CN109328830A - A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method - Google Patents

A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109328830A
CN109328830A CN201811320914.0A CN201811320914A CN109328830A CN 109328830 A CN109328830 A CN 109328830A CN 201811320914 A CN201811320914 A CN 201811320914A CN 109328830 A CN109328830 A CN 109328830A
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China
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branch
bud
pericarpium zanthoxyli
zanthoxyli schinifolii
year
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CN201811320914.0A
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Inventor
李章华
黄英
訾昌相
李章兰
张宁
吕大勇
马鑫
曹成
吴天伦
刘平举
石春富
苏龙庆
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Forestry Bureau Of Zhaoyang District Of Zhaotong
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Forestry Bureau Of Zhaoyang District Of Zhaotong
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Priority to CN201811320914.0A priority Critical patent/CN109328830A/en
Publication of CN109328830A publication Critical patent/CN109328830A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding methods, it is the following steps are included: step 1, moisturizing of watering;Step 2, the useless germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position is removed;Step 3, imposing in due course for branch fertilizer is urged;Step 4, trimming and picking;Step 5, the prevention and treatment of disease pest fungus damage;Step 6, foliage dressing;Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out;Step 8, branch layer is drawn;Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning;Step 10, pinching is pinched;Step 11, except long comb is close;A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method of the invention is suitble to the pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii planted, and cultivated in High aititude dry-hot valley get bumper crops, is high-quality, efficient.

Description

A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method
Technical field
The present invention relates to arable farming field more particularly to a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding methods.
Background technique
Pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii category shrub, it is 1-2 meters high.Stem branch has short thorn, pierces base portion two sides flattening shape, the dark violet red of spray.Bark is dark Grey, more prickles are hairless.Leaf has leaflet 7-19 piece, and leaflet papery, there are few handles, positioned at the normal alternate of rachis base portion;The long 1- of petiole 3 millimeters, leaf width ovum shape lanceolar or wealthy ovate diamond shape are 5-10 millimeters long, 4-6 millimeters wide, and top is as short as tapering, base portion circle or wide Wedge shape, two sides are symmetrical, sometimes side deflection, and oil drop is more or unobvious;There is the visible thin undercoat or hairy under magnifying glass on blade face Convex body, leaf margin have checking tooth or are bordering on full edge, and slot has grey cyan below gland point, sparsely grow gland point;Rachis has narrow wing, have it is sparse and Small prickle slightly upwardly.
Umbrella room shape panicle, basidixed are 3-8 centimetres long;Spend small and more, cyan, unisexuality, sepal and equal 5, petal;Petal Yellowish white is about 2 millimeters.Female flower has carpel 3-5.Mericarp bronzing, dimmed verdant or brown-black after doing, diameter 4-5 milli Rice, there are few awns point, oil drop is small on top;3-4 millimeters of seed diameter.Endocarp is faint yellow, is often separated by base portion with exosper and inside Warp, fragrance is dense, and taste is numb and lasting.The month at florescence 7-9, the fruiting period 9-12 month.
Number of patent application: 201810001855.4, disclose a kind of planting patterns for downgrading pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii, including following step Rapid: S1. plant, selection are planted on the free of contamination underfall in existing rural area or half tailo, the row when soil property is hard Away from being 3 meters, 3 meters of spacing in the rows, line-spacing when the soil is porous is 2-2.5 meters, 2-3 meters of spacing in the rows;S2. pruning, trimming standard are to work as The height of Chinese pricklyash reaches 80 centimetres or more, and the Chinese pricklyash of different phase takes different pruning methods;S3. it applies fertilizer, in Chinese prickly ash Seedling period is set, uses and applies fertilizer every year nine times containing nitrogen, phosphorus, K composite fertilizer, annual to apply fertilizer three times after adult, S4. disease Worm prevention and treatment;The implantation methods of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii of the present invention, selection carry out plant Chinese green prickly ash peel in the good soil of drainage, pass through The planting density of science, shaping, trimming, fertilising, weeding and disease pest prevention so that planting resulting Chinese pricklyash with disease-resistant energy Power is strong, the speed of growth is fast, annual output is high, labor intensive resource is few, picking is convenient.
But the above method is only applicable in the plantation for downgrading pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii, and height above sea level 300m~1800m's of Zhaotong County, Yunnan is wide Big dry-hot valley, height above sea level height difference is prominent, and Stereoscopic weather is obvious, and rainfall is relatively fewer and distribution is extremely uneven, xeothermic phenomenon Extremely serious, soil types is abundant, causes the high-yield cultivating administrative skill of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii cannot be with the non-xeothermic river in Chongqing and Sichuan Paddy area mutually duplicates.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to solve the shortcomings of the prior art and providing a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year Breeding method is suitble to the pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii planted, and cultivated in High aititude dry-hot valley get bumper crops, is high-quality, efficient.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions.
