CN106573459A - 制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法和设备以及由此获得楼面覆盖层产品 - Google Patents

制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法和设备以及由此获得楼面覆盖层产品 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106573459A
CN106573459A CN201580040510.4A CN201580040510A CN106573459A CN 106573459 A CN106573459 A CN 106573459A CN 201580040510 A CN201580040510 A CN 201580040510A CN 106573459 A CN106573459 A CN 106573459A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
characterised
according
material
matrix
continuous film
Prior art date
Application number
CN201580040510.4A
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English (en)
Inventor
C·内耶尔特
Original Assignee
尤尼林有限公司
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Priority to US201462031554P priority Critical
Priority to US62/031,554 priority
Application filed by 尤尼林有限公司 filed Critical 尤尼林有限公司
Priority to PCT/IB2015/055826 priority patent/WO2016016864A1/en
Publication of CN106573459A publication Critical patent/CN106573459A/zh

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Abstract

用于制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法,其中该方法至少包括通过使基于合成材料的原材料(4)压实来形成单层或多层基体(3)的第一步骤,还包括在第一步骤之后的第二步骤,该第二步骤优选地根据所述第一步骤实施,其中将至少一种连续膜(6)层压到基体(3)上,其特征在于,所述层压是通过带式压力机(7)执行的。

Description

制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法和设备以及由此获得楼面覆盖层产品

技术领域

[0001] 本发明涉及一种制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法和设备以及由此获得的楼面覆盖层

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[0002] 更特别地,本发明涉及具有合成材料基体的楼面覆盖层产品的制造,在所述合成材料基体上层压至少一层膜。

[0003] 上面层压的所述膜可以是任何类型。然而,首先选择印刷膜,更特别地是装饰性膜。但是,这还可以涉及另一种膜,比如起到磨损层作用的膜。还有,上面可以层压多层膜,例如装饰性膜上面是用作磨损层的膜。

[0004] 然而,特别地但非限制性地,本发明的目的在于楼面覆盖层产品的制造,其基体是由热塑性合成材料构成的。

[0005] 更特别地,本发明涉及用作在支撑下地板上的楼面覆盖层的合成材料地板镶板的生产。一般已知的这种楼面覆盖层是乙烯基砖片,也称作LVT (豪华乙烯基砖片),因为到目前为止,它们大多数是以基于乙烯的。虽然本发明首要目标也是乙烯基砖片,但是显然其并不将其自身限制到这种合成材料,而是也适用于砖片(tiles),更特别地是至少基体是基于其他合成材料的地板镶板,例如聚丙烯(PP)、聚乙烯(PET)或聚氨酯(PUR)。优选地,这涉及半刚性或柔性合成材料,例如可以用增塑剂实现该目标。

背景技术

[0006] 层压在基体上的所述膜(或多个膜分别地)可以由任何合适的合成材料构成,但是优选使用PVC膜。其他示例是HJ、PP和PET膜。在使用PP膜的情况下,这例如可以涉及定向聚丙烯膜。在使用PVC膜的情况下,这优选地涉及硬质PVC膜,即基于PVC但没有增塑剂或者具有按重量计少于5%的增塑剂量的膜。这种硬质PVC膜可以以更高精度印刷,当然是在用水性油墨实施印刷的情况下。在这种情况下,在印刷过程中利用热源进行干燥操作是所需的,然而,通过选择硬质PVC,限制了膜可能的膨胀。所述磨损层优选地还包括热塑性材料,比如软质或硬质PVC、PU、PP或PET。优选地,透明热塑性磨损层没有固体添加剂,比如用于提高抗磨性能的陶瓷颗粒,不过并不排除这种颗粒。然而,本发明人已经发现为了获得良好的透明度可以将它们省去,但是仍然保持了可接受的抗磨损性能。

[0007] 根据一种替代方式,并不排除可以在磨损层的下侧上设置印刷装饰或者印刷图案,那就不必要为了施加装饰而单独设置膜。如果特殊情况下确实需要使用用于装饰的膜,可以仅在上侧上,或者仅在下侧上,或者在上侧和下侧上印刷。

[0008] 这种砖片实际上涉及可以是正方形、矩形长圆形的楼面覆盖层,或者可以具有任何其他形状。

[0009] 这里,可以设置的装饰可以形成木材图案或石头图案,或者任何其他图案,比如奇特的样式。

[0010] 在这种产品(例如所述乙烯基砖片)的表面上,可以分别设置由印痕(impress1n)形成的比如木材或石头结构。例如同样可以施加其他印痕以便于模仿位于较深处的节理或类似物。此外,这种结构可以与印刷图案一致实施也是众所周知的,这在英语中称作“registered embossed (对准的凹凸印)”。通过正如众所周知的这种“一致性”,应该理解的是这种结构是根据适配于印刷图案的图案实施,因此这些印痕不是关于印刷图案随意设置的。

发明内容

[0011] 本发明的目的在于一种方法,利用该方法通过将每个特定的生产步骤结合起来可以以特别平滑的方式实现这种以及其他楼面覆层产品,因此在这种生产工艺中同时在基体上获得良好的高质量的膜层压。

