CN109699407B - Facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon non-specific area early-maturing promoting cultivation technology - Google Patents

Facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon non-specific area early-maturing promoting cultivation technology Download PDF

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CN109699407B
CN109699407B CN201910178299.2A CN201910178299A CN109699407B CN 109699407 B CN109699407 B CN 109699407B CN 201910178299 A CN201910178299 A CN 201910178299A CN 109699407 B CN109699407 B CN 109699407B
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seedling
small
seeds
fruit
planting
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CN109699407A (en
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王宇楠
穆志新
郭尚
秦慧彬
李萌
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Agricultural Gene Resources Research Center Of Shanxi Agricultural University
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INSTITUTE OF CROP GERMPLASM RESOURCES SHANXI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of greenhouse watermelon cultivation, in particular to a facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon non-specific area early ripening promoting cultivation technology. A ditch can be formed at the concave part in the middle of the ridge through the M-shaped ridge, so that watering is facilitated, water can be ensured to permeate around the root system, and the water utilization rate is improved; after field planting and before the seedlings break the film, the black and white color film can effectively shorten the seedling recovery time; the vegetative growth period of the melon vines can be shortened by two layers of arched sheds; the number of seedlings planted per mu can be increased by hanging the vines in a V shape, and reasonable close planting is realized; the double topping technology is adopted, topping is carried out for the first time, and effective fruiting lateral branches are promoted to be formed; after the second topping is carried out on the fruit, the melon vines grow to the positions where vine iron wires are hung, and the growth vigor of the melon vines can be controlled; when the multifunctional picking machine is used as a picking project, non-woven fabric mulching films are paved between planting rows, so that tourists can watch and pick the multifunctional picking machine conveniently between rows. The method is adopted to plant the ultra-early-maturing small-fruit watermelons, about 1500 seedlings can be planted in each mu, 150 seedlings are more than those planted in the traditional mode, and the purposes of fully utilizing space and reasonably and densely planting are achieved.

Description

Facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon non-specific area early-maturing promoting cultivation technology
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of greenhouse small-fruit watermelon cultivation, in particular to a facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon non-specific area early maturing promoting cultivation technology.
Background
In summer, watermelon is a very popular summer-heat relieving fruit for people, and is an annual cranberry cucurbitaceae crop. Watermelon likes warm, strong light and dry climate, is not cold-resistant, has sweet pulp taste, and can cool and dispel summer heat. It has strong adaptability, but is best to be sandy soil with loose soil, deep soil layer and good drainage. The watermelon pulp is rich in potassium element, can be neutralized with sodium salt, has obvious blood pressure lowering effect, contains citrulline and arginine, and can promote urination; the lycopene and beta-carotene contained in the watermelon are high, and can resist cancer and oxidation, and the contained amino acids such as citrulline, alanine, glutamic acid and the like can nourish and whiten the skin.
The small fruit watermelon is taken as a gift watermelon, and is very early-maturing, good in quality, high in yield, short in period and popular with watermelon farmers and consumers due to small size (1.5-2 kg). In addition, the time of the small-fruit watermelon to appear on the market is 1-2 months earlier than that of the large watermelon, so that the income of farmers can be improved; because of the ornamental and recreational properties, the small watermelon is also often used as a leisure picking project in suburb agriculture, so that farmers obtain greater benefits.
At present, the planting technology of the watermelon is mature, for example: the patent numbers are: the invention patent of CN103782757A discloses a planting method of high-quality mini watermelons, which can produce high-quality and high-yield mini watermelons by improving fertilizers and planting methods, but does not well solve the problems of accelerating early ripening, close planting and picking in suburb agriculture of the mini watermelons.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a facility-dedicated small fruit type watermelon non-specific area early maturing promoting cultivation technology, which comprises the steps of ridging in an M shape; planting in single ridge and single row; topping for two times; a black-and-white color film; double mulching; the improvement of the inter-row non-woven fabric film and other technologies realizes the early maturity, high quality and picking of the small fruit watermelon planted in the greenhouse in early spring.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
the early maturing promoting cultivation technology for the non-specific area of the facility-dedicated small fruit type watermelons comprises the following steps:
s1, variety selection: selecting new seeds which are early-maturing, good in quality, strong in disease resistance and produced in the last year for planting; so as to reduce the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests, reduce the use of pesticides and improve the fruit quality;
s2, preparing a seedbed: selecting a planting groove with the depth of 20cm vertically dug in a region with higher temperature in a greenhouse, leveling the bottom surface of the planting groove to be used as a seedbed, wherein the length and the width of the seedbed are determined according to the number of seedlings and are generally rectangular;