A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method, it the following steps are included:
1. a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method, it is characterised in that: it the following steps are included:
Step 1, watering moisturizing: moisturizing is poured for pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree;
Step 2, it removes the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position: in 3~June, removing the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position;
Step 3, it urges imposing for branch fertilizer: in mid-July~by the end of August, picking to impose in preceding 1~5 day in pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii and urge branch fertilizer;
Step 4, trimming and picking: taking harvesting beta pruning integrated method, retain it is new sprout branch, in top 0.2 must be stayed Fruitful branch is wiped out at~0.3cm, and cuts off the fruitful branch in tree crown, crossing branch, overlapping branch, sick branch, slim and frahile branch and withered Branch selects and remain vigorous branches, and cultivating new hair branch is coming year fruitful branch;
Step 5, desinsection, fungicide the prevention and treatment of disease pest, fungus damage: are sprayed after Chinese prickly ash tree-pruning and picking;
Step 6, foliage dressing: every 7~10 days, with 20~30 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that mass percent concentration is 98% Being added to mass percent concentration is to mix in 0.5% urea liquid, is spraying, is sprayed 3~5 times altogether;
Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out: carrying out bud picking when branch germination and growth is to 5~10cm, keep the different direction of each end of the branch equal The healthy and strong young shoot of even layout, erases extra young shoot, is adjusted when newly slightly growing to 30cm according to space distribution situation, that is, removes shadow Ring the weak branch of space uniform distribution;
Step 8, draw branch layer: at the beginning of early September~10 month, general is upright, spreading angle is small or branch unevenly distributed, adopts Changed its Spatial Distribution Pattern with the method for drawing, support, pressure it is made to be evenly distributed;
Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning: mid-September~early October, and width is excavated centered on tree crown drip and is 30cm~40cm, the annular fertilization ditch that depth is 25cm~30cm excavate horizontal fertilising in its two sides centered on tree crown drip Ditch, while the root system of digging injury is wiped out, after 300~800 times of dilution 1L of triadimefon of dressing furrow sprinkling 15%, every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii Well-rotted farmyard manure 5kg~20kg, compound fertilizer 100g~300g, phosphate fertilizer 1kg~2.5kg, bacterial manure 100g~500g are applied, is used after fertilising Rake mixes in insertion soil, and blinding is steady and sure, sprinkles profoundly water;
Step 10, pinching is pinched: after limb top stops growing, plucking 2cm~5cm of the non-lignifying part of treetop;
Step 11, except long comb is close: in 1~2 month of the coming year, cutting off nutrition branch, intersection and the branch of overlapping part, reservation and work as The vigorous branches that year sprouts;
Before the useless germinating bud for removing fruitful branch upper position in the step 2, when fruitful branch base portion germinating bud amount reaches When less than demand, vernalization growth promoting is needed;
The method of the vernalization growth promoting the following steps are included:
Step a, carves bud: annual late May is to using knife at 0.2~0.3cm above the resting bud for needing long shoot by the end of June Crosscutting or cut 1~2 knife, incision length is no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, and notch depth reaches xylem;
Step b applies bud: dipping in branching promoter for plant or hair branch element with writing brush in mid-May to early June, is equably applied to needs On the axillary bud of sprouting or kryptoblast sprout;
Step c, it is spraying: in late May to using 5 grams of brassin lactones by the end of July and include benzyl mass percent concentration 1.8% Aminoadenine, mass percent concentration 1.8% gibberellic acid 65ml solution be made into 40 jin of mixed liquors carry out spraying 2~ 3 times or added mixed solution spraying 2~3 times or with amino containing benzyl of the urea of mass percent concentration 3% with 1mg/L triacontanol Adenine 900ppm, gibberellin 48pmm, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 5ppm mixed liquor spray 2~3 times;
The release that branch fertilizer is urged in the step 3 is to dig depth every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii two sides as 20~40cm, and width is 30~50cm Dressing furrow, every plant is applied 100~300 grams of urea, 300~1000 grams of proportion spirit, 100~500 grams of methane liquid or bacterial manure plus calcium and magnesium 1000~1500 grams of phosphate fertilizer.
Further, quarter bud described in the step a, is that notch is carved into rectangle, and the width of notch is 0.2 centimetre, long No more than the 1/2 of branch thick.
Further, the quarter bud in the step a, be notch is carved into it is crescent.
Further, being sprayed in the step c, the spraying amount of spraying are to spray 35~40kg per acre.
