CN106508339A - Planting method based on total returning of corn straws to field - Google Patents

Planting method based on total returning of corn straws to field Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106508339A
CN106508339A CN201610878057.0A CN201610878057A CN106508339A CN 106508339 A CN106508339 A CN 106508339A CN 201610878057 A CN201610878057 A CN 201610878057A CN 106508339 A CN106508339 A CN 106508339A
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soil
straw
hectare
fertilizer
acre
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CN106508339B (en
Inventor
王立春
任军
蔡红光
闫孝贡
沙洪林
刘剑钊
张洪喜
袁静超
迟畅
梁尧
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Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention relates to a planting method based on total returning of corn straws to a field. The planting method provided by the invention can effectively solve the problem of serious waste of straw resources, and completely eradicates the problems like air pollution, soil surface coking and traffic jam caused by straw burning and random disposal. Meanwhile, through implementation of the method provided by the invention, nutrient elements like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil are supplemented; soil organic matters are increased; soil fertility is improved; the phenomenon of soil pollution caused by large quantity application of a chemical fertilizer is reduced; the agricultural ecological environment is improved; the sustainable utilization of black soil resources is promoted; and the rapid development of agricultural modernization is pushed.

Description

A kind of implantation methods based on corn straw total crop return
Technical field
The present invention relates to agriculture field, and in particular to a kind of implantation methods based on corn straw total crop return.
Background technology
Semen Maydiss are the big crops of the first in the world, and the first big crop of China.Northeast is one of China's corn belt, beautiful Rice straw annual production is close to 70,000,000,000 jin, and a large amount of straws process the difficult problem for becoming puzzlement peasant and government.At present, in northeast ground Area, has 70% straw to go out of use burning, becomes clear day by day the problems such as the air pollution caused by which, the deterioration of the ecological environment.
The current farmland operation in the Northeast mainly wants power based on little four wheel mechanical, and straw-returning is mainly with stubble in field Based on, it is impossible to realize returning total stalks into fields.Which main reason is that:
1. weather conditions.After harvest corn, temperature is reduced quickly, and thing followed winter low temperature causes straw decomposition slow; Spring hits by drought 9 years out of 10, and often results in the moisture condition variation that seed with soil directly contact, can not plant tooth, hinder seed bud during sowing Growth, reduces yield.
2. chopper has.Mode of agriculture based on middle-size and small-size agricultural machinery working causes that crushed stalk degree is poor, also field Soil is excessively loose afterwards, it is serious to dissipate moisture in the soil, and impact is emerged and yield.
3. supporting technology.Some key technologies need to be broken through, and such as in mechanical aspects, need to research and develop good crushing effect, loss The low harvest machinery of rate and supporting site preparation, seeding machinery;In terms of agronomy, need solution ensure after sowing the seed in spring full stand and The high tillage control measure of regularity.
Although straw-returning is long-standing, and studies more, corn straw is difficult to realize so far aborning complete Amount also field, mostly part are also field (about 1/3 amount).Additionally, returning total stalks into fields only simulation test or field plot examination indoors It is capable of achieving in testing, is more common in thesis writing and delivers, but there is no actual operation.In based on produce reality, corn stalk is realized It is in the trial stage more stalk total crop return, and is difficult to solve the problems such as save Seedling and straw decomposition from damage.
The content of the invention
It is contemplated that realizing Stalk organic manure, fertilizing soil improves agroecological environment, ensures Black soil Sustainable use.Using the implantation methods of the present invention, not only in field, actual production operating level solves returning total stalks into fields Technical barrier, can be while emergence rate is ensured, ensureing that Semen Maydiss realize volume increase, and fertilizing soil.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a kind of implantation methods based on corn straw total crop return.