[0012] 为此,根据第一方面,本发明涉及一种用于制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法,其中该方法至少包括通过压实基于合成材料的原材料来形成单层或多层基体的第一步骤,以及包括在第一步骤之后的第二步骤,该第二步骤优选地根据所述第一步骤实施,其中将至少一种连续膜层压到基体上,其特征在于所述层压是通过带式压力机执行的。通过在基体的压实之后进行层压以及还通过依靠带式压力机实现该层压必然可以获得高质量的成品。因为在层压过程中,其是从已经基本压实的产品开始的,所以形成了适合于层压的最佳初始条件。因为在层压过程中使用了带式压力机,所以在较长的距离上保持了接触,可能存在的不精确性将会被进一步平整和/或以最小的变形可以确保良好的层压。

[0013] 优选地,在传送方向上将所述的一层或多层膜夹在带式压力机的带与基体之间至少0.5m的长度上,更佳地是至少I米的长度上。

[0014] 应该注意的是连续层压工艺之前已经众所周知了,但是这些工艺都没有使用带式压力机。

[0015] 在从属权利要求中描述了本发明的进一步的特征。

[0016] 根据最优选的实施方式,基体的形成是通过散播工艺实施的,其中将基于合成材料的原材料作为颗粒散播或者以任何其他方式散播,随后在压力机中压实。显而易见的是散播工艺提供了良好的起始基础以便于随后根据本发明向其施加层压。因此,例如在压紧散播材料后获得了非常平滑的表面,由此获得了用于层压连续膜的良好的下层表面。

[0017] 优选地,散播的颗粒或类似物通过连续压力机压实,更特别地是通过带式压力机,尤其是双带式压力机。带式压力机的使用还提高了由此获得的产品的平滑度。

[0018] 然而,之前描述的内容没有排除根据一种替代方式的所述基体可以通过挤压成型而形成,优选地是其中基于合成材料的材料、更特别地是原材料以层的形状被挤压的挤压品,或者通过类似的工艺成型,其中可以将多个层通过热层压方式一层层压在另一层上。

[0019] 优选地,形成基体的步骤具有如下特征的一个或多个:

[0020]-在原材料中,结合有除了合成材料之外的一种或多种其他材料,比如添加剂和/或填充物,尤其是滑石粉;

[0021]-将增强材料、更特别地是纤维结合到基体中,纤维优选地呈纤维垫、无纺布或例如玻璃纤维形式织物(比如玻璃纤维绒头织物、布或网织物)的一个或多个局部层的形式。

[0022] 优选地,所述第二步骤中连续膜的所述层压是通过双带式压力机实施的。

[0023] 特别地,优选地所述第二步骤中连续膜的所述层压是通过带式压力机实施的,所述带式压力机制作为等压压力机。这样提供了显著的优势。由此实际上可以获得非常均匀的层压。

[0024] 更特别地,优选地所述第二步骤中在带式压力机中的连续膜的所述层压是通过施加在带式压力机的带表面上的流体压力实施的,更特别地是在该带移动所沿的区域中。

[0025] 优选地,在所述第二步骤中,应用双带式压力机,其中使所述基体和连续膜一起在双带式压力机的两条带之间移动,其中在位于连续膜侧面上的带上施加流体压力,而另一条带起到了反向支撑件的作用。

[0026] 根据一种替代可能,对于在所述第二步骤中的所述层压,作为对之前提到的带式压力机的替代,使用另一种压力机,而该另一种压力机是等压压力机,更特别地,是利用均匀的流体压力在基体表面上方将所述膜直接或间接地压到基体表面上。显然任何形式的等压施压过程都会导致有利的结果。

[0027] 优选地,为了在压力机中形成压力,使用气态流体,更特别地使用空气,或者根据一种替代方式使用液体,例如油。

[0028] 从实际的角度出发,优选地所述膜在基体上的所述层压是通过熔融实施的。

[0029]因此,优选地为了提供熔融,在将基体和膜结合之前、结合过程中或者结合之后使所述基体和/或要被通过层压设置在基体上的膜达到合适的温度。要施加的温度的值是熔融发生的温度值,这是众所周知的和/或可以由本领域技术人员以简单方式确定的。

[0030] 之前提到的温度例如可以通过或者至少部分地通过一个或多个下面的可行方式达到:

[0031]-通过施加热量,该热量是存在于所述基体中的源于所述第一步骤的热量;

[0032]-通过在第一和第二步骤之间或者在第二步骤过程中向所述基体和/或所述连续膜添加热量。

[0033] 根据一个优选实施方式,在第二步骤过程中,经由放置在带式压力机起始点处的加热辊施加热量,该加热辊优选地是与所述连续膜接触的所述压力机的带的偏转辊。

[0034] 在层压接近结束时优选地提供冷却以便于使基体和膜组件压实。为此,为了所述层压,使用直接或间接地施加在带式压力机的带表面上的流体压力,其中经由该流体实施该冷却。