A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method of the invention, is suitble in High aititude dry-hot valley kind The pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii planted, and cultivated gets bumper crops, is high-quality, efficient.
Specific embodiment
Below with reference to embodiment, the present invention will be further described, but is not limited to the content on specification.
A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method, by for Zhaotong is planted, it the following steps are included:
By taking Zhaotong Prefecture is planted as an example:
Step 1, watering moisturizing, such as the River Valley Region normality spring drought in Zhaotong are usually heavier, therefore actively build small Type drought resisting facility (small water cellar etc.) is the key that alleviate spring drought solution Chinese pricklyash to get bumper crops every year.Only spring pours water in due course, suitably Or blade face moisturizing can just be such that the cultivation of the blooming of Chinese prickly ash, result and coming year fruit-bearing shoot cluster is less influenced by arid, be to obtain year It year gets bumper crops essential important means.
Step 2, the useless germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position is removed, removes the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position 3~June; Described removes the apical dominance for referring to and releasing fruitful branch, promotes the high yield of Chinese prickly ash and the sprouting of fruit-bearing shoot cluster middle and lower part resting bud With growth, it is ready for replacement fruit-bearing shoot cluster update in next step.
Step 3, imposing in due course for branch fertilizer is urged, in mid-July~by the end of August, pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii is picked to lose no time to impose in first 1~5 day Urge branch fertile.This time top dressing is based on nitrogenous fertilizer, supplemented by phosphorus potash fertilizer.Purpose is energy while enabling Chinese prickly ash sprig and tender shoots to mushroom out Nutrient as much as possible is stored, lays in enough goods and materials for bud differentiation, establishes solid foundation for coming year high yield good harvest.
Step 4, trimming in time and picking take harvesting beta pruning integrated method, it is new to retain suitable position in the September collecting period It sprouts based on branch, wipes out fruitful branch at 0.2~0.3cm on branch (tender shoots) in that must stay, to update major branch, side shoot, bearing basal shoot, And fruitful branch in tree crown, crossing branch, overlapping branch, sick branch, slim and frahile branch and withered branch are cut off, select and remain vigorous branches (thering is space to control) For " the taking the lead branch " of all kinds of retraction branches, it is fruitful branch that branch is newly sent out in emphasis culture.
Step 5, disease pest fungus damage prevents and treats, since the planting area is in high temperature, high humidity state phase, Chinese pricklyash at this time Insecticide and fungicide are sprayed in time after trimming and picking, it is ensured that the pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree after trimming does not suffer the invasion of pest and disease damage, makes Its healthy growth.
Step 6, foliage dressing, due to picking relatively late, in order to make newly to sprout vimineous growth and bud differentiation Reach expected, fertilizer for spraying on leaf surface can be carried out in due course.It can be added with 20~30 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 98% every 7~10 days Entering to mass percent concentration is that (before 10 points fine of morning of weather or afternoon 4:30 after) spray is mixed in 0.5% urea liquid It mist 1 time, sprays 3~5 times altogether.
Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out, carry out bud picking when branch germination and growth is to 5~10cm.Make the different direction of each end of the branch Uniform layout's stalwartness young shoot, (the different direction uniform layout stalwartness young shoot of each end of the branch, refers to young shoot on end of the branch in the shape of a spiral Distribution), erase extra young shoot.It is adjusted when newly slightly growing to 30cm or so according to space distribution situation further progress, promotes it It is uniformly distributed and is independent of each other, if the weak branch for the space uniform distribution that also has an impact, should remove in time.New being uniformly distributed slightly of adjustment Refer to that the treetop newly grown is spirally distributed on trunk branch.
Step 8, draw branch layer, at the beginning of early September~10 month, will upright, spreading angle small (less than 30 °) or distribution it is inadequate Uniform branch, using the methods of drawing, support, pressure change by force its Distribution Pattern so that it is evenly distributed (being evenly distributed, refer to will be straight The branch Spiral distribution vertical, spreading angle is small is on major branch), and it is promoted to accelerate reproductive growth.
Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning, mid-September~early October excavate 30cm centered on tree crown drip The annular fertilization ditch of~40cm wide, 25cm~30cm depth either two sides horizontal ditch, while the root system of digging injury is wiped out, to dressing furrow Well-rotted farmyard manure 5kg~20kg is applied for every plant after 300~800 times of dilution 1L of triadimefon of sprinkling 15%, compound fertilizer 100g~ 300g, phosphate fertilizer 1kg~2.5kg, bacterial manure 100g~500g etc. various matching fertilizer mix blinding in insertion soil with rake after application Having peace of mind sprinkles profoundly water.
Step 10, pinching is pinched, and after limb top stops growing, is seen according to green pepper tree growing way, degree of lignification, temperature height Pinching is set, the inadequate 2cm~5cm of treetop degree of lignification is plucked.