Technical scheme is as follows:
On the one hand, the present invention provides a kind of implantation methods based on corn straw total crop return, and methods described includes as follows Step:
1), after Semen Maydiss enter full ripe stage, harvested using large-scale maize harvesting machine, while by corn straw smashing, and Even throwing is dissipated in field;
2) 1.5-3.5 kg/acre of corn straw decay agent is sprayed, 6-8 kg/acre of carbamide is spread fertilizer over the fields;
3) straw is ploughed deeply to 20-30 cm layer of soil using pivot plow, then rotary tillage is raked, and reaches sowing state;
4) spring in next year when 5 centimetres of ground temperature of soil be 6-10 DEG C, soil plough horizon water content in 16%-24%, using flat Broadcast mode disposably completes sowing, fertilising operation, important city pressure.
Preferably, in step 1) in, corn stalk powder is broken to into length<12 centimetres, more preferably<10 centimetres;
Preferably, in step 2) in, the decay agent includes streptomycete, bacillus subtilises and koning trichoderma;
Preferably, in step 2) in, the decay agent is prepared by the following method:Will be comprising streptomycete, bacillus subtilis The stock solution of bacterium and koning trichoderma is 2 according to volume ratio:1:2 are added in fluid medium, wherein, unit volume in three kinds of stock solutions Living bacteria count is identical, and inoculum concentration is 0.1% (volume ratio), is then cultivated 3 days in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, the mixing training of gained Nutrient solution is the decay agent;
Wherein, material of the fluid medium comprising following mass percent:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5%NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder;
Preferably, in step 2) in, living bacteria count 200,000,000 in the decay agent/gram;
Preferably, in step 2) in, the amount of spraying of decay agent is 1.5-2.5 kg/acre, most preferably 2 kgs/acre;
Preferably, in step 2) in, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of carbamide is 6.5-7.5 kg/acre, most preferably 7 kgs/acre;
Preferably, in step 3) in, more than 130 horsepowers, ploughed depth is 30-35 centimetre to the power of the pivot plow;
Preferably, in step 4) in, the ground temperature is 7-9 DEG C, more preferably 8 DEG C;
Preferably, in step 4) in, the water content be 18%-22%, more preferably 20%;
Preferably, in step 4) in, the density of the sowing is:Low ten thousand plants/hectare of fertility plot 5.5-6.0, high fertility Ten thousand plants/hectare of plot 6.0-7.0;
Wherein described low fertility plot is alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen<110mg/kg, available phosphoruss<20mg/kg, available potassium<70mg/kg, have Effect zinc<The plot of 1.0mg/kg;The high fertility plot is alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen>140mg/kg, available phosphoruss>60mg/kg, available potassium> 150mg/kg, effective zinc>The plot of 2.0mg/kg.
Preferably, in step 4) in, the intensity of the important city pressure is 400-800g/cm2, more preferably 500-700g/ cm2, most preferably 600g/cm2
Preferably, in step 4) in, the fertilising be impose 60-90 kilogram/hectare nitrogenous fertilizer, 60-90 kilogram/hectare The potash fertilizer of phosphate fertilizer and 70-100 kilogram/hectare is used as base fertilizer, and 10-15 centimetre of deep placement.
Preferably, the method for above-mentioned corn straw total crop return is additionally included in Semen Maydiss needs the fertile critical period to apply using long-stalked crops The step of fertile machine topdresses (step 5), wherein typhon mouth phase impose 90-110 kilogram/hectare of nitrogenous fertilizer, and the pustulation period imposes 35-45 The nitrogenous fertilizer of kilogram/hectare;
Preferably, in step 5) in, the long-stalked crops fertilizer applicator is complete disclosed in patent ZL201520221164.7 Hydraumatic self-propelled long-stalked crops fertilization pesticide spraying machine;
Preferably, the implantation methods of above-mentioned corn straw total crop return are carried out at Manchurian middle part and eastern region; It is highly preferred that the annual rainfall in the area is more than 450 millimeters, accumulated temperature is more than 2600 DEG C.
The present invention both can effectively solving stalk resource serious waste problem, prevented straw burning again and arbitrarily disposed institute The problems such as air pollution, upper soll layer coking and traffic jam for causing.Meanwhile, also supplemented by implementing the method for the present invention The nutrients such as Nitrogen In Soils, phosphorus, potassium, increased the soil organism, soil of having fostered and apply fertilizer;Reduce due to a large amount of input chemical fertilizer And the soil pollution phenomenon for causing, improve agroecological environment;Black soil sustainable use is promoted, has promoted agriculture existing Generationization is fast-developing.