[0035] 应该注意的是所述连续膜优选地是装饰膜,更特别地是设有印刷图案的膜。该印刷图案可以事先在印刷机上完成,然而,根据本发明的一个优选的替代方式,在该制造过程中,但在层压之前,优选地通过数字印刷机或印刷单元直接对形成装饰层的所述膜进行印刷。这也没有排除在层压之后或者部分地在层压之前和部分地在层压之后实施印刷,然而优选地在所述表面中设置用于形成浮雕图案的可行印痕之前实施印刷。

[0036] 在一个优选实施方式中,印痕也设置在楼面覆盖层产品上侧中,更特别地是在相同的连续工艺中,尤其是在将连续膜层压到基体上之后。

[0037] 优选地,所述楼面覆盖层产品包括印刷装饰,印痕与所述装饰实现为所谓的“对准”。

[0038] 在一个特殊的实施方式中,这些印痕通过多部件或非多部件辊设置,所述辊表面上设有浮雕。

[0039] 更特别地,优选地使用沿着圆周方向看具有至少两部段的辊,每部段都设有浮雕,其中在圆周方向上,所述这些部段中的至少两部段的距离可以调节以便于改变实现所述印痕的“重复部”,其中该“重复部”根据装饰的位置调节和变化。

[0040] 优选地,这里的方法的特征还在于所述基体和所述连续膜不管是否与其他层在一起都形成了材料坯料(web),该材料坯料围绕之前提到的辊弯曲,使得至少在弧形部上所述浮雕与该材料坯料之间协作。更特别地,优选地材料坯料的材料保持与所述辊接触至少3秒,较佳地至少5秒。还优选地所述材料坯料施加到处于加热状态的所述辊,并且所述辊被冷却。

[0041]当然还可以应用其他技术用于提供印痕“对准”,或者也可以将不同的技术结合。

[0042] 根据本发明的可行方式,其特征在于所述连续膜是装饰层,在层压之前该膜承受受控的拉伸,以便于在宽度和/或长度上将所述装饰拉伸到更大或更少的程度,使得根据所需的最终结果调节所述装饰。

[0043] 所述楼面覆盖层产品可以设有半透明磨损层,例如是呈至少一种膜的形式和/或呈至少一种漆层的形式。

[0044] 在一种优选应用中,该方法的特征在于所述基体和所述连续膜无论是否与其他层在一起都形成了材料坯料,该材料坯料被切割成地板镶板,更特别地被切割成矩形长圆形或正方形面板或砖片。

[0045] 根据一个特殊的实施方式,所述地板镶板成型为使得在它们的边缘处没有连接部件,其中所述地板镶板属于旨在用于根据“松铺”原理安装的类型,或者属于用于通过胶粘到下面的表面而安装的类型。

[0046] 根据另一种可行方式,该方法的特征在于所述地板镶板在它们的边缘处设有连接部件,籍此可以将多块这样的面板在它们的边缘处以机械的方式彼此连接以便于由此提供优选水平以及竖直方向上的锁定。

[0047] 本发明的方法优选地适用于所谓的LVT砖片(豪华乙烯基砖片)或类似地板镶板的生产。

[0048] 根据本发明的一个变型,作为对使用所述连续膜的替代,使用层压在连续形成的基体上的相继的膜片。

[0049] 优选地,所述基体具有如下特征的一个或多个:

[0050]-所述基体的材料包含热塑性材料;

[0051]-所述基体的材料包含柔性热塑性材料,更特别地是设有增塑剂的热塑性材料;

[0052]-所述基体的材料是基于如下材料中的任一种:聚氯乙烯(PVC)、聚丙烯(PP)、聚乙烯(PET)或聚氨酯(PUR);

[0053]-所述基体的材料包含一种或多种填充材料,例如滑石粉;

[0054]-所述基体的材料,穿过其整个厚度或者仅其厚度的一部分基本是由合成材料和木材颗粒复合物构成的,更特别地是WPC (木材塑料复合物),其中所述合成材料优选使用这里上面提到的任何任一种合成材料制成;

[0055]-所述基体是由至少两层构成的,S卩比如在前面的段落中描述的层和没有或者基本没有木材颗粒并且基本是基于合成材料的层;

[0056]-所述基体包含增强层,比如玻璃纤维绒头织物或类似物。

[0057] 优选地,所述连续膜具有如下特征中的一个或多个:

[0058]-其涉及一种热塑性合成材料膜;

[0059]-其涉及一种PVC膜、PU膜、PP膜或PET膜;

[0060]-其涉及一种定向聚丙烯膜;

[0061]-其涉及一种硬质PVC膜,即基于PVC的膜但没有增塑剂或者具有按重量计少于5%的增塑剂量。

[0062] 根据一个特别优选的方面,该方法的特征在于基体从其制造开始到形成最终的楼面覆盖层产品都是以平整的状态操纵的,或者在弯曲过程中专门承受半径在40cm以上的弯曲。这样,可以以平滑的方式形成相对厚的材料坯料。

[0063] 根据本发明,并没有排除同时在相同的生产工艺中或者可能精确到相同的时刻通过所述层压设置两层或更多层膜,更特别地是合成材料膜。

[0064] 通过在优选的实施方式中将非常特定的技术彼此进一步结合,正如这里在上面讨论的,获得一种在许多方面中可以普遍适用的方法,其中还提供了从一个相同的带式压力机开始以最小的调节(例如具有不同的特征和/或不同的构造的产品)用于获得各种产品的更大的可能性。