s3, paving a ground heating wire: respectively inserting a row of short wood rods with the length of 10-20cm at two sides of the seedbed, wherein the distance between the short wood rods in the same row is 10-20cm, winding geothermal wires on the two rows of short wood rods in an S-shaped sequence to enable the geothermal wires to be tightly attached to the ground and straightened, then covering a layer of sandy soil on the geothermal wires, pulling out the short wood rods, and connecting the geothermal wires to a power wire on a controller;
s4, preparing a seedling culture medium: mixing garden soil, grass peat, vermiculite and perlite according to the ratio of 5:2:1:2, and meanwhile, adding a rooting agent and carbendazim into a matrix; uniformly mixing the prepared substrates, putting the substrates into black seedling pots with the size of 9cm multiplied by 9cm, and putting the seedling pots with the substrates in a seedbed in order;
s5, seed disinfection: soaking the seeds in the S1 in a potassium permanganate solution with the concentration of 0.2-0.4% for 20-30min, and then cleaning the seeds; or soaking the seeds in 60 deg.C hot water for 10-20min, and stirring to room temperature; the disinfection can reduce the occurrence of diseases of seeds in the seedling stage, and particularly reduce the occurrence of damping-off in the seedling stage;
s6, swelling and water absorption: soaking the disinfected seeds in warm water for 6-8h to ensure that the seeds fully absorb water;
s7, pregermination: wrapping the seeds which are subjected to imbibition and water absorption in the step S6 with wet gauze or wet towels, wrapping a layer of plastic bag outside the seeds to prevent water from losing, placing the seeds in an environment at 28-30 ℃, observing every 2 hours or so, turning over the seeds, cleaning mucus on the surfaces of the seeds and the wet cloth so as to exchange fresh air and prevent bacteria from breeding, and turning over the seeds carefully in the cleaning process so that primary radicles cannot be broken until the seeds slightly grow white radicles, thereby completing germination acceleration of the seeds; the embryo is not too long and only white and sharp points are exposed, so that the seeds have strong growth vigor after being sowed, the sowing is convenient, and the radicle is not easy to break;
s8, watering a seedbed: one day before seeding, thoroughly watering the seedling pots in the seedbed, and after underwater infiltration, completely covering the seedbed with a mulching film with a proper width, and tucking the periphery; the temperature and the humidity of the seedbed are improved, and the growth of seedlings is promoted;
s9, sowing: putting the seeds subjected to pregermination in the step S6 into seedling pots in the step S8, keeping the seedlings horizontally and downwards, sowing 1-2 seeds in each seedling pot, slightly taking the seeds to avoid breaking radicles, covering the surfaces of the sown seedling pots with wet fine sandy soil of about 1cm, continuously covering the surfaces of seedbeds with original transparent mulching films to improve the temperature of the seedbeds and closely observing the seedling emergence condition, and removing the mulching films in time when 70% of seedlings come out of the soil; the plastic film is torn off at a higher temperature in the morning on sunny days so as to avoid seedling flashing;
s10, seedling management: before seedling emergence, the temperature is kept at 25-30 ℃ in the daytime and 20-25 ℃ at night; after seedling emergence, keeping the soil temperature below 20 ℃, keeping the air temperature at 22-27 ℃ in the daytime and keeping the air temperature at 10-20 ℃ at night; after the seedling breaks the core and grows out true leaves, controlling the soil temperature to be 18-20 ℃, the air temperature in the daytime to be 25-28 ℃ and the air temperature at night to be 18-23 ℃ so as to facilitate the growth and development of the seedling; if the cotyledon is earthed with a cap, the seed case needs to be slightly carved when dew exists in the morning; when the seedling grows to 2-3 true leaves, the stem is thick and strong, the leaf color is dark green, the root system is developed, the main root is deep, the fibrous root is more than hypocotyl, and the diameter is 0.5cm, the seedling is an early-maturing high-yield strong seedling; the water content is strictly controlled during seedling management, and water is sprayed into seedling bowls once after most seedlings come out of the soil; hardening seedlings at 12-16 ℃ at night one week before field planting;
s11, land preparation and ridging: during seedling raising, deeply turning over the soil for 0.6M, smashing large soil blocks, forming ridges in the north-south direction to form an M shape, and respectively erecting two vine hanging iron wires above the double peaks of the M shape ridge in the north-south direction to align to the top ends of the double peaks;
s12, planting: one day before field planting, thoroughly watering the seedling pots, transplanting the early-maturing high-yield strong seedlings in the S10 to the lowest position in the middle of an M-shaped ridge in the morning of a fine day, planting one row in each ridge, wherein the seedling planting distance is 0.4M, watering is carried out on each row in time, when the moisture is completely infiltrated, stretching a black-white two-color film on each ridge, strictly aligning the seedlings in the film by transparent strips in the middle of the film, and digging holes between the seedlings so as to be breathable; when the top end of the seedling is about to reach the film height, digging a proper large hole in the mulching film in time to take out the seedling leaf of the seedling, compacting the periphery of the hypocotyl of the seedling by using broken soil, and sealing the edge of the mulching film;
s13, laying two layers of small arch sheds: after the seedlings sprout black-white color films, inserting two ends of an iron wire at two sides of the ridge respectively to form arches, wherein the iron wire arches are arranged at intervals of 0.5m, and transparent mulching films are erected on the iron wire arches to form a small heat-preservation arched shed; the plane formed by the arched iron wires can be vertical to the M-shaped ridges or inclined for 30-60 degrees; the small arched shed can effectively improve the air temperature and the ground temperature of the surrounding environment of the seedlings and promote the seedlings to rapidly root and the vegetative growth of the overground part; the double-layer film covering system can shorten the seedling revival time of seedlings, promote the seedlings to grow rapidly, shorten the vegetative growth period of the seedlings and promote the seedlings to bloom and bear fruits early;