Straw-returning supplements soil using nutrients such as the organic substances and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium contained in crop material and supports Point, increased the soil organism.Equivalent to per mu of 5-10 kilogram of carbamide of administration, 3-4 kilogram of diammonium, sulphuric acid after maize straw 5-10 kilogram of potassium.The soil organism increases 0.01% every year.Straw-returning adds mass energy material to soil microorganism, all kinds of Micro organism quantity and enzymatic activity also accordingly increase, and can increase micro organism quantity 18.9%, and contact enzymatic activity can improve 33%, conversion Enzymatic activity can improve 47%, and urease can improve 17%.The decomposition to organic substance and the conversion of mineral nutrient is accelerated, Balanced soil acid-base value, so as to improve the effectiveness of soil nutrient, improves soil physical and chemical property, increases loosing soil, porosity Plus, capacity is reduced, and strengthens soil fertilizer water holding capacity.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is further described in detail with reference to specific embodiment, the embodiment for being given is only for explaining The bright present invention, rather than in order to limit the scope of the present invention.
Embodiment 1The implantation methods based on returning total stalks into fields of the present invention and the comparison with other also field planting patternss
1. test site
Large-scale demonstration, is disposed primarily in Central Jilin Gongzhuling Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science experimental plot, and test area amounts to 6.0 hectare.Test originates in 2011.
2. content of the test
The implantation methods of 2.1 this patents
After Semen Maydiss enter full ripe stage, harvested using large-scale maize harvesting machine, while by corn straw smashing, and Even throwing is dissipated in field.(step 1)
2 kgs/acre of corn straw decay agent is sprayed, 7 kgs/acre of carbamide is spread fertilizer over the fields;Wherein, the decay agent for being adopted is to pass through Prepared by following methods:By comprising streptomycete, bacillus subtilises and koning trichoderma stock solution according to volume ratio be 2:1:2 add To in the fluid medium of the material comprising following mass percent:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5%NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder, wherein, in three kinds of stock solutions, unit volume living bacteria count is identical, and inoculum concentration is 0.1% (volume ratio).3d is cultivated in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, and the mixed-culture medium of gained is the decay agent.(step 2)
With big-powered tractor, 30-35 centimetre is ploughed deeply, straw is ploughed deeply to 20-30 cm layer of soil, turned over weight target after burying and smash Big upturned soil block, sows in spring gently to be harrowed before planting again and treats sowing state.(step 3)
Spring in next year when 5 centimetres of ground temperature of soil be 8 DEG C, soil plough horizon water content at 20%, using Condar corn seeding Machine flat planting is sowed, and the density of sowing is:60000 plants/hectare, uniform ridge farming, 65 centimetres of row spacing are equidistant, single file sowing.Meanwhile, apply Base fertilizer, and deep placement 10- are used as with the potash fertilizer of the nitrogenous fertilizer of 90 kilograms/hectare, the phosphate fertilizer of 90 kilograms/hectare and 90 kilograms/hectare 15 centimetres.Then pressed using 600 grams/cm of intensity important city.(step 4)
Then, the step of Semen Maydiss need the fertile critical period to topdress using long-stalked crops fertilizer applicator, the wherein typhon mouth phase imposes 90 The nitrogenous fertilizer of kilogram/hectare, pustulation period impose the nitrogenous fertilizer of 45 kilograms/hectare.(step 5)
2.2 contrasts also field method
Contrast also field method adopts straw full dose top layer also field (0-10 centimetre), i.e., after harvest corn, straw is directly crushed It is even to shed field, decay agent and carbamide (step 2) is sprayed, is no longer broken ground, as next year treats sowing state.
3. determination of yield
Product method is harvested and surveyed, after Maize Physiological maturation, is selected representative points to survey and is produced, each processes and selects at 3 points, per 20 Square metre, in triplicate, per paid actual measurement grain yield is converted into output per hectare according to every yield.
