: (1) pruning and fertilizing the ear-picking mother tree; (2) collecting cutting slips; (3) sterilizing the cutting; (4) preparing a culture tray; (5) cutting and rooting culture; (6) and (5) transplanting. The invention simplifies the breeding steps, promotes the number of the sprouting cuttings, shortens the lengths of the cuttings, optimizes the thickness of the cuttings, promotes the cuttings to rapidly root, and effectively increases the rooting rate and the rooting length; in addition, the method is simple and easy to implement, low in cost and space-saving; the cutting material is easy to take, the rooting rate after cutting is high, the survival rate of the cultivated cutting seedlings is improved to more than 80% from 4% of direct cutting in a greenhouse, the root systems of the seedlings are developed, the seedlings can be transplanted out of the nursery in about one month, the transplanting survival rate exceeds more than 90%, and the growth vigor is good.

Description

Rapid cutting propagation method for citrus limonum
Technical Field
The invention relates to a rapid citric acid propagation method, in particular to a rapid citric acid cutting propagation method.
Background
Citrus is a small evergreen arbor belonging to the genus Rutaceae, is the first fruit in the world, has a long cultivation history in China, and is one of the fruit trees with the widest cultivation area in the south.
Citrus citri (Citrus medica L.) also known as Citrus medica is one of the three original species of Citrus, and its growth habit is suitable for high temperature and high humidity environments. The reproduction mode of the lemon includes sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.
The Citrus sexual propagation is a method for directly sowing Citrus seeds, although the sowing method has a large propagation coefficient, the offspring is easy to have variation and character separation, the seedlings grow slowly, the flowering period and the fruiting period are long, and batch breeding cannot be performed on citrus varieties with low fructification rate.
The citric acid vegetative propagation method adopts grafting method, cuttage method and tissue culture method, and utilizes the vegetative organ root, stem and leaf of plant to make propagation, belonging to the vegetative propagation in vegetative propagation.
The grafting method is a traditional seedling raising method in the lemon production, a large number of stocks need to be prepared in advance in the grafting process, the stocks are propagated sexually, the uniformity of the bred seedlings is poor, the problems of irregular plant growth and the like are caused, and the problem of low seed germination rate when the seedlings are directly sowed in a nursery garden in autumn also exists. Secondly, the stocks required by grafting occupy larger area, the requirements on grafting time and grafting temperature are higher, and the technical requirements on grafting operation are tighter.
The tissue culture method has the defects of high propagation cost, complex and tedious operation, difficult technical management and the like.
The cuttage method adopts the mother branches for direct breeding, does not need stocks, has small occupied area, simple and convenient operation and low cost, can inherit the excellent characters of the mother parents, and has wide application in the preservation of varieties and germplasm resources with low fruiting rate and young age. Therefore, the seedling propagation is easy to start by adopting a cutting method. However, the technical method for citrus cutting at the present stage is not mature, and the citrus cutting is not easy to root and survive after cutting, and the reports related to citrus cutting are few. Therefore, how to rapidly cut and survive the citrus becomes a problem to be solved urgently at present. The research on the cutting propagation technology of citrus Citrus limon has very important significance on the storage, popularization and application of improved variety of Citrus limon.
Before the cutting of the lemon, the cutting slips are treated by adopting a plant growth regulating substance, so that the rooting can be promoted, and the survival rate can be increased. Currently, widely used rooting agents include Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Gibberellin (GA) and other exogenous hormones and ABT, GGR and other compound plant growth regulators. The concentration is too low and the treatment time is too short, so that the promotion effect on the rooting of the cutting is not obvious; if the concentration is too high and the treatment time is too long, the cutting is harmful, and the cutting rooting is inhibited. The cuttage branches are mainly used for spring cuttage (hardwood cuttage) of dormant branches and summer cuttage (twig cuttage) of new shoots, and the rooting rate of the cuttage branches selected from the branches in the period with the most vigorous growth and development is the highest. However, the growth regulator required by citrus cutting and the concentration, cutting method, required environment and the like are still not mature.
At present, the clonal cutting propagation technology of most varieties of citrus is not solved, and the problem of citrus cutting rooting is still worth researching.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is to overcome the defects in the prior art and provide a rapid cutting propagation method of the citrus which is simple to operate, can promote the number of the germinating cuttings, has a high cutting rooting speed and a high rooting rate.
