CN108012747B - Method for promoting natural formation of red balun Chinese flowering crabapple - Google Patents

Method for promoting natural formation of red balun Chinese flowering crabapple Download PDF

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CN108012747B
CN108012747B CN201711459963.8A CN201711459963A CN108012747B CN 108012747 B CN108012747 B CN 108012747B CN 201711459963 A CN201711459963 A CN 201711459963A CN 108012747 B CN108012747 B CN 108012747B
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begonia
seedlings
red
elm
grafting
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CN108012747A (en
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闫淑芳
冯树香
黄印冉
董谦
刘易超
刑智远
于殿成
黄晓旭
陆学海
王慧芝
霍对对
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Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences
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Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for promoting natural shaping of red balun begonia, which comprises the following steps: planting the elm of Chinese gold leaf, planting the stock, leveling stubble, grafting, managing and transplanting, etc. The invention promotes the natural formation of the red balm begonia by utilizing the interplanting mode and overcomes the defects of time and labor waste caused by manual trimming.

Description

Method for promoting natural formation of red balun Chinese flowering crabapple
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of plant shaping, in particular to a method for promoting natural shaping of red balun begonia.
Background
The red bayberry tree is a plant of the Malus genus of Rosaceae family, and is also one of plants with great ornamental value, and the red bayberry tree forest can become a regular column shape under certain trimming, and becomes an rare natural plant landscape.
In the prior art, the red balun begonia is trimmed by a manual trimming mode, but the manual trimming generally wastes time and labor, the requirement on the skills of production workers is high, the ideal purpose cannot be achieved when the trimming is too early or too late, and the effect of natural beauty cannot be achieved when the trimming is performed manually.
Therefore, how to provide a method for promoting the natural formation of the red balm begonia is a problem which needs to be solved urgently by the technical personnel in the field.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a method for promoting natural formation of red balun begonia in order to solve the technical problems, and overcomes the defects of time and labor waste and poor aesthetic feeling of manual trimming.
The technical scheme for solving the technical problems is as follows:
a method for promoting natural formation of red Balen crabapple comprises the following steps:
1) planting the ulmus pumila: planting the annual bush elm of ulmus pumila to obtain the seedling of ulmus pumila;
2) planting the rootstock: planting one row of stocks at every three rows of Ulmus pumila seedlings to obtain Malus spectabilis stocks;
3) stumping: watering the elm seedlings and the crab apple stocks in the steps 1) and 2), and then carrying out stumping treatment on the elm seedlings to obtain stumped elm seedlings;
4) grafting: after the stumping golden leaf elm seedlings in the step 3) grow for one month, grafting the red balm begonia plants on the begonia stock in the step 3) to obtain the red balm begonia seedlings;
5) management: after the seedlings of the red bayberry in the step 4) grow for 2-3 months, managing the seedlings of the elm of the Chinese goldenrod in the step 3) according to the purpose of forming the seedlings of the blank, and obtaining formed red bayberry in the next year;
6) transplanting: transplanting and planting management is carried out on the red balun begonia formed in the step 5).
Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages that the elm root system of the elm is developed and the stress resistance is strong by using the planting mode of the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry, so the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry form interspecific competition and promote the red bayberry growth of the red bayberry.
Secondly, in the cultivation of the green plantlets of the golden leaf elm, stumping cultivation is carried out on the shrub plantlets, so that the effect of multiple branches can be achieved within one year, the stumping plantlets grow vigorously, and the occurrence probability of plant diseases and insect pests is relatively low, so that the golden leaf elm threatens the growth of the red balm begonia and helps the red balm begonia to naturally form a column shape; when the red baerensis begonia is planted, the grafting mode of the begonia stock with a developed root system is adopted, the survival rate of the dopa begonia is more favorably improved by grafting, and the begonia stock and the dopa begonia are plants in the same family, are easier to combine together, and the survival rate of the dopa begonia is improved.