[0065] 在一个优选实施方式中,根据本发明可以获得具有非常小的厚度以及具有更大的厚度从而更难弯曲的楼面覆盖层产品。厚度的实际值是2_6mm。

[0066]虽然本发明首先涉及地板镶板,但是其还可以适用于壁对壁楼面覆盖层产品的生产,比如以卷的形式销售的氯乙烯。

[0067] 当然应该注意的是其没有排除在基体的下侧上提供背层或下面层,比如汽密层,例如热塑性膜。

[0068] 漆层可以作为楼面覆盖层产品的最上面的层提供。这里,这可以例如涉及一种UV或电子束硬化漆层和/或PU漆层。这种漆层可以替代用作磨损层的所述膜,但是其还可以施加在上面用作附加层。

[0069] 优选地,正如这上面叙述的,本发明适用于制造地板镶板,这些地板镶板在各自的边缘上设有机械连接设施,更特别地是连接部件,这样允许可以将两块这样的地板镶板彼此连接使得在垂直于连接起来的面板平面的竖直方向上以及在垂直于连接的边缘并且在这些面板的平面内的水平方向上获得锁定。优选地,所述连接设施还显示出一个下面的特征或者两个或更多个下面的特征的结合:

[0070]-所述机械连接设施或连接部件基本上制作为由上唇缘和下唇缘界定的突舌和凹槽,其中该突舌和凹槽主要用于在所述竖直方向上进行锁定,其中所述突舌和所述凹槽设有另外的锁定部件,该另外的锁定部件主要用于在所述水平方向上锁定。优选地,这些锁定部件包括在所述突舌下侧上的凸出部和在最下面凹槽唇缘上的凹入部。例如可以从WO 97/47834中获知这种连接设施和锁定部件。

[0071]-所述机械连接设施或连接部件使连接起来的地板镶板压向彼此,例如因为这些机械连接设施是利用所谓的预紧力实现的,正如可以从EP I 026 341中获知的。使地板镶板压向彼此或朝向彼此的张紧力可以例如结合上面的特征通过下唇缘获得,所述下唇缘在连接位置上弯曲并通过试图弹回而压向所述突舌的下侧;

[0072]-所述机械连接设施通过使这些面板朝向彼此水平的、准水平的移动来实现连接;

[0073]-所述机械连接设施通过沿着各自边缘的转向移动来实现连接;

[0074]-所述机械连接设施通过使具有例如突舌的凸起连接部件向下移动进入到具有例如凹槽的凹入连接部件中实现连接,优选地以便于根据所谓的“向下折”原理安装这些面板;

[0075]-所述机械连接设施,或者至少其上边缘是通过利用转动磨铣工具的磨铣处理来实现连接的。

[0076] 优选地,所述连接设施基本上是在所述基体中实现的,更特别地至少在所述两层中至少一层中实现的,根据本发明所述两层封装有玻璃纤维层。优选地,所述连接设施通过利用转动磨铣工具的磨铣处理提供的。优选地,本发明的地板镶板涉及矩形、椭圆形或正方形的面板,所述面板在两相对的边缘对上均设有机械连接设施。

[0077] 设有连接设施的面板优选地具有至少2.5毫米的厚度,较佳地至少3毫米。

[0078] 正如这里在上面叙述的,本发明并不排除其适用于边缘处没有连接设施或连接部件的面板,其中这些面板旨在以它们的下侧与下面的表面进行胶粘来安装或者就是为了松弛安装。这些面板优选地具有小于6毫米的厚度,较佳地小于4毫米,但是优选大于1.5毫米。

[0079] 在将所述膜层压到所述基体之前,可以在所述基体的表面上实施校平处理。所述校平处理可以由例如磨铣处理和/或提供一层或多层塑料溶胶构成。优选地,该校平处理与所述基体的步骤一致实施。

[0080] 本发明还涉及一种用于制造楼面覆盖层产品的设备,更特别地用于实施前面提到的方法的设备,其特征在于其至少由用于通过使基于合成材料的原材料压实来形成单层或多层基体的装置以及连接到该装置的用于将至少一层优选连续膜层压在所述基体上的装置构成,其中后者的装置使用带式压力机。

[0081] 在一个优选实施方式中,所述设备设有具有正如这里上面描述的特征的压力机。

[0082] 所述设备可以包括用于形成印痕的装置以便于使所述楼面覆盖层产品在其表面上具有浮雕,其中该装置优选使用正如这里上面描述的辊。

[0083] 所述设备还可以包括印刷装置,优选地是数字印刷机,使用该印刷装置将装饰印刷在所述连续膜上,优选地是在将该膜提供到用于层压的所述装置的同时将装饰印刷在该膜上。