Step 11, it except long comb is close, in 1~2 month, cuts off and is grown and useless nutrition branch due to not controlling usually (the especially branch of excessive growth), the branch part for intersecting and being overlapped combs the result branch excessive except part, suitably retains sprouting for the year Vigorous branches is used for coming year replacement major branch.
The thin useless spray of fruitful branch upper position out, promotes sprouting for fruitful branch base portion resting bud described in step 2 of the present invention It is raw;When the requirement of second year pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii high yield branch group is not achieved in base portion germinating bud amount, vernalization growth promoting is needed.
The method of the vernalization growth promoting is as follows:
A. carve bud: annual late May to by the end of June above the resting bud for needing long shoot at 0.2~0.3cm knife it is crosscutting Or 1 to 2 knife is cut, incision length is slightly wider compared with sprout, and no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, notch depth is to reach xylem for degree.
B applies bud: dipping in branching promoter for plant with writing brush in mid-May to early June or hair branch element is equably applied to and needs to sprout Axillary bud or kryptoblast sprout on;
C. spraying: late May to use by the end of July 5 grams of brassin lactones plus aminoadenine containing benzyl (6-BA) 1.8% and Containing 4 (GA of gibberellic acid4) 1.8% solution of 65ml is made into 40 jin of mixed liquors and carries out spraying 2~3 times, or with 1mg/L melissane Alcohol adds mixed solution spraying 2~3 times or benzyl aminoadenine (6-BA) 900ppm of 3% urea and adds gibberellin 4 (GA4) 48pmm adds the mixed liquor of methyl α-naphthyl acetate (NAA) 5ppm spray 2~3 times;Above several methods can play preferably Effect.
Quarter bud described in step a is that notch is carved into rectangle (0.2 centimetre wide, long 1/2 no more than branch thick.
Quarter bud described in step a, be notch is carved into it is crescent.
Quarter bud described in step a, be carve be deep to xylem can.
Drug described in step c sprays, and the amount of spraying sprays 35~40kg medical fluid per acre.
It is to dig deep 20~40cm that branch fertilizer is urged in release described in step 3, and the dressing furrow of wide 30~50cm, every plant is applied urea 100 ~300 grams, proportion spirit 300~1000 grams of (25-8-10), methane liquid (dilution) or 100~500 grams of bacterial manure add calcium and magnesium 1000~1500 grams of phosphate fertilizer (calcium superphosphate).
Specific embodiment one:
Step 1, watering moisturizing: moisturizing is poured for pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree;
Step 2, it removes the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position: in 3~June, removing the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position;
Step 3, it urges imposing for branch fertilizer: in mid-July~by the end of August, picking to impose in preceding 1 day in pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii and urge branch fertilizer;
Step 4, trimming and picking: taking harvesting beta pruning integrated method, retain it is new sprout branch, in top must be stayed Fruitful branch is wiped out at 0.2cm, and cuts off the fruitful branch in tree crown, crossing branch, overlapping branch, sick branch, slim and frahile branch and withered branch, Vigorous branches is selected and remain, cultivating new hair branch is coming year fruitful branch;
Step 5, desinsection, fungicide the prevention and treatment of disease pest, fungus damage: are sprayed after Chinese prickly ash tree-pruning and picking;
Step 6, foliage dressing: every 7 days, matter is added to 20 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that mass percent concentration is 98% Measuring percent concentration is to mix in 0.5% urea liquid, is spraying, is sprayed 3 times altogether;
Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out: carrying out bud picking when branch germination and growth is to 5cm, make the uniform cloth of the different direction of each end of the branch The healthy and strong young shoot of office, erases extra young shoot, is adjusted when newly slightly growing to 30cm according to space distribution situation, that is, it is empty to remove influence Between equally distributed weak branch;
Step 8, draw branch layer: at the beginning of early September~10 month, general is upright, spreading angle is small or branch unevenly distributed, adopts Changed its Spatial Distribution Pattern with the method for drawing, support, pressure it is made to be evenly distributed;
Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning: mid-September~early October, and width is excavated centered on tree crown drip and is 30cm, the annular fertilization ditch that depth is 30cm excavate horizontal dressing furrow in its two sides centered on tree crown drip, wipe out simultaneously The root system of digging injury, to dressing furrow sprinkling 15% 300 times of dilution 1L of triadimefon after, every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii apply well-rotted farmyard manure 5kg, Compound fertilizer 300g, phosphate fertilizer 2.5kg, bacterial manure 100g are mixed in insertion soil after fertilising with rake, and blinding is steady and sure, sprinkles profoundly water;
Step 10, pinching is pinched: after limb top stops growing, plucking the 2cm of the non-lignifying part of treetop;
Step 11, except long comb is close: in 1~2 month of the coming year, cutting off nutrition branch, intersection and the branch of overlapping part, reservation and work as The vigorous branches that year sprouts;
Before the useless germinating bud for removing fruitful branch upper position in the step 2, when fruitful branch base portion germinating bud amount reaches When less than actual demand, vernalization growth promoting is needed;
The method of the vernalization growth promoting the following steps are included:
Step a, carves bud: annual late May to by the end of June above the resting bud for needing long shoot at 0.2cm it is crosscutting with knife Or 1 knife is cut, incision length is no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, and notch depth reaches xylem;The quarter bud, if by notch It is carved into rectangle, the width of notch is 0.2 centimetre, long to be no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, or notch is carved into crescent.