Finally, the elm of Chinese goldenrod is cultivated to form embryo seedlings, so that the growth state and the appearance of the elm of Chinese goldenrod are more beneficial to the natural formation of the red balm begonia.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: planting the ulmus pumila in the step 1) in 3 months of each year, wherein the row spacing is 80-100cm, and the plant spacing is 40-60 cm. Generally, the planting row spacing of the ulmus pumila is 40cm, and the planting spacing is 10 cm. The golden leaf elm is not used for selling shrub seedlings, but used for culturing modeling seedlings, the modeling seedlings need to occupy a certain space, and a certain growth space is also needed for growth of the grafted Chinese flowering crabapple, so that the spacing between the golden leaf elm and the Chinese flowering crabapple is set in a reasonable range, the reasonable and scientific planting density is achieved, the natural forming of the golden leaf elm can be promoted, and the land is not wasted.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: the row spacing between the Chinese flowering crabapple stock in the step 2) and the Chinese golden leaf elm seedling in the step 1) is 1-1.2 m; and the plant spacing of the crabapple stocks is 1-1.2m, and the ground diameter is 2-4 cm.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: the grafting process of the crab apple seedlings in the step 4) is as follows: grafting red bayberry plants at the beginning of the fourth month of each year, and grafting 2-3 red bayberry plant scions on the crab stocks in the step 2). In early spring season in the early four months of each year, the rootstock and the scion tissues are full, and the temperature and the humidity are also favorable for vigorous division of a cambium.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: grafting the red bayberry plants by adopting a bark grafting mode in the step 4). The key of the branch grafting is that the scion is tightly combined with the stock in a cambium, the cambium of the stock and the scion are inosculated with each other, and the stock and the cambium are bound and covered with soil to ensure that the scion and the stock are combined into a new plant.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: the management process in the step 5) is as follows: after the seedling grows to 70-80cm after 6 months, managing the stumped Ulmus pumila seedlings according to the purpose of the parison-making seedlings. At this time, elm of ulmus pumila begins to provide growth stress to the red balun crabapple and promote the formation of the crown thereof.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: the method for promoting the natural formation of the red balun Chinese flowering crabapple further comprises the following steps:
7) dressing and fertilizing: after the stumping ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) germinate, selecting 5 strong branches for each seedling, removing redundant branches, and performing fertilization management on the trimmed seedlings; the dressing and fertilizing are carried out after stumping and before dressing, because the golden leaf elm can sprout after more than 10 days after stumping.
8) After the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) germinate, selecting and reserving 3-5 robust branches of each seedling of the red balm begonia when a new branch grows to 25-35cm, and removing other redundant branches.
In the management process, the residual branches are discarded as much as possible, and robust branches are reserved to ensure the normal growth of plants.
On the basis of the scheme, the invention can be further improved as follows: and (3) manually trimming the red balun crabapple formed in the step 5) to remove over-opened branches. And (3) properly and manually pruning branches with over-opened red Balen crabapple caused by sparse elm of Chinese goldenrod or other reasons to enable the branches to reach a standard ideal tree shape.
In conclusion, the invention utilizes the mode of interplanting, and overcomes the defects of time and labor waste and unattractive effect of manual pruning.
Detailed Description
The principles and features of this invention are described in conjunction with the following embodiments, which are given by way of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention
The test site of the invention is a test site of scientific research institute of forestry in Hebei province, occupies more than 20 mu, and the applicant starts to plant the elm of Chinese goldenrod and the stock in 2016 spring and tests, wherein the soil of the test site is sandy loam.
The first embodiment is as follows:
a method for promoting natural formation of red Balen crabapple comprises the following steps:
1) planting the ulmus pumila: planting the annual bush elm of ulmus pumila to obtain the seedling of ulmus pumila;
2) planting the rootstock: planting one row of stocks at every three rows of Ulmus pumila seedlings to obtain Malus spectabilis stocks;
3) stumping: watering the elm seedlings and the crab apple stocks in the steps 1) and 2), and then carrying out stumping treatment on the elm seedlings to obtain stumped elm seedlings;
4) grafting: after the stumping golden leaf elm seedlings in the step 3) grow for one month, grafting the red balm begonia plants on the begonia stock in the step 3) to obtain the red balm begonia seedlings;
5) management: after the seedlings of the red bayberry in the step 4) grow for 2 months, managing the seedlings of the stumped ulmus pumila in the step 3) according to the purpose of forming the seedlings, and obtaining formed red bayberry in the next year;
6) transplanting: transplanting and planting management is carried out on the red balun begonia formed in the step 5).
Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages that the elm root system of the elm is developed and the stress resistance is strong by using the planting mode of the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry, so the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry form interspecific competition and promote the red bayberry growth of the red bayberry.