[0084] 此外,所述设备还可以包括用于实现这里上面所述的方法的一个或多个操作的一个或多个附加装置和/或附加措施。

[0085] 根据第二方面,本发明还涉及一种制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法,其中该方法至少包括用于通过使基于和合成材料的原材料压实来形成单层或多层基体的第一步骤,还包括在所述第一步骤后,优选地根据所述第一步骤实施的第二步骤,其中将至少一种连续膜层压在所述基体上,还包括第三步骤,其中在表面上形成印痕,其特征在于:

[0086]-形成所述基体是通过散播工艺实施的,其中将基于合成材料的原材料作为颗粒散播,接着在压力机装置中进行压实;以及

[0087]-所述印痕通过辊提供,所述辊的表面上设有浮雕,其中对于辊沿着圆周方向看所述辊设有至少两部段,每部段设有浮雕,其中在圆周方向上这些部段中的至少两部段之间的距离是可调节的以便于改变实现所述印痕的所谓的“重复部”,其中该“重复部”是根据施加的装饰的位置进行调节和改变的。

[0088] 根据该第二方面,所述层压步骤不太重要,可以以任何方式进行。通过散播工艺形成基体和使用可调节辊用于提供对准的印痕的结合导致了一种特别平滑的生产工艺。当然通过第一方面及其权利要求描述的所有其他特征也可以结合该第二方面使用。

[0089] 来自于所述第一方面的所有局部特征可以在该第二方面的方法中选择使用。

[0090]当然,在第一以及第二方面中,要被层压的所述膜为薄膜,其优选地具有小于Imm的厚度,较佳地小于0.5mm,甚至更佳地小于0.2mm。

[0091] 显然本发明还涉及通过前面提到的方法和/或通过使用前面提到的设备获得的楼面覆盖层产品。

附图说明

[0092] 为了更好地显示本发明的特征,下面作为没有任何限制性特征的示例,参照附图描述了一些优选实施方式,其中:

[0093] 图1示意性地示出了本发明的方法的一个可行实施方式,以及示意性地示出了该方式使用的设备;

[0094] 图2示出了一种变型。

具体实施方式

[0095] 在附图1中,示出了根据本发明的设备I,其至少由用于通过使基于合成材料的原材料4压实来形成基体3的装置2以及用于在所述基体3上层压至少一种优选连续的膜6的后续装置5构成,其中后面提到的用于层压该装置5使用带式压力机7,使得在一段定义好的距离上与所述基体3接触的所述膜6被施压。

[0096] 所述装置2优选地具有通过散播工艺形成所述基体的类型,其中基于合成材料的原材料4作为颗粒在该装置2的散播部8中散播,接着在压力机装置中或压力机部9中压实。正如示意性示出的,该压力机部9优选地是由双带式压力机10构成的。

[0097] 所述散播部8可以具有不同的构造并且还可以包括用于将诸如玻璃纤维绒头织物12之类的增强层结合到所述基体中的供应设施11。

[0098] 正如之前提到的并且根据本发明的第一方面,所述装置5包括带式压力机7。特别地,优选地该带式压力机7制作为等压压力机,其中在所述带式压力机中层压连续膜6是通过流体压力P实施的,该流体压力P施加在该带式压力机7的带14的表面13上。正如示意性示出的,为此可以沿着该带形成腔室15,该腔室由框架或边界16界定,其中在因此形成的腔室15中,可以形成压力,该压力作用在带14的相应部分上。这样,在层压过程中获得了均匀的压力,通过该压力可以形成平滑的层压。

[0099]显然所述带式压力机7优选地是双带式压力机,其具有用于提供必要支撑的第二带17。

[0100] 等压压力机的使用显示出在执行实际层压的位置上形成非常均匀的压缩的优点,通过该等压压力机基体平面和所述膜内的应力实际上被排除,这导致均匀的层压。

[0101] 示意性地示出了可以一起层压的另一种膜18。在实际的实施例中,所述膜6旨在用于形成装饰层,而所述薄膜18形成磨损层。应该注意的是并没有排除根据未示出的实施方式所述膜6和18每个是通过各自的带式压力机7层压的,其中两个带式压力机7然后必须一个接着一个安装。

[0102] 应该注意的是根据未示出的变型,并没有排除应用等压压力机,其中流体直接在相应的膜(或多个膜)上施压,而不是借助于带或任何其他元件。

[0103] 此外,所使用的方法还可以包括其他步骤,其中为此目的可以将必要的装置和/或附加的措施结合到所述设备中。

[0104]因此,例如根据一个重要的优选实施方式,该设备设有用于在要被形成的楼面覆盖层产品20中形成印痕的装置19。正如在附图中示出的,为此优选使用辊21,该辊21沿着圆周方向具有至少两部段22-23,每部段设有浮雕24-25,二者的浮雕可以相同也可以不同,其中在圆周方向上这些部段中的至少两部段之间的距离A1-A2是可调节的以便于改变所谓的“重复部”,利用所述“重复部”形成所述印痕,其中这种改变优选地是根据装饰的位置实施的,这样自动地生产所需的所谓的“对准凹凸印(registered embosssed)”产品。

[0105] 在所述装置19的入口处,可以设置例如通过红外线照射的加热装置26用于对相应的材料层或材料坯料27的上侧进行加热,优选地几乎达到熔化温度,以便于可以形成印痕。所述辊21可以被冷却以便于压实通过材料层27的冷却和硬化实现的所获得形式的印痕,该材料层越长,与辊接触的时间就越长。