4. result of the test
2015 annual production results are, the plantation side based on corn straw full dose returning (20-30 centimetre) of the present invention Method obtains maize grain yield for 11781.0 kilograms/hectare, straw full dose top layer also field (0-10 centimetre) (contrast plantation side Method) 10700.3 kilogram/hectare of maize grain yield, 20-30 centimetre of deep layer of straw also field (turn over and bury) of the present invention is than 0-10 centimetre Top layer also field (covering) volume increase 10.1%.Comprehensive analysis, corn straw full dose returning best results.
Embodiment 2The implantation methods based on returning total stalks into fields of the present invention and the comparison with other also field planting patternss
1. test site
Large-scale demonstration, is disposed primarily in Central Jilin area Gongzhuling City towards San He villages of tailo township, and floor space 4.3 is public Hectare.
2. content of the test
The implantation methods of 2.1 this patents
After Semen Maydiss enter full ripe stage, harvested using large-scale maize harvesting machine, while by corn straw smashing, and Even throwing is dissipated in field.(step 1)
2 kgs/acre of corn straw decay agent is sprayed, 7 kgs/acre of carbamide is spread fertilizer over the fields;Wherein, the decay agent for being adopted is to pass through Prepared by following methods:By comprising streptomycete, bacillus subtilises and koning trichoderma stock solution according to volume ratio be 2:1:2 add To in the fluid medium of the material comprising following mass percent:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5%NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder, inoculum concentration is 0.1% (volume ratio).Cultivate 3d in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, gained it is mixed Close culture fluid and be the decay agent.(step 2)
With big-powered tractor, 30-35 centimetre is ploughed deeply, straw is ploughed deeply to 20-30 cm layer of soil, turned over weight target after burying and smash Big upturned soil block, sows in spring gently to be harrowed before planting again and treats sowing state.(step 3)
Spring in next year when 5 centimetres of ground temperature of soil be 8 DEG C, soil plough horizon water content at 20%, using Condar corn seeding Machine flat planting is sowed, and the density of sowing is:60000 plants/hectare, wide-narrow row planting, 90 centimetres of wide row, 40 centimetres of narrow row.Meanwhile, impose The potash fertilizer of the nitrogenous fertilizer of 90 kilograms/hectare, the phosphate fertilizer of 90 kilograms/hectare and 90 kilograms/hectare is used as base fertilizer, and deep placement 10-15 Centimetre.Then pressed using 600 grams/cm of intensity important city.(step 4)
Then, the step of Semen Maydiss need the fertile critical period to topdress using long-stalked crops fertilizer applicator, the wherein typhon mouth phase imposes 90 The nitrogenous fertilizer of kilogram/hectare, pustulation period impose the nitrogenous fertilizer of 45 kilograms/hectare.(step 5)
2.2 contrasts also field method
Contrast also field method adopts straw full dose top layer also field (0-10 centimetre), i.e., after harvest corn, straw is directly crushed It is even to shed field, decay agent and carbamide (step 2) is sprayed, is no longer broken ground, as next year treats sowing state.
3. result of the test
Straw full dose 20-30 centimetre deep layer also 9288.2 kilogram/hectare of field (turn over and bury) maize grain yield of the present invention, 0- 10 centimetres of top layers also 8337.0 kilogram/hectare of field (covering) maize grain yield, returning increase production 11.4%- than mulching and returning 13.0%.Comprehensive analysis, corn straw full dose returning best results.
Embodiment 3The implantation methods based on returning total stalks into fields of the present invention and the comparison with other also field planting patternss
1. test site
Large-scale demonstration, is disposed primarily in Central Jilin area Gongzhuling City towards fort village of central authorities of tailo township, floor space 3.12 Hectare.