s14, topping for the first time: when the seedling grows to 4-5 leaves, selecting a noon growing point to wilt, and removing the growing point of the seedling; promoting the formation of lateral branches of the watermelon, growing the lateral branches into effective vines of the watermelon, and preparing for the later-stage fruit setting and melon production;
s15, vine retention: reserving two side vines which are germinated after the top cutting of S14 and have stronger growth vigor and similar growth vigor, and removing the arched shed in time when the side vines grow to the height of the small arched shed; when the lateral vines grow to be about 30cm, the two vines can be hung by winding vine hanging lines, then the vine hanging lines are respectively fixed on the two iron wires above the ridges, after the vine hanging lines are hung, the two branches are V-shaped, when the small watermelon is in a vine extending period, the growth vigor of the small watermelon is vigorous, and vine binding needs to be carried out in time; tying the vines at the afternoon growing points when the tendrils are enough, and along the growing direction of the tendrils so as to prevent the growing points from being broken off;
s16, field management: (1) temperature: the temperature should be kept at 22-27 deg.C in daytime and 15-20 deg.C in night; the temperature in the reproductive growth period is controlled to be 25-30 ℃ in the daytime and 18-23 ℃ at night;
(2) illumination: opening the straw curtain or the cotton quilt in time every morning after the sun rises; putting down the cotton quilts in time before sunset in the afternoon; if the illumination is properly prolonged and the cloudy day is met, light is supplemented if necessary;
(3) fertilizing water: controlling fertilizer water in the flowering period, watering and topdressing in time after sitting melons, and re-applying the fertilizer water in the melon expansion period; in the vegetative growth period, fertilization is basically not needed, and water is poured once every 6 days or so; in the reproductive growth period, small water is poured once every 3 to 5 days; topdressing is carried out by using 20kg of cake fertilizer, 5kg of urea and 10kg of potassium sulfate in time; before harvesting, stopping watering to avoid fruit cracking, and reducing sugar content to influence fruit quality;
(4) gas: supplementing carbon dioxide at about 10 am if necessary to enhance photosynthesis; when the temperature in the greenhouse is too high in spring at noon, the top air port is opened in time and slightly cooled;
s17, pollination: when the female flowers are found to be open, pollinating at 7-10 am, picking the male flowers and removing the petals; directly smearing male flower pollen on the stigma of the female flower; meanwhile, the pollination date is clearly written on the mark plate and hung on the flower stem of the female flower, so that the pollination days can be calculated in the future, whether the flower stem is mature or not can be judged, and the picking is facilitated; within 3-5 days after pollination, when the ovary of the female flower is downward and the female flower is obviously expanded, the fruit can be confirmed to be seated;
s18, topping for the second time: after pollination, when the branches grow to the positions where the steel wires hang the vines and 5 leaves are used for maintaining the development of young fruits, secondary topping is carried out on the two vines for a proper time, and when topping is carried out, the growing points at the tail ends of the branches are twisted and pinched to be in a water stain shape;
s19, stay melon: one melon is reserved on one lateral branch, and pollination nodes of the reserved melon are basically similar; when the fruits grow to 500g, lifting the melons, when hanging the melons, drawing a traction rope out of iron wires above ridges to pull a net bag, and placing the melons in the net bag, wherein the net bag is reserved with a certain spare part so that the melons can grow ceaselessly;
s20, harvesting melons: calculating the fruit ripening time according to the time marked by the pollination date plate, wherein the early-ripening small-fruit watermelon ripens for 25-30 days; after the fruits are ripe, cutting the fruit stalks by using scissors for harvesting; after the fruits are harvested, the fruits are sleeved by using a foam plastic net so as to avoid bumps in the conveying and transporting process.
Furthermore, the greenhouse in the S2 is a greenhouse in which cucurbit crops are not planted in the last year, and is required to have good light transmittance, loose soil and deep soil layer.
Furthermore, the amount of the seedling pot substrate in the S4 is about 2cm away from the upper edge opening of the seedling pot.
Further, 5000kg of decomposed high-quality farmyard manure, 100kg of potassium sulfate, 100kg of cake fertilizer and 1kg of carbendazim are applied to each mu of the land in the deep ploughing process by the S11.
Further, the height of the double peak in the S11 is 0.2m, the planting line width is 0.9m, and the operation line width is 1.1 m.
Further, the watering depth in S12 may not be above the seedling growing point.
Further, the mulching film in the S12 is a black-white inter-color film, the middle strip of the mulching film is transparent, the two sides of the mulching film are black, the middle transparent part of the mulching film is strictly paved in alignment with the seedling planting rows, the mulching film is stretched and paved on the top ends of the two shoulders of the M-shaped ridge, and the edges of the film are compacted by soil. The black-white color film can effectively improve the temperature around the seedlings and the root system under the film and shorten the seedling revival time; and the operator can observe the growth state of the seedling conveniently and timely. When the top end of the seedling is about to reach the height of the mulching film, holes are timely dug to draw out the seedling, soil is compacted around the hypocotyl of the seedling, and the edge of the mulching film is sealed.