The technical scheme adopted for solving the technical problem is that the rapid cutting propagation method of the citrus comprises the following steps:
(1) pruning and fertilizing the ear-picking mother tree: pruning the mother tree to promote the growth of fresh branches, and fertilizing to supplement nutrients;
(2) and (3) cutting collection: taking semi-lignified current-year shoots with terminal buds from the parent trees, and pruning to obtain pruned cuttings;
(3) and (3) disinfection treatment of the cutting slips: soaking the pruned cutting slips in disinfectant for disinfection, then cleaning with clear water to remove residual disinfectant, and wiping leaves and branches clean with alcohol cotton to obtain disinfected cutting slips;
(4) preparing a culture tray: filling sterile toilet paper at the bottom of the culture tray, covering the sterile toilet paper with filter paper, and thoroughly pouring with clear water;
(5) cutting and rooting culture: placing the sterilized cutting into a culture tray, placing the biological upper end of the cutting upwards and the biological lower end downwards, covering the base of the cutting with clean absorbent cotton, pouring a rooting agent through the absorbent cotton, wetting the tray without water accumulation, sleeving the whole culture tray with a self-sealing bag, preserving heat and moisture, and placing the culture tray in a constant temperature and humidity culture chamber for culture;
(6) transplanting: transplanting the cutting into nutrient soil after the root of the cutting grows to be more than or equal to 3cm, watering thoroughly after transplanting, and then carrying out normal management.
Further, in the step (5), the rooting agent is a mixture comprising ABT rooting powder, water and 75% alcohol by volume concentration.
Further, the concentration of the rooting agent is 20-200 ppm of ABT + 30-50 mL of 75% alcohol. The ABT rooting powder has double effects of supplementing exogenous hormones and promoting synthesis of endogenous hormones in plants, and can promote formation of adventitious roots; the 75% alcohol can fully dissolve ABT rooting powder, is beneficial to the absorption of the cutting slips, and has the effects of sterilization and disinfection. The rooting agent is used for treating plant cuttings, can participate in the whole physiological process of forming adventitious roots, and has the double effects of supplementing exogenous hormones and promoting synthesis of endogenous hormones in plants, so that the growth of the adventitious roots can be promoted.
Further, in the step (1), the fertilizer application is that 0.2-0.4 kg of rape seed cake is applied to each small seedling, and 0.5-0.7 kg of rape seed cake is applied to each big seedling.
Further, in the step (2), the average base diameter of the branches with uniform thickness is 3-5 mm; and the pruning is to shear the upper end and the lower end of the branch into pieces with average length of 4-6 cm, at least two bud knots and at least one blade.
Further, in the step (3), the disinfectant is a 500-1000 times diluted carbendazim solution, and the soaking time is 30-60 min; the number of times of cleaning with clear water is 5-7 times.
Further, in the step (4), the culture tray has a length, a width and a depth of (130-300) mm x (20-100) mm. The method has the advantages of providing a good rooting environment, promoting rooting, avoiding contacting soil, reducing the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests, being clean and easy to operate, facilitating observation and management, separating each disc of cuttings, preventing varieties from being confused, preventing the plant diseases and insect pests from spreading and facilitating the cleaning of fallen leaves of diseased branches. In the subsequent step (5), the culture tray is sleeved with a self-sealing bag without being completely sealed, so that high temperature and high humidity can be ensured, the absorbent cotton can store a rooting agent, the cutting slips are not easy to dry, and rooting hormone can be provided for the cutting slips to promote rooting. The culture environment is simple and easy to prepare, the materials are not easy to dry and attack, more than 80% of the materials sprout in 7-18 days, and more than 95% of the materials root in 24-35 days and can grow to 1-4 cm.
Further, in the step (5), 50-100 mL of rooting agent is added to the moisture-preserving cotton every 1-2 weeks within 1 month of cutting the cutting slips. The method is favorable for rapid rooting, and the cutting has long moisturizing period, simple operation and less workload.
Further, in the step (6), the nutrient soil is prepared by adopting the following method: according to the sawdust ratio: river sand: adding organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer into the grass peat in a mass ratio of (3-4) to (1-2) to 1, fully mixing, and covering with a plastic film for fermentation for one month.