Secondly, in the cultivation of the green plantlets of the golden leaf elm, stumping cultivation is carried out on the shrub plantlets, so that the effect of multiple branches can be achieved within one year, the stumping plantlets grow vigorously, and the occurrence probability of plant diseases and insect pests is relatively low, so that the golden leaf elm threatens the growth of the red balm begonia and helps the red balm begonia to naturally form a column shape; when the red baerensis begonia is planted, the grafting mode of the begonia stock with a developed root system is adopted, the survival rate of the dopa begonia is more favorably improved by grafting, and the begonia stock and the dopa begonia are plants in the same family, are easier to combine together, and the survival rate of the dopa begonia is improved.
Finally, the elm of Chinese goldenrod is cultivated to form embryo seedlings, so that the growth state and the appearance of the elm of Chinese goldenrod are more beneficial to the natural formation of the red balm begonia.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the elm of step 1) is planted in 3 months per year, with a row spacing of 80cm and a plant spacing of 40 cm.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the row spacing between the crabapple stock in the step 2) and the elm seedling in the step 1) is 1 m; the plant spacing of the crabapple stock is 1m, and the ground diameter is 2 cm.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the grafting process of the crabapple seedling in the step 4) is as follows: grafting red bayberry plants at the beginning of the fourth month of each year, and grafting 2 red bayberry plant scions on the crabayberry stocks in the step 2). In early spring season in the early four months of each year, the rootstock and the scion tissues are full, and the temperature and the humidity are also favorable for vigorous division of a cambium.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the red bayberry plants are grafted in the step 4) by means of bark grafting. The key of the branch grafting is that the scion is tightly combined with the stock in a cambium, the cambium of the stock and the scion are inosculated with each other, and the stock and the cambium are bound and covered with soil to ensure that the scion and the stock are combined into a new plant.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the management process in step 5) is: after the month is 6, when the stump ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) grow to 70cm, managing the seedlings according to the purpose of the blank-making seedlings.
According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the method for promoting the natural formation of ulmus pumila further comprises the following steps:
7) dressing and fertilizing: after the stumping ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) germinate, selecting and reserving 5 robust branches for each seedling, removing redundant branches, and performing fertilization management on the trimmed seedlings;
8) after the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) sprout and the new branches grow to 25cm, selecting and reserving 3 robust branches of each seedling of the red balm begonia, and removing other redundant branches.
In the management process, the residual branches are discarded as much as possible, and robust branches are reserved to ensure the normal growth of plants.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the red balm crabapple formed in the step 5) can be manually trimmed to remove the excessively opened branches. And (3) properly and manually pruning branches with over-opened red Balen crabapple caused by sparse elm of Chinese goldenrod or other reasons to enable the branches to reach a standard ideal tree shape.
Example two:
a method for promoting natural formation of red Balen crabapple comprises the following steps:
1) planting the ulmus pumila: planting the annual bush elm of ulmus pumila to obtain the seedling of ulmus pumila;
2) planting the rootstock: planting one row of stocks at every three rows of Ulmus pumila seedlings to obtain Malus spectabilis stocks;
3) stumping: watering the elm seedlings and the crab apple stocks in the steps 1) and 2), and then carrying out stumping treatment on the elm seedlings to obtain stumped elm seedlings;
4) grafting: after the stumping golden leaf elm seedlings in the step 3) grow for one month, grafting the red balm begonia plants on the begonia stock in the step 3) to obtain the red balm begonia seedlings;
5) management: after the seedlings of the red bayberry in the step 4) grow for 3 months, managing the seedlings of the stumped Ulmus pumila in the step 3) according to the purpose of forming the seedlings, and obtaining formed red bayberry in the next year;
6) transplanting: transplanting and planting management is carried out on the red balun begonia formed in the step 5).
Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages that the elm root system of the elm is developed and the stress resistance is strong by using the planting mode of the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry, so the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry form interspecific competition and promote the red bayberry growth of the red bayberry.
Secondly, in the cultivation of the green plantlets of the golden leaf elm, stumping cultivation is carried out on the shrub plantlets, so that the effect of multiple branches can be achieved within one year, the stumping plantlets grow vigorously, and the occurrence probability of plant diseases and insect pests is relatively low, so that the golden leaf elm threatens the growth of the red balm begonia and helps the red balm begonia to naturally form a column shape; when the red baerensis begonia is planted, the grafting mode of the begonia stock with a developed root system is adopted, the survival rate of the dopa begonia is more favorably improved by grafting, and the begonia stock and the dopa begonia are plants in the same family, are easier to combine together, and the survival rate of the dopa begonia is improved.