Further, in the S13, when the temperature of the small heat-preservation arched shed is too high in the daytime, the arched shed film can be removed.
Further, in the step S14, hands are disinfected by alcohol before growing points are removed, so that no diseases are carried on the fingers.
Furthermore, if the small watermelon is picked, a non-woven fabric film can be laid between the operation rows. The toilet can keep the toilet clean, and is convenient for tourists to get in and out of the toilet and pick watermelons; in addition, the non-woven fabric has certain functions of heat preservation, temperature increase and moisture absorption, so that the ground temperature is improved, and the humidity in the greenhouse is reduced; finally, the non-woven fabric film can be selected from various colors, and the laying of the color film can improve the ornamental value and the interest of picking in the greenhouse.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
the invention provides a facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon non-specific area early-maturing cultivation technology, a ditch can be formed at a concave position in the middle of a ridge through an M-shaped ridge, watering is facilitated, water can be guaranteed to permeate around a root system, and the water utilization rate is improved; after field planting and before seedling rupture, the black-white color film can form an effect similar to an arched shed in a short time, so that the ambient air temperature and ground temperature of the seedlings can be greatly improved, the seedling reviving time of the seedlings can be effectively shortened, and the timely development of root systems can be promoted; the two layers of arched sheds can play a role in heating and protecting after the film of the seedling is broken, promote the rapid growth of the plant, shorten the vegetative growth period of the melon vine and be beneficial to early melon bearing; the number of seedlings planted per mu can be increased through the V-shaped tendrils, reasonable close planting is realized, greenhouse soil and space are effectively utilized, and the yield is improved; the double topping technology is adopted, topping is carried out for the first time, and formation of two effective fruiting side branches is promoted; after the second topping is carried out on the fruit setting, the melon vines grow to the vine hanging iron wire, the growth vigor of the melon vines can be controlled, more nutrient components are promoted to flow into the melons, and the fruits are promoted to rapidly expand and develop; when the multifunctional tourist attraction tool is used as a picking project, the non-woven fabric mulching films are laid between planting rows, tourists can watch and pick the multifunctional tourist attraction tool conveniently between rows, cleanness and sanitation are achieved, and the ornamental value and the interestingness of a garden can be improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of greenhouse cultivation of a facility-dedicated fruitlet watermelon non-specific area early ripening promotion cultivation technology provided by the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the seedbed and the ground heat line.
In the figure: the seedling raising machine comprises an M-shaped ridge 1, a vine hanging line 2, a black-white color film 3, a small arched shed 4, two lateral vines 5, a seedbed 6, a stick 7, a ground heat line 8, a controller 9 and a seedling pot 10.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In the embodiment, the sowing time is 1 month and 15 days of the gregorian calendar, the field planting is carried out on 26 days of 2 months, and the pollination is carried out on 30 days of 3 months. Starting at 30 days 4 months, the fruit was ripened in batches. Picking or harvesting the small watermelons in the last 5 th month.
The early maturing promoting cultivation technology for the non-specific area of the facility-dedicated small fruit type watermelons comprises the following steps:
s1, variety selection: selecting new seeds which are early-maturing, good in quality, strong in disease resistance and produced in nearly one year for planting; so as to reduce the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests, reduce the use of pesticides and improve the fruit quality; four excellent varieties of Hongdaiyu, Jing Nei, Huangjing I and Jinshuai are selected, and the varieties and styles are shown in Table 1:
TABLE 1 watermelon species and characteristics
S2, preparing a seedbed: vertically excavating a planting groove with the length of 5m, the width of 2m and the depth of 0.2m in an area with relatively constant temperature in a greenhouse, as shown in figure 2, and leveling the bottom surface of the planting groove to form a seedbed 6;
s3, paving a ground heating wire: inserting a row of short wood rods 7 with the length of 15cm on each of two sides of the 5m long seedbed, wherein the distance between the short wood rods 7 in the same row is 10-20cm, winding a geothermal wire 8 on the two rows of short wood rods 7 in an S-shaped sequence as shown in figure 2, enabling the geothermal wire to be tightly attached to the ground and straightened, covering a layer of sandy soil on the geothermal wire 8, then pulling out the short wood rods 7, and electrically connecting the geothermal wire to a controller 9 to ensure the safety and stability of a power supply;
s4, preparing a seedling culture medium: mixing garden soil, grass peat, vermiculite and perlite according to the ratio of 5:2:1:2, and meanwhile, adding a rooting agent and carbendazim into a matrix; uniformly mixing the prepared substrates, putting the substrates into black seedling pots 10 with the size of 9cm multiplied by 9cm, and neatly putting the seedling pots 10 with the substrates into a seedling bed 6, wherein as shown in figure 2, the height of the seedling pots is lower than that of the seedling bed 6, and the amount of the substrates contained in the seedling pots 10 is 2cm away from the upper edge openings of the seedling pots 10;