Further, in the step (6), the cutting slips are watered for 1000 times of stanly every 7-10 days after being subjected to cuttage for 1 month;
further, in the step (6), the transplanting row spacing is (3-10) cm x (3-10) cm.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the method has the advantages that the asexual propagation seedling raising method for the cutting rooting of the citrus stem segments, which is one of the whole set of original citrus species, is provided, the rapid rooting culture method for the cutting slips is established, the simple culture environment suitable for rooting is realized, the cutting slips with the proper age are selected, the proper rooting agent concentration is realized, the correct cutting method is realized, the existing reported breeding steps are simplified, the number of the germination cutting slips is promoted, the cutting slip length is shortened, the thickness of the cutting slips is optimized, the rapid rooting of the cutting slips is promoted, and the rooting rate and the rooting length are effectively increased; in addition, the method is simple and easy to implement, the needed tools are low in price and low in cost, the cutting material is easy to obtain, the rooting rate after cutting is high, the effect is obvious, a simple, convenient and effective method is provided for the cutting propagation and seedling raising of the citrus reticulata, and the practicability and operability are very strong; the survival rate of the cultivated cutting seedlings is improved from 4 percent to more than 80 percent, the roots of the seedlings are developed, the seedlings can be transplanted out of the nursery in about 1 month, the transplanting survival rate is more than 90 percent, and the growth vigor is good; the invention establishes a relatively perfect citric cutting breeding technical system, lays a foundation for the construction of the citric cutting orchard, the cultivation of improved varieties, the cultivation of new varieties and the like, and enhances the protection and the utilization of wild resources.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a drawing of a citrus cutting according to the invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the following examples.
The chemical reagents used in the examples of the present invention, unless otherwise specified, are commercially available in a conventional manner. The ABT rooting powder is from Beijing Albetti Biotech, Inc. as described in the examples.
Example 1
The embodiment comprises the following steps:
(1) pruning and fertilizing the ear-picking mother tree: in order to obtain high-quality cutting branches, the mother trees are properly trimmed to promote the growth of fresh branches 1 month in advance, and nutrients are supplied by fertilization. 0.3kg of rape seed cake is applied to each small seedling (the height of the seedling is less than or equal to 40cm), and 0.6kg of rape seed cake is applied to each large seedling (the height of the seedling is more than 40 cm).
(2) And (3) cutting collection: semi-lignified current-year-old twig with terminal bud is adopted from the mother tree, the cutting shoot grows strongly, the leaf is complete, the axillary bud is full, the genetic performance is good, and no plant diseases or insect pests exist. Removing diseased leaves and diseased branches, selecting branches with the average base diameter of 3-5 mm and uniform thickness, disinfecting the branches with alcohol, and horizontally cutting the upper end and the lower end to obtain branches with the average length of 5cm and containing at least two buds and at least one leaf.
(3) And (3) cutting treatment: completely soaking the pruned cuttings in carbendazim diluted by 800 times with the carbendazim for 50 min; the number of times of cleaning with clear water is 5.
(4) Preparing a culture tray: the culture tray has length, width, height and depth of (210) mm x (50) mm, two layers of sterilized toilet paper are filled at the bottom of the tray, and the top layer is covered with a layer of filter paper and is thoroughly poured with clear water.
(5) Cutting and rooting culture: placing the cutting into a culture tray, placing the cutting with the biological upper end upward and the biological lower end downward, covering the cutting base with clean absorbent cotton, pouring rooting agent through the absorbent cotton, moistening the tray without water accumulation, and covering the culture tray with self-sealing bags. Placing in a constant temperature and humidity culture chamber with illumination of 50%, temperature of 25 deg.C and humidity of 70%. Within 1 month of cuttage, only 50mL of rooting agent (100ppm of ABT +20mL of 75% alcohol) is added to the moisture-preserving cotton every week; after the cutting shoots, the cutting shoots can be transplanted to soil for continuous culture.
(6) Transplanting: after the root length is 3cm, transplanting, selecting nutrient soil, watering thoroughly in time after transplanting, carrying out normal management subsequently, watering 1000 times of Stanley (Stanley) macroelement water-soluble fertilizer every 7 days after 1 month, and supplementing nutrient elements.