[0106] 此外,在图中还示意性地示出了所述设备I还可以设有用于在所述基体至少一侧上附加校平处理的装置28,例如磨铣机。

[0107] 正如之前提到的,所述膜6旨在用于形成装饰层。为此,该膜6作为来自于供应辊29的印刷膜供应。然而,根据一种替代方式,印刷还可以通过装置30就地进行,更特别地是通过一种印刷装置,尤其是数字印刷机或印刷单元。

[0108] 还有,并没有排除提供一种用于优选地以可控方式对所述膜6进行某种拉伸的进一步的装置31,用于例如根据后面要设置的印痕样式调节装饰的长度和/或宽度。

[0109] 这样,例如通过所述装置31,可以提供对装饰宽度的额外调节,而通过所述装置19,通过适配平均的所谓“重复部”来提供对长度的调节。

[0110] 应该注意的是并没有排除首先使带式压力机7优先有一个或多个施压辊,不过优选不应该这样。

[0111] 在带式压力机7的入口处,优选地提供加热以便于将相应的膜6和/或18和/或基体的表面足够加热以通过熔融进行压实。这种加热可以通过在带式压力机7的入口处使用加热辊实施,更特别地是偏转辊32。然而,在所述腔室15中,优选地施加冷却流体,例如冷却空气,以便于以这种方式通过在熔融后硬化来实现压实。

[0112] 根据一种替代方式,其可以或不可以与带式压力机7入口处的加热结合,可以在腔室15中保持各种温度,或者还可以将所述腔室再分成多个部段,在所述多个部段中具有不同的温度。例如,在进入侧,可以保持高温度以便于促进熔融,而在出口侧可以提供冷却空

Ho

[0113] 最后,关于散播工艺的效果尤其应该注意的是,一方面与利用可调节辊形成印痕有关,另一方面下面的专利申请的所有信息必须被理解为通过引用结合在本申请中:

[0114] WO 2013/179261

[0115] BE 2014/0517

[0116] PCT/IB2014/058464

[0117] 在图2中,示出了一种变型,其特别之处在于使增强材料,尤其是增强层(比如玻璃纤维绒头织物12)与塑料溶胶接触,以便于在各层之间获得最终的较佳压实和粘合并将随后的分层风险降到最低。在图2的示例中,通过示意性示出的装置34在诸如玻璃纤维绒头织物12之类的增强层上设置塑料溶胶,这样其穿透玻璃纤维绒头织物并达到最下面的散播层的相对粗糙的表面。在图2中还示出了散播的第二层原材料4。通过提供胶化塑料溶胶,获得具有良好相互粘合性能的压实整体。当然对于胶化的塑料溶胶33,必须提供必要的热量。在示出的示例中,这是通过安装在所述装置34与第二散播装置之间的加热装置35实现的。应该注意的是该加热还可以在其他位置进行,例如第二散播装置的下游,在压力机部9中或者不在压力机部9中。应该注意的是还可以在使增强材料层12与散播的原材料接触之前将塑料溶胶供应到所述增强材料层12。

[0118] 根据一个未示出的实施方式,在施加增强材料层和塑料溶胶之后,在其上面不散播额外的原材料,使得所述塑料溶胶形成用于进一步处理的上层。在这种情况下,甚至不排除仅在压力机部9之后添加增强材料层和塑料溶胶,随后通过自身的压力机部对其进行引导或不进行引导。

[0119] 这里应该注意的是上面提到的使用塑料溶胶形成本发明的独立方面的可行方式,尤其是塑料溶胶与散播结合的位置和方式。因此这些独立方面可以与这里上面描述的进一步的下游使用的步骤结合使用或不结合使用。因此,并不排除与其他后续的生产技术进行全士么云口口 ο

[0120] 最后,还应该注意的是并不排除作为对安装在使所述膜6与所述基体接触之前的一个位置上的由于对该膜6进行印刷的装置30的替代,利用在优选是在提供可行的印刷之前将所述膜6层压到基体上之后提供印刷的装置。

[0121] 根据本发明的一个偏离的独立方面,在所述散播过程中进行的这里上面所述的一个或多个生产步骤与直接在形成的材料坯料上施加印刷进行结合,与是否施加所述膜6无关。作为一个示例,这意味着例如不提供所述膜6,也没有装置5,但是在该位置存在用于提供印刷的印刷装置。

[0122] 还应该注意的是,当设置透明漆层时,可以在将印痕设置在最终的表面上之前或之后设置透明漆层。

[0123] 绝不是要将本发明限制到这里上面所述的实施方式,相反根据各个变型实现的这种方法和设备并没有超出本发明的范围。此外,作为对地板镶板的替代,这些面板还可以作为壁板或天花板或者甚至作为家居面板。替代性地,本发明还涉及与这里上面描述的方法相同的方法,但是可以用于生产除了地板镶板之外的其他面板。

Claims (43)