s5, seed disinfection: soaking the seeds in the S1 in a potassium permanganate solution with the concentration of 0.2-0.4% for 20-30min, and then cleaning the seeds; or soaking the seeds in 60 deg.C hot water for about 15min, and stirring to room temperature;
s6, swelling and water absorption: soaking the disinfected seeds in warm water for 6-8h to ensure that the seeds fully absorb water;
s7, pregermination: wrapping the seeds which are imbibed and absorbed with water in the S6 with wet gauze or wet towel, wrapping a layer of plastic bag outside the seeds to prevent water from losing, placing the seeds in an environment with the temperature of 28-30 ℃, observing every 2 hours or so, turning the seeds, and cleaning mucus on the surfaces of the seeds and the wet cloth so as to exchange fresh air until the seeds slightly grow white radicles, thereby completing the germination acceleration of the seeds;
s8, watering a seedbed: one day before seeding, thoroughly watering the seedling pots in the seedbed, and after underwater infiltration, completely covering the seedbed with a mulching film with a proper width, and tucking the periphery;
s9, sowing: gently taking out the seeds subjected to pregermination in the step S6 by using tweezers, putting the seeds into seedling pots in a step S8, sowing 1-2 seeds in each seedling pot, horizontally placing the seedlings downwards, covering the surfaces of the sowed seedling pots with about 1cm of wet fine sand, keeping the temperature of a geothermic line at about 20 ℃, continuously covering the surfaces of seedbeds with the original transparent mulching films, closely observing the seedling emergence condition, and timely removing the mulching films when 70% of seedlings come out of soil; the plastic film is removed at a higher temperature in the morning on sunny days;
s10, seedling management: before seedling emergence, the temperature is kept at 25-30 ℃ in the daytime and 20-25 ℃ at night; after seedling emergence, keeping the soil temperature below 20 ℃, keeping the air temperature at 22-27 ℃ in the daytime and keeping the air temperature at 18-20 ℃ at night; after the seedling breaks the core and grows out true leaves, controlling the soil temperature to be 18-20 ℃, the air temperature in the daytime to be 25-28 ℃ and the air temperature at night to be 18-23 ℃; if the cotyledon is earthed with a cap, the seed case needs to be slightly carved when dew exists in the morning; when the seedling grows to 2-3 true leaves, the stem is thick and strong, the leaf color is dark green, the root system is developed, the main root is deep and the fibrous root is more, and the diameter of the hypocotyl is about 0.5cm, the seedling is an early-maturing high-yield strong seedling; the water content is strictly controlled during seedling management, and water is sprayed into seedling bowls once after most seedlings come out of the soil; spraying 300-500 times of chlorothalonil solution if necessary to prevent diseases such as seedling damping-off, anthracnose and the like; hardening seedlings at 12-16 ℃ at night one week before field planting; the seedling management temperature control in this example is shown in table 2:
TABLE 2 seedling stage management temperature
S11, land preparation and ridging: deeply turning over the soil by 0.6M, beating and crushing large soil blocks, and commonly applying a base fertilizer, wherein as shown in figure 1, the ridge forming in the north-south direction is of an M shape, the height of the double peaks is 0.2M, the width of a planting row is 0.9cm, the width of an operating row is 1.1cm, a in figure 1 is the planting row, b is the operating row, and two vine hanging iron wires 2 are respectively erected in the north-south direction above the double peaks of the M-shaped ridge 1 and are aligned to the top ends of the double peaks; applying 5000kg of decomposed high-quality farmyard manure, 100kg of potassium sulfate, 100kg of cake fertilizer and 1kg of carbendazim per mu in the deep ploughing process;
s12, planting: watering the seedling pots thoroughly one day before field planting, transplanting the early-maturing high-yield strong seedlings in the S10 to the lowest position in the middle of the M-shaped ridge 1 in the morning of a sunny day, planting one row in each ridge, wherein the seedling spacing is 0.4M, watering is carried out in time in each row for planting, and the watering depth cannot exceed the seedling growing point; when the water is completely infiltrated, laying mulching films on the row in time; when the top end of the seedling is about to reach the membrane height, holes are timely dug to take out the seedling, soil is compacted around the hypocotyl of the seedling by broken soil, and the edge of the mulching film 3 is sealed; the mulching film 3 adopts a black-white interphase film, the middle transparent part of the mulching film 3 is strictly paved in alignment with the seedling planting rows, the mulching film 3 is spread on the top ends of two shoulders of the M-shaped ridge 1 in a stretching way, and as shown in figure 1, the edges of the film are compacted by soil; when the top end of the seedling is about to reach the membrane height, timely digging holes to draw out the seedling, compacting the seedling by using broken soil around a hypocotyl of the seedling, and sealing edges of the mulching film;
s13, laying two layers of small arch sheds: after the seedlings sprout black-white color films, two ends of a No. 8 iron wire are respectively inserted at two sides of the ridge to form arches, the iron wire arches are arranged at intervals of 0.5m, and transparent mulching films are erected on the iron wire arches to form a small heat-preservation arched shed 4; the two layers of arch films can be removed when the temperature is too high in the daytime;
s14, topping for the first time: when the seedling grows to 4-5 leaves, selecting a noon growing point to wilt, and removing the growing point of the seedling; disinfecting with alcohol before removing the growing point to ensure no disease on the finger;