Finally, the elm of Chinese goldenrod is cultivated to form embryo seedlings, so that the growth state and the appearance of the elm of Chinese goldenrod are more beneficial to the natural formation of the red balm begonia.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the elm of step 1) is planted in 3 months per year, with a row spacing of 100cm and a plant spacing of 60 cm.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the row spacing between the crabapple stock in the step 2) and the elm seedling in the step 1) is 1.2 m; the plant spacing of the crabapple stock is 1.2m, and the ground diameter is 3 cm.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the grafting process of the crabapple seedling in the step 4) is as follows: grafting red bayberry plants at the beginning of the fourth month of each year, and grafting 3 scions of the red bayberry plants on the crabapple stocks in the step 2). In early spring season in the early four months of each year, the rootstock and the scion tissues are full, and the temperature and the humidity are also favorable for vigorous division of a cambium.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the red bayberry plants are grafted in the step 4) by means of bark grafting. The key of the branch grafting is that the scion is tightly combined with the stock in a cambium, the cambium of the stock and the scion are inosculated with each other, and the stock and the cambium are bound and covered with soil to ensure that the scion and the stock are combined into a new plant.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the management process in step 5) is: after the month is 6, when the stump ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) grow to 80cm, managing the seedlings according to the purpose of the blank-making seedlings.
According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the method for promoting the natural formation of ulmus pumila further comprises the following steps:
7) dressing and fertilizing: after the stumping ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) germinate, selecting and reserving 3 robust branches for each seedling, removing redundant branches, and performing fertilization management on the trimmed seedlings;
8) after the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) sprout and the new branches grow to 30cm, selecting and reserving 3 robust branches of each seedling of the red balm begonia, and removing other redundant branches.
In the management process, the residual branches are discarded as much as possible, and robust branches are reserved to ensure the normal growth of plants.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the red balm crabapple formed in the step 5) can be manually trimmed to remove the excessively opened branches. And (3) properly and manually pruning branches with over-opened red Balen crabapple caused by sparse elm of Chinese goldenrod or other reasons to enable the branches to reach a standard ideal tree shape.
Example three:
a method for promoting natural formation of red Balen crabapple comprises the following steps:
1) planting the ulmus pumila: planting the annual bush elm of ulmus pumila to obtain the seedling of ulmus pumila;
2) planting the rootstock: planting one row of stocks at every three rows of Ulmus pumila seedlings to obtain Malus spectabilis stocks;
3) stumping: watering the elm seedlings and the crab apple stocks in the steps 1) and 2), and then carrying out stumping treatment on the elm seedlings to obtain stumped elm seedlings;
4) grafting: after the stumping golden leaf elm seedlings in the step 3) grow for one month, grafting the red balm begonia plants on the begonia stock in the step 3) to obtain the red balm begonia seedlings;
5) management: after the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) grow for 2.5 months, managing the seedlings of the stumped ulmus pumila in the step 3) according to the purpose of forming the seedlings, and obtaining formed red balm begonia in the next year;
6) transplanting: transplanting and planting management is carried out on the red balun begonia formed in the step 5).
Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages that the elm root system of the elm is developed and the stress resistance is strong by using the planting mode of the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry, so the elm of the golden leaf and the red bayberry form interspecific competition and promote the red bayberry growth of the red bayberry.
Secondly, in the cultivation of the green plantlets of the golden leaf elm, stumping cultivation is carried out on the shrub plantlets, so that the effect of multiple branches can be achieved within one year, the stumping plantlets grow vigorously, and the occurrence probability of plant diseases and insect pests is relatively low, so that the golden leaf elm threatens the growth of the red balm begonia and helps the red balm begonia to naturally form a column shape; when the red baerensis begonia is planted, the grafting mode of the begonia stock with a developed root system is adopted, the survival rate of the dopa begonia is more favorably improved by grafting, and the begonia stock and the dopa begonia are plants in the same family, are easier to combine together, and the survival rate of the dopa begonia is improved.
Finally, the elm of Chinese goldenrod is cultivated to form embryo seedlings, so that the growth state and the appearance of the elm of Chinese goldenrod are more beneficial to the natural formation of the red balm begonia.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the elm of step 1) is planted in 3 months per year, with a row spacing of 90cm and a plant spacing of 50 cm.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the row spacing between the crabapple stock in the step 2) and the elm seedling in the step 1) is 1.1 m; the plant spacing of the crabapple stock is 1.1m, and the ground diameter is 4 cm.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the grafting process of the crabapple seedling in the step 4) is as follows: grafting red bayberry plants at the beginning of the fourth month of each year, and grafting 4 scions of the red bayberry plants on the crabapple stocks in the step 2). In early spring season in the early four months of each year, the rootstock and the scion tissues are full, and the temperature and the humidity are also favorable for vigorous division of a cambium.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the red bayberry plants are grafted in the step 4) by means of bark grafting. The key of the branch grafting is that the scion is tightly combined with the stock in a cambium, the cambium of the stock and the scion are inosculated with each other, and the stock and the cambium are bound and covered with soil to ensure that the scion and the stock are combined into a new plant.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the management process in step 5) is: after the month is 6, when the stumping ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) grow to 75cm, managing the elm seedlings according to the purpose of the blank-making seedlings.