Step b applies bud: dipping in branching promoter for plant or hair branch element with writing brush in mid-May to early June, is equably applied to needs On the axillary bud of sprouting or kryptoblast sprout;
Step c, it is spraying: in late May to using 5 grams of brassin lactones by the end of July and include benzyl mass percent concentration 1.8% Aminoadenine, mass percent concentration 1.8% the solution of 65ml of gibberellic acid be made into 40 jin of mixed liquors and carry out spraying 2 times Or added mixed solution spraying 3 times or with aminoadenine containing benzyl of the urea of mass percent concentration 3% with 1mg/L triacontanol 900ppm, gibberellin 48pmm, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 5ppm mixed liquor spray 3 times;The spraying amount of spraying is to spray 35kg per acre.
The release that branch fertilizer is urged in the step 3 is to dig depth every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii two sides as 40cm, and width is the dressing furrow of 30cm, Every plant is applied 300 grams of urea, 300 grams of proportion spirit, and 500 grams of methane liquid or bacterial manure add 1500 grams of calcium magnesium phosphate.
Specific embodiment two:
Step 1, watering moisturizing: moisturizing is poured for pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree;
Step 2, it removes the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position: in 3~June, removing the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position;
Step 3, it urges imposing for branch fertilizer: in mid-July~by the end of August, picking to impose in preceding 5 days in pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii and urge branch fertilizer;
Step 4, trimming and picking: taking harvesting beta pruning integrated method, retain it is new sprout branch, in top must be stayed Fruitful branch is wiped out at 0.3cm, and cuts off the fruitful branch in tree crown, crossing branch, overlapping branch, sick branch, slim and frahile branch and withered branch, Vigorous branches is selected and remain, cultivating new hair branch is coming year fruitful branch;
Step 5, desinsection, fungicide the prevention and treatment of disease pest, fungus damage: are sprayed after Chinese prickly ash tree-pruning and picking;
Step 6, it foliage dressing: every 10 days, is added to 20 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that mass percent concentration is 98% Mass percent concentration is to mix in 0.5% urea liquid, is spraying, is sprayed 5 times altogether;
Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out: carrying out bud picking when branch germination and growth is to 10cm, keep the different direction of each end of the branch uniform It is laid out healthy and strong young shoot, erases extra young shoot, is adjusted when newly slightly growing to 30cm according to space distribution situation, that is, removes influence The weak branch of space uniform distribution;
Step 8, draw branch layer: at the beginning of early September~10 month, general is upright, spreading angle is small or branch unevenly distributed, adopts Changed its Spatial Distribution Pattern with the method for drawing, support, pressure it is made to be evenly distributed;
Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning: mid-September~early October, and width is excavated centered on tree crown drip and is 40cm, the annular fertilization ditch that depth is 25cm excavate horizontal dressing furrow in its two sides centered on tree crown drip, wipe out simultaneously The root system of digging injury, after 800 times of dilution 1L of triadimefon of dressing furrow sprinkling 15%, every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii applies well-rotted farmyard manure 20kg, compound fertilizer 100g, phosphate fertilizer 1kg, bacterial manure 500g are mixed in insertion soil after fertilising with rake, and blinding is steady and sure, sprinkles profoundly water;
Step 10, pinching is pinched: after limb top stops growing, plucking the 5cm of the non-lignifying part of treetop;
Step 11, except long comb is close: in 1~2 month of the coming year, cutting off nutrition branch, intersection and the branch of overlapping part, reservation and work as The vigorous branches that year sprouts;
Before the useless germinating bud for removing fruitful branch upper position in the step 2, when fruitful branch base portion germinating bud amount reaches When less than actual demand, vernalization growth promoting is needed;
The method of the vernalization growth promoting the following steps are included:
Step a, carves bud: annual late May to by the end of June above the resting bud for needing long shoot at 0.3cm it is crosscutting with knife Or 2 knives are cut, incision length is no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, and notch depth reaches xylem;Bud is carved, if notch is carved into length Rectangular, the width of notch is 0.2 centimetre, long to be no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, or notch is carved into crescent.