s15, vine retention: reserving two lateral vines which are germinated after the top cutting of S14 and have strong growth vigor and similar growth vigor, and removing the arched shed in time when the lateral vines grow to the height of the small arched shed; when the lateral vines grow to about 30cm, the two vines 5 can be wound around vine hanging lines and hung up, the vine hanging lines are fixed on the two iron wires above the ridges respectively, after being hung up, the two vines are in a V shape, and the V-shaped surface is vertically transversely cut to the M-shaped ridges 1 as shown in fig. 1; when the small watermelon is in the vine extending period, the growth vigor of the small watermelon is vigorous, and the small watermelon needs to be tied with vines in time; tying the vines at a later-than-noon growing point when the vines are enough, wherein the tendrils are required to be tied along the growing direction;
s16, field management: (1) temperature: the temperature should be kept at 22-27 deg.C in daytime and 15-20 deg.C in night; the temperature in the reproductive growth period is controlled to be 25-30 ℃ in the daytime and 18-23 ℃ at night;
(2) illumination: opening the straw curtain or the cotton quilt in time every morning after the sun rises; putting down the cotton quilts in time before sunset in the afternoon; if the illumination is properly prolonged and the cloudy day is met, light is supplemented if necessary;
(3) fertilizing water: controlling fertilizer water in the flowering period, watering and topdressing in time after sitting melons, and re-applying the fertilizer water in the melon expansion period; in the vegetative growth period, fertilizer is not needed basically, and water is poured once every 6 days or so; in the reproductive growth period (after fruit setting), small water is poured once every 3 to 5 days; topdressing is carried out by using 20kg of cake fertilizer, 5kg of urea and 10kg of potassium sulfate in time; before harvesting, stopping watering to avoid fruit cracking, and reducing sugar content to influence fruit quality;
(4) gas: supplementing carbon dioxide at about 10 am if necessary to enhance photosynthesis; when the temperature in the greenhouse is too high in spring at noon, the top air port is opened in time and slightly cooled;
s17, pollination: when the female flowers are found to be open, pollinating at 7-10 am, picking the male flowers and removing the petals; and the pollen of the male flower is directly smeared on the stigma of the female flower. Meanwhile, the pollination date is clearly written on the mark plate and hung on the flower stem of the female flower, so that the pollination days can be calculated in the future, and the picking is facilitated;
s18, topping for the second time: after pollination, selecting proper time to carry out secondary topping on the two melons when the branches grow to the positions where the steel wires hang the vines and 5 leaves are used for maintaining the development of young fruits, and twisting and pinching the growing points at the tail ends of the branches to be in a water stain shape when topping is carried out;
s19, stay melon: one melon is reserved on one lateral branch, and pollination nodes of the reserved melon are basically similar; when the fruits grow to 500g, the melons are lifted; when the melons are hung, a traction rope is led out from iron wires above the ridges again to pull the net bag, and the melons are arranged in the net bag which is reserved with a certain amount of spare space;
s20, harvesting melons: when the fruit grows to 25-30 days, the time hangtag at the melon stalk is checked in time, and the growth condition of the fruit is observed; the early-maturing small-fruit watermelons in the present example were pollinated to maturity for about 28 days; after the fruit is ripe, the fruit stalks are cut off by scissors for harvesting.
In this example, a greenhouse in which cucurbits were not planted in the previous year was used, and the greenhouse was required to have good light transmittance, loose soil and deep soil.
In this embodiment, if the small watermelon is picked, a non-woven membrane can be laid in the middle of each ridge. The toilet can keep the toilet clean, and is convenient for tourists to get in and out of the toilet and pick watermelons; in addition, the non-woven fabric has certain functions of heat preservation, temperature increase and moisture absorption, so that the ground temperature is improved, and the humidity in the greenhouse is reduced; finally, the non-woven fabric film can be selected from various colors, and the laying of the color film can improve the ornamental value and the interest of picking in the greenhouse.
In this example, the experiments were divided into A, B, C, D four groups:
A. b, C, D the test areas of the four groups are 1 mu, A, B the sunlight greenhouse, half of the sunlight greenhouse is picked as tourists, and half of the sunlight greenhouse is sold as farmers after self-picking. C. D is an open field, and all the D is used for self-collection and sale of farmers. A. B, C, D the four test fields are adjacent, the planting conditions are similar, and the fertilizer and water conditions are the same.
A: the method of the embodiment is adopted for planting and managing the ultra-early small-fruit watermelons;
b: the traditional small-fruit watermelon is planted in a greenhouse with the small-fruit watermelon hung in the greenhouse by a traditional method, namely: ridging is carried out in a common mode of farmers, and single-ridge double-row planting is carried out; secondly, only removing redundant lateral branches without topping; reserving two tendrils of a main tendrils and side branches, wherein the two tendrils are hung on an iron wire at the top end of the ridge, artificial pollination is carried out, melons are naturally reserved, and one melon is reserved on each of the main tendrils and the side tendrils; fourthly, only covering a black mulching film;
c: early-maturing large watermelons, raising seedlings in a greenhouse in early spring, planting the watermelons in a large field, and climbing vines for cultivation;
d: traditional watermelon is directly sowed in field and cultured by climbing tendrils.