1.用于制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法,其中该方法至少包括通过使基于合成材料的原材料(4)压实来形成单层或多层基体(3)的第一步骤,还包括在第一步骤之后的第二步骤,该第二步骤优选地根据所述第一步骤实施,其中将至少一层连续膜(6)层压到基体上,其特征在于,所述层压是通过带式压力机⑵执行的。
2.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,形成所述基体⑶是通过散播工艺实施的,其中基于合成材料的原材料(4)作为颗粒散播,并随后在压力机装置(9)中压实。
3.根据权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,散播的颗粒通过连续压力机压实,更特别地是通过带式压力机、尤其是双带式压力机(10)压实。
4.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,形成所述基体是通过挤压实施的,优选地是其中基于合成材料的材料、更特别地是原材料以层的形状被挤压成的挤压品,或者通过类似的工艺实施,其中能够将多个层通过热层压的方式一层层压在另一层上。
5.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,形成基体(3)的步骤具有如下特征的一个或多个: -在原材料中,结合有除了合成材料之外的一种或多种其他材料,比如添加剂和/或填充物,尤其是滑石粉; -将增强材料包括到基体中,所述增强材料更特别地是纤维,所述纤维优选地为呈纤维垫、无纺布或例如基于玻璃纤维的织物形式的一个或多个局部层的形式,所述基于玻璃纤维的织物比如为玻璃纤维绒头织物、布或网。
6.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述第二步骤中连续膜(6)的所述层压是通过双带式压力机(7)实施的。
7.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述第二步骤中连续膜(6)的所述层压是通过制成为等压压力机的带式压力机(7)实施的。
8.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述第二步骤中在带式压力机中的连续膜(6)的所述层压是通过施加在带式压力机的带(14)表面上的流体压力实施的,更特别地是在该带移动所沿的区域中。
9.根据权利要求8所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述第二步骤中,应用双带式压力机(7),其中使所述基体和连续膜一起在双带式压力机的两条带(14-17)之间移动,其中在位于连续膜侧面的带上施加流体压力,而另一条带起到了反向支撑件的作用。
10.根据权利要求7所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述第二步骤中的层压过程中,作为对所述带式压力机的替代,使用另一种压力机,该另一种压力机是等压压力机,更特别地,该另一种压力机是利用均匀的流体压力在基体表面上方将所述连续膜直接或间接地压到基体表面上。
11.根据权利要求7-10中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,为了在压力机中形成压力,使用气态流体,更特别地使用空气,或者根据一种替代方式使用液体,例如油。
12.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述连续膜(6)在基体上的所述层压是通过熔融实施的。
13.根据权利要求12所述的方法,其特征在于,为了提供熔融的目的,使所述基体和/或要被通过层压设置在基体上的连续膜达到合适的温度。
14.根据权利要求13所述的方法,其特征在于,所述温度通过或者至少部分地通过一个或多个下面的可行方式达到: -通过施加热量,该热量是存在于所述基体中的源于所述第一步骤的热量; -通过在第一步骤和第二步骤之间、或者在第二步骤过程中向所述基体和/或所述连续膜供应热量。
15.根据权利要求14所述的方法,其特征在于,在所述第二步骤过程中,经由布置在带式压力机的起始点处的加热辊施加热量,该加热辊优选地是与所述连续膜接触的所述压力机的带的偏转辊(32)。
16.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,在层压接近结束时设置冷却以便于使基体和膜的组件压实。
17.根据权利要求16所述的方法,其特征在于,为了所述层压,使用直接或间接地施加在带式压力机的带表面上的流体压力,其中经由该流体实施冷却。
18.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述连续膜(6)是装饰膜,更特别地是设有印刷图案的膜。
19.根据权利要求18所述的方法,其特征在于,形成装饰层的所述连续膜(6)是直接印刷的,因此在该制造过程中,在层压之前,优选地通过数字印刷机或印刷单元(30)直接对形成装饰层的所述连续膜进行印刷。
20.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,印痕设置在楼面覆盖层产品的上侧,更特别地是在一个相同的连续工艺中,优选地是在将连续膜层压到基体上之后。
21.根据权利要求20所述的方法,其特征在于,所述楼面覆盖层产品包括印刷装饰,印痕与所述装饰实现为所谓的“对准”。
22.根据权利要求21所述的方法,其特征在于,这些印痕通过多部件的或非多部件的辊(21)实施,所述辊的表面上设有浮雕。
23.根据权利要求22所述的方法,其特征在于,使用沿着圆周方向看具有至少两个部段(22-23)的辊,每个部段都设有浮雕,其中在圆周方向上,这些部段中的至少两个部段(22-23)之间的距离(A1-A2)能够调节,以便改变实现所述印痕的所谓的“重复部”,其中该“重复部”根据装饰的位置调节和变化。