And (5) removing the steps (4) and (5), directly cutting the seedlings in the nutrient soil in a greenhouse, pouring 50mL of rooting agent every week, then normally managing the seedlings, carrying out a comparative test, observing and counting the number of the rooting cuttings, the rooting time, the rooting length and the rooting rate, and obtaining results shown in table 1 (50 cuttings are measured for each concentration, and an average value is taken)
Treatment of Number of rooting cuttings (root) Rooting time (sky) Average root length (cm) Rooting percentage (%)
Rooting culture cuttage by adopting tray 43 13 11.49 86
Direct cuttage in greenhouse (with rooting agent) 7 28 4.55 14
Direct cuttage in greenhouse (without rooting agent) 2 35 2.03 4
As shown in Table 1, compared with direct cuttage in a greenhouse, the tray rooting culture cuttage has the advantages of fast rooting and high rooting rate, the rooting agent is added to promote the cutting slips to root, and the rooting effect of the culture environment is larger than that of the rooting agent treatment.
Example 2
The embodiment comprises the following steps:
(1) pruning and fertilizing the ear-picking mother tree: in order to obtain high-quality cutting branches, the mother trees are properly trimmed to promote the growth of fresh branches 1 month in advance, and nutrients are supplied by fertilization. 0.4kg of rape seed cake is applied to each small seedling (the height of the seedling is less than or equal to 40cm), and 0.7kg of rape seed cake is applied to each large seedling (the height of the seedling is more than 40 cm).
(2) And (3) cutting collection: semi-lignified current-year-old twig with terminal bud is adopted from the mother tree, the cutting shoot grows strongly, the leaf is complete, the axillary bud is full, the genetic performance is good, and no plant diseases or insect pests exist. Removing diseased leaves and diseased branches, selecting branches with the average base diameter of 5mm and uniform thickness, disinfecting the branches with alcohol, and horizontally cutting the upper end and the lower end, wherein the branches are cut into branches with the average length of 6cm and contain at least two buds and at least one leaf.
(3) And (3) cutting treatment: completely soaking the pruned cuttings in carbendazim diluted by 1000 times with the carbendazim for 45 min; the number of times of cleaning with clean water is 7.
(4) Preparing a culture tray: the culture tray has length, width, height and depth of (180) mm x (70) mm, two layers of sterilized toilet paper are arranged at the bottom of the tray, the uppermost layer is covered with a layer of filter paper, and the filter paper is thoroughly poured with clear water.
(5) Cutting and rooting culture: the cutting is horizontally placed into a culture tray, the biological upper end of the cutting faces upwards, the biological lower end of the cutting faces downwards, the base portion of the cutting is covered with clean absorbent cotton, a rooting agent (20-200 ppm ABT + 30-50 mL of 75% alcohol) is poured through the absorbent cotton, the tray is wet without water, and the whole culture tray is well covered with a self-sealing bag for heat preservation and moisture preservation. Placing in a constant temperature and humidity culture chamber with illumination of 50%, temperature of 25 deg.C and humidity of 70%. Within 1 month of cuttage, only 50mL of rooting agent (20-200 ppm of ABT + 30-50 mL of 75% alcohol) is added to the moisture-preserving cotton every week; after the cutting shoots, the cutting shoots can be transplanted to soil for continuous culture.
(6) Transplanting: after the root length is 3cm, transplanting, selecting nutrient soil, watering thoroughly in time after transplanting, carrying out normal management subsequently, watering 1000 times of Stanley (Stanley) macroelement water-soluble fertilizer every 7 days after 1 month, and supplementing nutrient elements.
The rooting culture is carried out by adopting the tray cutting, the rooting agent is not added, the rooting agent with different concentrations is selected for culture, a comparison test is carried out, the rooting quantity, the rooting time, the rooting length and the rooting rate are observed and counted, and the results are shown in a table 2 (50 cutting are measured by each concentration, the average value is taken)
Treatment of Number of rooting cuttings (root) Rooting time (sky) Average root length (cm) Rooting percentage (%)
Without adding rooting agent 35 20 6.03 70
Rooting agent 5-20 ppm 41 18 8.28 82
20-100 ppm rooting agent 49 15 10.53 98
100-150 ppm rooting agent 40 19 7.58 80
150-200 ppm rooting agent 20 25 3.78 40
As can be seen from Table 2, the rooting culture of the tray cuttings is adopted, the difference between the addition of the rooting agent and the addition of the rooting agent is obvious, the rooting agent is not added, in a culture environment suitable for the optimization method, the rooting agent can generate rooting hormone to root, and the rooting agent with a proper concentration is added to the root base, so that the rooting is promoted, the survival rate is increased, and the optimal rooting concentration is 20-100 ppm. The low concentration rooting agent has a poor effect on the growth of the roots, and the high concentration rooting agent generates toxicity and inhibits the growth of the branches.