The cultivars are shown in Table 3, yield vs. yield:
TABLE 3 plant species
TABLE 4 comparison of yields
TABLE 5 comparison of economic benefits for different planting patterns
Although only the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail, the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and various changes can be made without departing from the spirit of the present invention within the knowledge of those skilled in the art, and all changes are encompassed in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The method for promoting the early maturing of the small-fruit watermelon special for facilities is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
s1, variety selection: selecting new seeds which are early-maturing, good in quality, strong in disease resistance and produced in nearly one year for planting;
s2, preparing a seedbed: vertically digging a planting groove with the depth of 20cm in a high-temperature area in a greenhouse, and leveling the bottom surface of the planting groove to serve as a seedbed;
s3, paving a ground heating wire: respectively inserting a row of short wood rods with the length of 10-20cm at two sides of the seedbed, wherein the distance between the short wood rods in the same row is 10-20cm, winding geothermal wires on the two rows of short wood rods in an S-shaped sequence to enable the geothermal wires to be tightly attached to the ground and straightened, then covering a layer of sandy soil on the geothermal wires, pulling out the short wood rods, and electrically connecting the geothermal wires to a controller;
s4, preparing a seedling culture medium: mixing garden soil, grass peat, vermiculite and perlite according to the ratio of 5:2:1:2, and meanwhile, adding a rooting agent and carbendazim into a matrix; uniformly mixing the prepared substrates, putting the substrates into black seedling pots with the size of 9cm multiplied by 9cm, and putting the seedling pots with the substrates in a seedbed in order;
s5, seed disinfection: soaking the seeds in the S1 in a potassium permanganate solution with the concentration of 0.2-0.4% for 20-30min, and then cleaning the seeds; or soaking the seeds in 60 deg.C hot water for 10-20min, and stirring to room temperature;
s6, swelling and water absorption: soaking the disinfected seeds in warm water for 6-8h to ensure that the seeds fully absorb water;
s7, pregermination: wrapping the seeds which are imbibed and absorbed with water in the S6 with wet gauze or wet towel, wrapping a layer of plastic bag outside the seeds to prevent water from losing, placing the seeds in an environment of 28-30 ℃, observing every 2 hours, turning over the seeds, and cleaning mucus on the surfaces of the seeds and the wet towel until the seeds slightly grow white radicles, thereby completing germination acceleration of the seeds;
s8, watering a seedbed: one day before sowing seeds, thoroughly watering seedling pots in the seedbed, completely covering the seedbed with a mulching film with a proper width after underwater penetration, and tucking the periphery;
s9, sowing: placing the seeds subjected to pregermination in the S6 with the bud tips downward horizontally, placing the seeds into seedling pots in the S8, sowing 1-2 seeds in each seedling pot, covering 1cm of wet fine sandy soil on the surfaces of the sowed seedling pots, then continuously covering the surfaces of seedbeds with the original transparent mulching films, and removing the mulching films when 70% of seedlings come out of the soil; the plastic film is removed at a higher temperature in the morning on sunny days;
s10, seedling management: before seedling emergence, the temperature is kept at 25-30 ℃ in the daytime and 20-25 ℃ at night; after seedling emergence, keeping the soil temperature below 20 ℃, keeping the air temperature at 22-27 ℃ in the daytime and keeping the air temperature at 10-20 ℃ at night; after the seedling breaks the core and grows out true leaves, controlling the soil temperature to be 18-20 ℃, the air temperature in the daytime to be 25-28 ℃ and the air temperature at night to be 18-23 ℃; if the cotyledon is earthed with a cap, the seed case needs to be slightly carved when dew exists in the morning; when the seedling grows to 2-3 true leaves, the stem is thick and strong, the leaf color is dark green, the root system is developed, the main root is deep and the fibrous root is more, and the diameter of the hypocotyl is 0.5cm, the seedling is an early-maturing high-yield strong seedling; the water content is strictly controlled during seedling management, and water is sprayed into seedling bowls once after most seedlings come out of the soil; controlling the temperature at 12-16 ℃ at night one week before planting, and hardening seedlings;
s11, land preparation and ridging: during seedling raising, deeply turning over the soil for 0.6M, smashing large soil blocks, forming ridges in the south-north direction to form an M shape, and respectively erecting two vine hanging iron wires in the south-north direction above the double peaks of the M-shaped ridges to align to the top ends of the double peaks;
s12, planting: one day before field planting, thoroughly watering the seedling pots; in the morning of sunny days, after removing the seedling pots of the early-maturing high-yield strong seedlings in the S10, transplanting the seedlings together with the matrix in the seedling pots to the lowest position in the middle of the M-shaped ridges, planting one line in each ridge, wherein the seedling spacing is 0.4M, watering is carried out on each planting line in time, when the moisture is completely infiltrated, stretching the black-white double-color film on the ridges, strictly aligning transparent strips in the middle of the film with the seedlings in the row, and digging proper large and small holes between the seedlings for ventilation; when the top end of the seedling is about to reach the membrane height, timely digging holes to draw out the seedling, compacting the seedling by using broken soil around a hypocotyl of the seedling, and sealing edges of the mulching film;