Step b applies bud: dipping in branching promoter for plant or hair branch element with writing brush in mid-May to early June, is equably applied to needs On the axillary bud of sprouting or kryptoblast sprout;
Step c, it is spraying: in late May to using 5 grams of brassin lactones by the end of July and include benzyl mass percent concentration 1.8% Aminoadenine, mass percent concentration 1.8% the solution of 65ml of gibberellic acid be made into 40 jin of mixed liquors and carry out spraying 3 times Or added mixed solution spraying 3 times or with aminoadenine containing benzyl of the urea of mass percent concentration 3% with 1mg/L triacontanol 900ppm, gibberellin 48pmm, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 5ppm mixed liquor spray 2 times;The spraying amount of spraying is to spray 40kg per acre.
The release that branch fertilizer is urged in the step 3 is to dig depth every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii two sides as 40cm, and width is the dressing furrow of 30cm, Every plant is applied 300 grams of urea, 1000 grams of proportion spirit, and 100 grams of methane liquid or bacterial manure add 1000 grams of calcium magnesium phosphate.
Specific embodiment three:
Step 1, watering moisturizing: moisturizing is poured for pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree;
Step 2, it removes the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position: in 3~June, removing the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position;
Step 3, it urges imposing for branch fertilizer: in mid-July~by the end of August, picking to impose in preceding 3 days in pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii and urge branch fertilizer;
Step 4, trimming and picking: taking harvesting beta pruning integrated method, retain it is new sprout branch, in top must be stayed Fruitful branch is wiped out at 0.25cm, and cuts off the fruitful branch in tree crown, crossing branch, overlapping branch, sick branch, slim and frahile branch and withered Branch selects and remain vigorous branches, and cultivating new hair branch is coming year fruitful branch;
Step 5, desinsection, fungicide the prevention and treatment of disease pest, fungus damage: are sprayed after Chinese prickly ash tree-pruning and picking;
Step 6, foliage dressing: every 8 days, matter is added to 25 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that mass percent concentration is 98% Measuring percent concentration is to mix in 0.5% urea liquid, is spraying, is sprayed 4 times altogether;
Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out: carrying out bud picking when branch germination and growth is to 8cm, make the uniform cloth of the different direction of each end of the branch The healthy and strong young shoot of office, erases extra young shoot, is adjusted when newly slightly growing to 30cm according to space distribution situation, that is, it is empty to remove influence Between equally distributed weak branch;
Step 8, draw branch layer: at the beginning of early September~10 month, general is upright, spreading angle is small or branch unevenly distributed, adopts Changed its Spatial Distribution Pattern with the method for drawing, support, pressure it is made to be evenly distributed;
Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning: mid-September~early October, and width is excavated centered on tree crown drip and is 35cm, the annular fertilization ditch that depth is 28cm excavate horizontal dressing furrow in its two sides centered on tree crown drip, wipe out simultaneously The root system of digging injury, after 550 times of dilution 1L of triadimefon of dressing furrow sprinkling 15%, every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii applies well-rotted farmyard manure 12.5kg, compound fertilizer 200g, phosphate fertilizer 1.75kg, bacterial manure 300g are mixed in insertion soil after fertilising with rake, and blinding is steady and sure, irrigates Water;
Step 10, pinching is pinched: after limb top stops growing, plucking the 3cm of the non-lignifying part of treetop;
Step 11, except long comb is close: in 1~2 month of the coming year, cutting off nutrition branch, intersection and the branch of overlapping part, reservation and work as The vigorous branches that year sprouts;
Before the useless germinating bud for removing fruitful branch upper position in the step 2, when fruitful branch base portion germinating bud amount reaches When less than actual demand, vernalization growth promoting is needed;
The method of the vernalization growth promoting the following steps are included:
Step a, carves bud: annual late May to by the end of June above the resting bud for needing long shoot at 0.25cm it is crosscutting with knife Or 2 knives are cut, incision length is no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, and notch depth reaches xylem;If notch is carved into rectangle, cut The width of mouth is 0.2 centimetre, long to be no more than the 1/2 of branch thick.Or notch is carved into crescent.