24.根据权利要求中22或23所述的方法,其特征在于,所述基体和所述连续膜(6)不管是否与其他层在一起都形成了材料坯料,该材料坯料(27)围绕所述辊弯曲,使得至少在弧形部上产生所述浮雕与该材料坯料之间的协作。
25.根据权利要求24所述的方法,其特征在于,材料坯料(27)的与所述辊一起移动的材料保持与所述辊接触至少3秒,较佳地至少5秒。
26.根据权利要求24或25所述的方法,其特征在于,将所述材料坯料供应到处于加热状态的所述辊(21),并且所述辊(21)被冷却。
27.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述连续膜(6)是装饰层,在层压之前该连续膜承受受控的拉伸,以便于在宽度和/或长度上将所述装饰拉伸到更大或更小的程度,使得根据所需的最终结果调节所述装饰。
28.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述楼面覆盖层产品设有半透明磨损层。
29.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述基体和所述连续膜无论是否与其他层在一起都形成了材料坯料(27),该材料坯料被切割成地板镶板,更特别地被切割成矩形、长圆形或正方形的板或砖片。
30.根据权利要求29所述的方法,其特征在于,所述地板镶板成型为在它们的边缘处没有连接部件,其中所述地板镶板属于旨在用于根据“松铺”原理安装的类型,或者属于用于通过胶粘安装到下面的表面的类型。
31.根据权利要求29所述的方法,其特征在于,所述地板镶板在它们的边缘处设有连接部件,籍此能够将多块所述地板镶板在它们的边缘处以机械的方式彼此连接,以便于提供优选水平方向以及竖直方向上的锁定。
32.根据权利要求29-31中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,其适用于所谓的LVT砖片或类似地板镶板的生产。
33.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,作为对使用所述连续膜(6)的替代,使用层压在连续形成的基体上的相继的膜片。
34.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述基体具有如下特征的一个或多个: -所述基体的材料包含热塑性材料; -所述基体的材料包含柔性热塑性材料,更特别地是设有增塑剂的热塑性材料; -所述基体的材料是基于如下材料中的任一种:聚氯乙烯(PVC)、聚丙烯(PP)、聚乙烯(PET)或聚氨酯(PUR); -所述基体的材料包含一种或多种填充材料,例如滑石粉; -所述基体的材料,穿过其整个厚度或者仅其厚度的一部分基本是由合成材料和木材颗粒复合物构成的,更特别地是WPC (木材塑料复合物),其中所述合成材料使用这里上述的任何合成材料; -所述基体是由至少两层构成的,即比如在前面的段落中描述的层和没有或者基本没有木材颗粒并且基本是基于合成材料的层; -所述基体包含增强层,比如玻璃纤维绒头织物或类似物。
35.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述连续膜具有如下特征中的一个或多个: -其涉及一种热塑性合成材料膜; -其涉及一种PVC膜、RJ膜、PP膜或PET膜; -其涉及一种定向聚丙烯膜; -其涉及一种硬质PVC膜,即基于PVC的膜但没有增塑剂或者具有按重量计少于5%的增塑剂量。
36.根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,从其制造开始到形成最终的楼面覆盖层产品都是以平整的状态操纵的,或者在弯曲过程中仅承受半径在40cm以上的弯曲。
37.用于制造楼面覆盖层产品的设备,更特别地是用于实施上述方法的设备,其特征在于,其至少由用于通过使基于合成材料的原材料⑷压实来形成单层或多层基体⑶的基体形成装置(2)以及连接到该基体形成装置的用于将至少一层膜优选连续膜层压在所述基体上的层压装置(5)构成,其中所述层压装置使用带式压力机(7)。
38.根据权利要求37所述的设备,其特征在于,使用具有正如在权利要求6-9中任一项所述的特征的压力机。
39.根据权利要求37或38所述的设备,其特征在于,所述设备还包括用于形成印痕的装置(19),以便使所述楼面覆盖层产品在其表面上具有浮雕,其中形成印痕的该装置优选使用为根据权利要求21-26中任一项提供可行方式的辊。
40.根据权利要求37-39中任一项所述的设备,其特征在于,所述设备包括印刷装置,优选地是数字印刷机,使用该印刷装置将装饰印刷在所述连续膜上,优选地是在将该连续膜提供到用于层压的所述层压装置的同时将装饰印刷在该连续膜上。
41.根据权利要求37-40中任一项所述的设备,其特征在于,所述设备包括用于实现正如权利要求1 -36中所述的一个或多个操作的附加装置和/或附加措施。
42.用于制造楼面覆盖层产品的方法,其中该方法至少包括用于通过使基于合成材料的原材料压实来形成单层或多层基体的第一步骤;还包括在所述第一步骤后优选地根据所述第一步骤实施的第二步骤,其中将至少一种连续膜层压在所述基体上;还包括第三步骤,其中在表面形成印痕,其特征在于: -形成所述基体是通过散播工艺实施的,其中基于合成材料的原材料作为颗粒散播,并且随后在压力机装置⑶中进行压实;以及 -所述印痕通过辊(21)来提供,所述辊的表面上设有浮雕,其中对于所述辊,沿着圆周方向看所述辊具有至少两个部段,每个部段设有浮雕,其中在圆周方向上这些部段中的至少两部段之间的距离是能调节的,以便于改变实现所述印痕的所谓的“重复部”,其中该“重复部”是根据所施加的装饰的位置进行调节和改变的。
43.楼面覆盖层产品,其特征在于,其是根据权利要求1-36或42中任一项制造的。
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