s13, laying two layers of small arch sheds: after the seedlings sprout black-white color films, inserting two ends of an iron wire at two sides of the ridge respectively to form arched iron wires, wherein the arched iron wires are arranged at intervals of 0.5m, and transparent mulching films are erected on the arched iron wires to form a small heat-preservation arched shed;
s14, topping for the first time: when the seedling grows to 4-5 leaves, selecting a noon growing point to wilt, and removing the growing point of the seedling;
s15, vine retention: reserving two side vines which are germinated after the top cutting of S14 and have strong growth vigor and similar growth vigor, and removing the small shed in time when the side vines grow to the height of the small shed; when the lateral vines grow to 30cm, the two vines can be hung up along the tendril hanging lines, then the tendril hanging lines are fixed on the two iron wires above the ridges respectively, after the tendrils are hung up, the two branches are V-shaped, when the small watermelon is in the vine extending period, the growth vigor of the small watermelon is vigorous, and the tendrils are bound in time; binding tendrils in the afternoon and along the growth direction;
s16, field management: (1) temperature: the temperature should be kept at 22-27 deg.C in daytime and 15-20 deg.C in night; the temperature in the reproductive growth period is controlled to be 25-30 ℃ in the daytime and 18-23 ℃ at night;
(2) illumination: opening the straw curtain or the cotton quilt in time every morning after the sun rises; putting down the cotton quilts in time before sunset in the afternoon; appropriately prolonging the illumination, if meeting cloudy days, supplementing light;
(3) fertilizing water: controlling fertilizer water in the flowering period, watering and topdressing in time after sitting melons, and re-applying the fertilizer water in the melon expansion period; in the vegetative growth period, no additional fertilizer is needed, and water is poured once every 6 days; in the reproductive growth period, small water is poured once every 3 to 5 days; topdressing is carried out by using 20kg of cake fertilizer, 5kg of urea and 10kg of potassium sulfate in time; before harvesting, stopping watering to avoid fruit cracking, and reducing sugar content to influence fruit quality;
(4) gas: carbon dioxide supplementation at 10 am to enhance photosynthesis; when the temperature in the greenhouse is too high in spring at noon, the top air opening is opened in time;
s17, pollination: when the female flowers are found to be opened, pollination is carried out at 7-10 am; picking up male flowers and removing petals of the male flowers during pollination; directly smearing male flower pollen on the stigma of the female flower; meanwhile, the pollination date is clearly written on the mark plate and hung on the flower stem of the female flower, so that the pollination days can be calculated in the future, and the picking is facilitated;
s18, topping for the second time: after pollination, when the branches grow to the positions where the steel wire vine hanging lines are arranged and 5 leaves are provided to maintain the development of young fruits, carrying out secondary topping on the two melon vines, and twisting and pinching the growing points at the tail ends of the branches to be in a water stain shape during topping;
s19, stay melon: one melon is reserved on one lateral branch, and pollination nodes of the reserved melon are basically similar; when the fruits grow to 500g, lifting the melons, and when hanging the melons, drawing a traction rope out of iron wires above ridges to pull a net bag, and placing the melons in the net bag, wherein a certain amount of spare parts are reserved in the net bag;
s20, harvesting melons: calculating the fruit ripening time according to the time marked by the pollination date plate, wherein the early-maturing small-fruit watermelon ripens 25-30 days after pollination; after the fruit is ripe, the fruit stalks are cut off by scissors for harvesting.
2. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the S2, a greenhouse in which cucurbits crops are not planted in the last year is adopted, and the greenhouse is required to have good light transmittance, loose soil and deep soil layer.
3. The facility-dedicated small-fruit watermelon early maturing cultivation technology according to claim 1, characterized in that: the amount of the substrate filled in the seedling pot in the S4 is 2cm away from the upper edge opening of the seedling pot.
4. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: and in the deep ploughing process, 5000kg of decomposed high-quality farmyard manure, 100kg of potassium sulfate, 100kg of cake fertilizer and 1kg of carbendazim are applied to each mu of land by the S11.
5. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: the height of the double peaks in the S11 is 0.2m, the planting line width is 0.9m, and the operation line width is 1.1 m.
6. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: the watering depth in said S12 may not be above the seedling growing point.
7. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: the mulching film in the S12 is a black-and-white color film, the middle transparent part of the mulching film in the S12 is paved in a mode of strictly aligning with seedling planting rows, the mulching film is spread on the top ends of two shoulders of the M-shaped ridge in a stretched mode, and the edges of the mulching film are compacted through soil.
8. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: and in the S13, the film of the small heat-preservation arched shed can be removed when the temperature is too high in the daytime.
9. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: and in the S14, before the growing point is removed, the hand is disinfected by alcohol, so that the finger is ensured to be carried without diseases.
10. The facility-dedicated early maturing cultivation method for small fruit watermelons according to claim 1, characterized in that: if the small watermelon is picked, a non-woven fabric film can be paved in the middle of each ridge.
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