Step b applies bud: dipping in branching promoter for plant or hair branch element with writing brush in mid-May to early June, is equably applied to needs On the axillary bud of sprouting or kryptoblast sprout;
Step c, it is spraying: in late May to using 5 grams of brassin lactones by the end of July and include benzyl mass percent concentration 1.8% Aminoadenine, mass percent concentration 1.8% the solution of 65ml of gibberellic acid be made into 40 jin of mixed liquors and carry out spraying 3 times Or added mixed solution spraying 2 times or with aminoadenine containing benzyl of the urea of mass percent concentration 3% with 1mg/L triacontanol 900ppm, gibberellin 48pmm, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 5ppm mixed liquor spray 2 times;
The release that branch fertilizer is urged in the step 3 is to dig depth every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii two sides as 30cm, and width is the dressing furrow of 40cm, Every plant is applied 200 grams of urea, 650 grams of proportion spirit, and 300 grams of methane liquid or bacterial manure add 1250 grams of calcium magnesium phosphate.The spraying amount of spraying is 38kg is sprayed per acre.
Pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii fruit-bearing shoot cluster year Cultivating techniques of the present invention, the bright spot of technology are as follows: according to the growth of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii And fruit habit, in conjunction with the temperature change of Zhaotong dry-hot valley planting area, rainfall, evaporation capacity and irrigation conditions, soil is special Property, illumination patterns, farmer's mode of production and life etc. determine pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii high yield subjective and objective factor, take into account current year high yield, it is high-quality, The aggressive cultivation for planning as a whole the next year high yield branch group of schemeization while efficiently.
Key point: being pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii elongation life 1. since 7~August part in Zhaotong pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii producing region is in high temperature, high wet spell Long best period, under this natural environment, urea average 2~3 days imposed can be absorbed and utilized by Chinese pricklyash, Jin Erneng Sprouting is promoted to sprout and the fast-growth of sprig rapidly.2. making full use of compound fertilizer's fertilizer efficiency to discharge relatively slow feature, same When the urea efficiency that applies get back when weakening compound fertilizer's release related nitrogen reinforcement, further maintain the fast fast-growing of twig Long situation starts simultaneously at thickening growth and establishes the basis of bud differentiation.3. the application of a certain amount of calcium superphosphate (calcium magnesium phosphate), Chinese pricklyash is mainly replenished in time and provides essential elements to the needs of calcium phosphorus, while for bud differentiation.4. a certain amount of by applying Bacterial manure and organic fertilizer increase profitable strain in soil, improve soil microenvironment, optimization rhizosphere place living;Promote root system Mobility;Nutriment is set faster, more preferably, to be more fully absorbed and utilized by pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree, thus orderly promotion twig Elongation growth and diameter increment, carry out bud differentiation in due course, promote the ability that trees resist disease pest fungus damage, reduce coming year physiology Property fruit drop degree.5. trimming, a fruiting characteristic, positive, in due course development, scientific and reasonable progress are changed according to pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii Dredge, promote bud, trimming, growth promoting, except sprout, adjust branch spatial distribution, pinching topping etc. work, it is therefore intended that concentrate nutrient confession It gives, optimizes phosgene heat distribution, make the growth of branch, bud differentiation, element coordinate synchronization of nutrient accumulation etc. getting bumper crops develops.6. base manure Imposing is activating soil, increases the soil organism, continues as Chinese pricklyash and improves comprehensive nutrient, improve nutrient accumulation, enhances tree vigo(u)r, Further promote bud differentiation, reduce disease pest fungus damage, reduces fruit drop probability.7. due to the continuity of this method management, system Raise the property taken into account and science, other than the factor of macroclimate environment, the biennial fruiting phenomenon of Chinese prickly ash result almost without.
Continuous 4 years 8.2 times for abounding with mid-term Chinese pricklyash its fruiting long shoot and being control group being managed with the method, as a result Middle branch is 4.7 times of control group, and the length of every fringe is 1.48 times of control group, and the average grain number of every fringe is the 2.15 of control group Times, Chinese prickly ash mass of 1000 kernel is 1.36 times of control group, 3.6 times of per mu yield dried pepper average out to control group size annual mean, price Average more 3~8 yuan per jin are differed, and it is 1 with the net input-output ratio of the method that management cost per mu, which is 1.6 times of control group: 4.05, the net input-output ratio of control group is 1:1.66;And its obvious effect of increasing production, it is deep to be praised by the vast positive plantation masses Reputation has had 76.1% masses gradually to start with this management mode of making overall plans now.
A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method of the invention, is suitble in High aititude dry-hot valley kind The pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii planted, and cultivated gets bumper crops, is high-quality, efficient.