According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the method for promoting the natural formation of ulmus pumila further comprises the following steps:
7) dressing and fertilizing: after the stumping ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) germinate, selecting and reserving 4 robust branches for each seedling, removing redundant branches, and performing fertilization management on the trimmed seedlings;
8) after the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) sprout and the new branches grow to 35cm, selecting and reserving 3 robust branches of each seedling of the red balm begonia, and removing other redundant branches.
In the management process, the residual branches are discarded as much as possible, and robust branches are reserved to ensure the normal growth of plants.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the red balm crabapple formed in the step 5) can be manually trimmed to remove the excessively opened branches. And (3) properly and manually pruning branches with over-opened red Balen crabapple caused by sparse elm of Chinese goldenrod or other reasons to enable the branches to reach a standard ideal tree shape.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (7)

1. A method for promoting natural formation of red Balen crabapple is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) planting the ulmus pumila: planting the annual bush elm of ulmus pumila to obtain the seedling of ulmus pumila;
2) planting the Chinese flowering crabapple stock: planting one row of Chinese flowering crabapple stock every three rows of Chinese flowering crabapple seedlings to obtain Chinese crabapple stock seedlings;
3) stumping: watering the elm seedlings of the elm of the golden leaf and the rootstock seedlings of the crabapple in the step 1) and the step 2), and then carrying out stumping treatment on the elm seedlings of the golden leaf to obtain stumped elm seedlings of the elm of the golden leaf;
4) grafting: after the stumping golden leaf elm seedlings in the step 3) grow for one month, grafting the red balm begonia plants on the begonia stock in the step 3) to obtain the red balm begonia seedlings;
5) management: after the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) grow for 2-3 months, managing the seedlings of the stumped ulmus pumila in the step 3) according to the purpose of forming the seedlings, and obtaining formed red balm begonia in the next year;
6) transplanting: transplanting and planting management is carried out on the red balun begonia formed in the step 5);
planting the ulmus pumila in the step 1) in 3 months of each year, wherein the row spacing is 80-100cm, and the plant spacing is 40-60 cm; the row spacing between the crab apple stock in the step 2) and the elm seedling in the step 1) is 1-1.2 m; and the plant spacing of the crabapple stocks is 1-1.2m, and the ground diameter is 2-4 cm.
2. The method for promoting natural formation of red bayberry begonia according to claim 1, wherein the specific grafting process of the begonia seedlings in the step 4) is as follows: grafting red bayberry plants at the beginning of the fourth month of each year, and grafting 2-3 red bayberry plant scions on the crab stocks in the step 2).
3. The method for promoting natural formation of the red bayberry tree in claim 1, wherein the red bayberry tree is grafted in the step 4) by grafting.
4. The method for promoting natural formation of red bayberry begonia according to claim 1, wherein the red bayberry begonia grafting point in the step 4) is 0.7-0.9m from the begonia stock.
5. The method for promoting natural shaping of red bayberry begonia as claimed in claim 1, wherein the management process in step 5) is: after the seedling grows to 70-80cm after 6 months, managing the stumped Ulmus pumila seedlings according to the purpose of the parison-making seedlings.
6. The method of promoting natural shaping of red bayberry tree begonia, as claimed in claim 1, further comprising the steps of:
7) dressing and fertilizing: after the stumping ulmus pumila seedlings in the step 3) germinate, selecting 5 strong branches for each seedling, removing redundant branches, and performing fertilization management on the trimmed seedlings;
8) after the seedlings of the red balm begonia in the step 4) germinate, selecting and reserving 3-5 robust branches of each seedling of the red balm begonia when a new branch grows to 25-35cm, and removing other redundant branches.
7. The method for promoting natural formation of the red bayberry begonia according to any one of claims 1-6, wherein the red bayberry begonia formed in the step 5) can be manually trimmed to remove over-opened branches.
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