2. content of the test
The implantation methods of 2.1 this patents
After Semen Maydiss enter full ripe stage, harvested using large-scale maize harvesting machine, while by corn straw smashing, and Even throwing is dissipated in field.(step 1)
2 kgs/acre of corn straw decay agent is sprayed, 7 kgs/acre of carbamide is spread fertilizer over the fields;Wherein, the decay agent for being adopted is to pass through Prepared by following methods:By comprising streptomycete, bacillus subtilises and koning trichoderma stock solution according to volume ratio be 2:1:2 add To in the fluid medium of the material comprising following mass percent:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5%NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder, inoculum concentration is 0.1% (volume ratio).Cultivate 3d in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, gained it is mixed Close culture fluid and be the decay agent.(step 2)
With big-powered tractor, 30-35 centimetre is ploughed deeply, straw is ploughed deeply to 20-30 cm layer of soil, turned over weight target after burying and smash Big upturned soil block, sows in spring gently to be harrowed before planting again and treats sowing state.(step 3)
Spring in next year when 5 centimetres of ground temperature of soil be 8 DEG C, soil plough horizon water content at 20%, using Condar corn seeding Machine flat planting is sowed, and the density of sowing is:60000 plants/hectare, uniform row farming, 65 centimetres of row spacing are equidistant, single file sowing.Meanwhile, apply Base fertilizer, and deep placement are used as with the potash fertilizer of the nitrogenous fertilizer of 90 kilograms/hectare, the phosphate fertilizer of 82.5 kilograms/hectare and 82.5 kilograms/hectare 10-15 centimetre.Then pressed using 600 grams/cm of intensity important city.(step 4)
Then, the step of Semen Maydiss need the fertile critical period to topdress using long-stalked crops fertilizer applicator, the wherein typhon mouth phase imposes 90 The nitrogenous fertilizer of kilogram/hectare, pustulation period impose the nitrogenous fertilizer of 45 kilograms/hectare.(step 5)
2.2 contrasts also field method
Contrast also field method adopts straw full dose top layer also field (0-10 centimetre), i.e., after harvest corn, straw is directly crushed It is even to shed field, decay agent and carbamide (step 2) is sprayed, is no longer broken ground, as next year treats sowing state.
3. result of the test
Straw full dose 20-30 centimetre deep layer also 9339.9 kilogram/hectare of field (turn over and bury) maize grain yield of the present invention, 0- 10 centimetres of top layers also 8427.9 kilogram/hectare of field (covering) maize grain yield, returning is than mulching and returning volume increase 10.8%. Each demonstration pilot project averagely increases production more than 10.0%.Comprehensive analysis, corn straw full dose returning best results.
Embodiment 4Impact test of the different straw-returning modes to soil
1. test site
This test is started from 2011, is placed in Central Jilin area Gongzhuling City Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science experimental field, test 2.7 hectares of floor space.
2. test material and method
2.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Corn straw full dose direct returning to farmland is tested, and designs long-term tillage split plot experiment, and each is processed in triplicate, great Qu faces 2160 square metres of product.Primary area is straw-returning method, i.e. straw full dose mulching and returning and the buried also field of straw full dose, and secondary area is cultivated Make mode, i.e. wide-and narrow-row farming and uniform row farming.
2.2 content of the test
2.2.1 tillage method
Using two kinds of tillage methods.Uniform row farming, 65 centimetres of row spacing are equidistant, single file sowing;Wide-and narrow-row farming, 130 lis Duplicate rows is sowed in rice wide-and narrow-row sowing, 90 centimetres of leisure bands, 40 centimetres of seeding belts, and two kinds of tillage methods adopt Condar corn seeding Machine flat planting.
2.2.2 determination of yield
Product method is harvested and surveyed, after Maize Physiological maturation, is selected per great Qu representative points to survey and is produced, 20 square metres per, repeat Three times, per paid actual measurement grain yield is converted into output per hectare according to every grain yield.