Obviously, above embodiment of the invention be only to clearly illustrate example of the present invention, and not be Restriction to embodiments of the present invention.For those of ordinary skill in the art, on the basis of the above description also It can make other variations or changes in different ways.Here all embodiments can not be exhaustive.It is all to belong to this The obvious changes or variations that the technical solution of invention is extended out are still in the scope of protection of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method, it is characterised in that: it the following steps are included:
Step 1, watering moisturizing: moisturizing is poured for pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree;
Step 2, it removes the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position: in 3~June, removing the germinating bud of fruitful branch upper position;
Step 3, it urges imposing for branch fertilizer: in mid-July~by the end of August, picking to impose in preceding 1~5 day in pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii and urge branch fertilizer;
Step 4, trimming and picking: taking harvesting beta pruning integrated method, retain it is new sprout branch, in must stay top 0.2~ Fruitful branch is wiped out at 0.3cm, and cuts off the fruitful branch in tree crown, crossing branch, overlapping branch, sick branch, slim and frahile branch and withered branch, Vigorous branches is selected and remain, cultivating new hair branch is coming year fruitful branch;
Step 5, desinsection, fungicide the prevention and treatment of disease pest, fungus damage: are sprayed after Chinese prickly ash tree-pruning and picking;
Step 6, foliage dressing: every 7~10 days, with 20~30 grams of the potassium dihydrogen phosphate additions that mass percent concentration is 98% It is to be mixed in 0.5% urea liquid, by spraying to mass percent concentration, sprays 3~5 times altogether;
Step 7, it sprouts and interrupts out: carrying out bud picking when branch germination and growth is to 5~10cm, make the uniform cloth of the different direction of each end of the branch The healthy and strong young shoot of office, erases extra young shoot, is adjusted when newly slightly growing to 30cm according to space distribution situation, that is, it is empty to remove influence Between equally distributed weak branch;
Step 8, draw branch layer: at the beginning of early September~10 month, general is upright, spreading angle is small or branch unevenly distributed, uses The method drawn, support, pressed, which changes its Spatial Distribution Pattern, makes it be evenly distributed;
Step 9, base manure imposes and root system pruning: mid-September~early October, and it is 30cm that width is excavated centered on tree crown drip ~40cm, the annular fertilization ditch that depth is 25cm~30cm excavate horizontal dressing furrow in its two sides centered on tree crown drip, The root system for wiping out digging injury simultaneously, after 300~800 times of dilution 1L of triadimefon of dressing furrow sprinkling 15%, every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii is applied Well-rotted farmyard manure 5kg~20kg, compound fertilizer 100g~300g, phosphate fertilizer 1kg~2.5kg, bacterial manure 100g~500g, with nail after fertilising Rake mixes in insertion soil, and blinding is steady and sure, sprinkles profoundly water;
Step 10, pinching is pinched: after limb top stops growing, plucking 2cm~5cm of the non-lignifying part of treetop;
Step 11, except long comb is close: in 1~2 month of the coming year, cutting off nutrition branch, intersection and the branch of overlapping part, retain and sprout for the year The vigorous branches of hair;
Before the useless germinating bud for removing fruitful branch upper position in the step 2, when fruitful branch base portion germinating bud amount is not achieved It is required that when, need vernalization growth promoting;
The method of the vernalization growth promoting the following steps are included:
Step a, carves bud: annual late May to by the end of June above the resting bud for needing long shoot at 0.2~0.3cm it is crosscutting with knife Or 1~2 knife is cut, incision length is no more than the 1/2 of branch thick, and notch depth reaches xylem;
Step b applies bud: dipping in branching promoter for plant or hair branch element with writing brush in mid-May to early June, is equably applied to and needs to sprout Axillary bud or kryptoblast sprout on;
Step c, it is spraying: in ammonia of the late May to 5 grams of brassin lactones is used by the end of July and comprising benzyl mass percent concentration 1.8% Base adenine, mass percent concentration 1.8% the solution of 65ml of gibberellic acid be made into 40 jin of mixed liquors and carry out spraying 2~3 times Or added mixed solution spraying 2~3 times or with the gland of amino containing benzyl of the urea of mass percent concentration 3% with 1mg/L triacontanol Purine 900ppm, gibberellin 48pmm, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 5ppm mixed liquor spray 2~3 times;
The release that branch fertilizer is urged in the step 3 is to dig depth every plant of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii two sides as 20~40cm, and width is applying for 30~50cm Fertile ditch, every plant is applied 100~300 grams of urea, 300~1000 grams of proportion spirit, and 100~500 grams of methane liquid or bacterial manure add calcium magnesium phosphate 1000~1500 grams.
2. a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Quarter bud described in step a is that notch is carved into rectangle, and the width of notch is 0.2 centimetre, long to be no more than the 1/2 of branch thick.
3. a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Quarter bud in step a, be notch is carved into it is crescent.
4. a kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Being sprayed in step c, the spraying amount of spraying are to spray 35~40kg per acre.
CN201811320914.0A 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method Pending CN109328830A (en)

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Application publication date: 20190215