Claims (8)

1. A rapid cutting propagation method of lemon is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) pruning and fertilizing the ear-picking mother tree: pruning the mother tree to promote the growth of fresh branches, and fertilizing to supplement nutrients;
(2) and (3) cutting collection: taking semi-lignified current-year shoots with terminal buds from the parent trees, and pruning to obtain pruned cuttings; the average base diameter of the tender branches is 3-5 mm; the pruning is to shear the upper end and the lower end of the twig into 4-6 cm long sections, and the sections comprise at least two bud nodes and at least one leaf;
(3) and (3) disinfection treatment of the cutting slips: soaking the pruned cutting slips in disinfectant for disinfection, then cleaning with clear water to remove residual disinfectant, and wiping leaves and branches clean with alcohol cotton to obtain disinfected cutting slips;
(4) preparing a culture tray: filling sterile toilet paper at the bottom of the culture tray, covering the sterile toilet paper with filter paper, and thoroughly pouring with clear water; the culture tray has a length, a width and a height of (130-300) mmX (20-100) mm;
(5) cutting and rooting culture: placing the sterilized cutting into a culture tray, placing the biological upper end of the cutting upwards and the biological lower end downwards, covering the base of the cutting with clean absorbent cotton, pouring a rooting agent through the absorbent cotton, wetting the tray without water accumulation, sleeving the whole culture tray with a self-sealing bag, preserving heat and moisture, and placing the culture tray in a constant temperature and humidity culture chamber for culture; the rooting agent is a mixture of ABT rooting powder, water and 75% alcohol by volume concentration; the concentration of the rooting agent is 20-200 ppm ABT + 30-50 mL of 75% alcohol; within 1 month of cutting the cutting slips, adding 50-100 mL of rooting agent on the moisture-preserving cotton every 1-2 weeks;
(6) transplanting: transplanting the cutting into nutrient soil after the root of the cutting grows to be more than or equal to 3cm, watering thoroughly after transplanting, and then carrying out normal management.
2. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limosum as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (1), the fertilizer application is that 0.2-0.4 kg of rape seed cake is applied to each small seedling, and 0.5-0.7 kg of rape seed cake is applied to each big seedling.
3. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limosum according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: in the step (3), the disinfectant is a carbendazim solution diluted by 500-1000 times, and the soaking time is 30-60 min; and the cleaning times are 5-7 times.
4. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limosum according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: in the step (6), the nutrient soil is prepared by adopting the following method: according to the sawdust ratio: river sand: and adding organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer into the grass peat = (3-4): (1-2): 1 mass ratio, fully mixing, and covering and fermenting for one month by using a plastic film.
5. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limosum as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that: in the step (6), the nutrient soil is prepared by adopting the following method: according to the sawdust ratio: river sand: and adding organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer into the grass peat = (3-4): (1-2): 1 mass ratio, fully mixing, and covering and fermenting for one month by using a plastic film.
6. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limonum according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: in the step (6), the stahly which is 1000 times that of the cutting slips is watered every 7-10 days after the cutting slips are cut for 1 month; the transplanted plant row spacing is 3-10 cm multiplied by 3-10 cm.
7. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limonum according to claim 3, wherein: in the step (6), the stahly which is 1000 times that of the cutting slips is watered every 7-10 days after the cutting slips are cut for 1 month; the transplanted plant row spacing is 3-10 cm multiplied by 3-10 cm.
8. The rapid cutting propagation method of Citrus limonum according to claim 4, wherein: in the step (6), the stahly which is 1000 times that of the cutting slips is watered every 7-10 days after the cutting slips are cut for 1 month; the transplanted plant row spacing is 3-10 cm multiplied by 3-10 cm.
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