2.2.3 straw-returning method
2.2.3.1 the implantation methods of this patent
After Semen Maydiss enter full ripe stage, harvested using large-scale maize harvesting machine, while by corn straw smashing, and Even throwing is dissipated in field.(step 1)
2 kgs/acre of corn straw decay agent is sprayed, 7 kgs/acre of carbamide is spread fertilizer over the fields;Wherein, the decay agent for being adopted is to pass through Prepared by following methods:By comprising streptomycete, bacillus subtilises and koning trichoderma stock solution according to volume ratio be 2:1:2 add To in the fluid medium of the material comprising following mass percent:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5%NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder, inoculum concentration is 0.1% (volume ratio).Cultivate 3d in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, gained it is mixed Close culture fluid and be the decay agent.(step 2)
With big-powered tractor, 30-35 centimetre is ploughed deeply, straw is ploughed deeply to 20-30 cm layer of soil, turned over weight target after burying and smash Big upturned soil block, sows in spring gently to be harrowed before planting again and treats sowing state.(step 3)
Spring in next year when 5 centimetres of ground temperature of soil be 8 DEG C, soil plough horizon water content at 20%, using Condar corn seeding Machine flat planting is sowed, and the density of sowing is:60000 plants/hectare.Meanwhile, impose nitrogenous fertilizer, the phosphorus of 90 kilograms/hectare of 90 kilograms/hectare The potash fertilizer of fertilizer and 90 kilograms/hectare is used as base fertilizer, and 10-15 centimetre of deep placement.Then using 600 grams/cm of intensity Press in important city.(step 4)
Then, the step of Semen Maydiss need the fertile critical period to topdress using long-stalked crops fertilizer applicator, the wherein typhon mouth phase imposes 90 The nitrogenous fertilizer of kilogram/hectare, pustulation period impose the nitrogenous fertilizer of 45 kilograms/hectare.(step 5)
2.2.3.2 implantation methods are contrasted
Contrast implantation methods adopt straw full dose top layer also field (0-10 centimetre), i.e., after harvest corn, straw is directly crushed It is even to shed field, decay agent and carbamide (step 2) is sprayed, is no longer broken ground, as next year treats sowing state.
3. test result analysis
3.1 different impacts of the straw-returning mode to yield
As a result show, corn straw full dose returning than full dose mulching and returning obvious effect of increasing production, with 2014 annual productions As a example by, 12335.9 kilogram/hectare of straw returning grain yield, 10788.9 kilograms of straw mulching and returning grain yield/public affairs Hectare, turn over and bury than covering volume increase 14.3%.
Reason includes that emergence rate survey result, returning 87.9%, mulching and returning 83.1% are turned over and bury ratio Cover and improve 4.8%;100-grain weight result, returning 31.9g, mulching and returning 30.1g are turned over to bury and are improved 1.8g than covering;Fringe grain Number result, returning 613 cover 587, and turning over to bury increases by 26 than covering.It can thus be appreciated that straw returning is than covering Also field, the collaboration raising of yield component indices, have played the yield potential of Semen Maydiss.
3.2 different impacts of the straw-returning mode to soil fertility
From 0-20cm and 20-40cm change of soil nutrient interpretations of result, after maize straw is implemented 3 years, receive in Semen Maydiss Take 0-20 centimetre after obtaining respectively and find that Bu Tong also the change of field method soil nutrient content is obvious with 20-40 centimetre of pedotheque analysis Difference.
0-20 centimetre of soil nutrient performance, content of organic matter result, returning 2.7%, mulching and returning 2.85% are turned over and are buried 0.15% is reduced than covering;Available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium content (mg/kg), returning 129.6,13.75,187.9 are covered also Field 117.6,9.2,167.2, turns over and buries than covering increase by 12.0,4.55,20.7 respectively;
20-40 centimetre of soil nutrient performance, content of organic matter result, returning 2.53%, mulching and returning 2.42% are turned over Burying increases by 0.11% than covering;Available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium content (mg/kg), returning 123.2,11.7,171.4 are covered Also field 110.0,8.24,166.9, turns over and buries than covering increase by 13.2,3.46,4.5 respectively.
Aggregate analysis, turns over to bury and significantly improves than being covered in the 20-40 centimetre of soil organism, the 0-40 centimetre of readily available nutrient of soil Significantly improve.Be conducive to the growth promoter in the Semen Maydiss time of infertility.Wide-and narrow-row is identical with uniform row farming trend.
From 0-20 centimetre and 20-40 centimetre of soil weight result of variations analysis, after maize straw is implemented 3 years, in jade Rice takes 0-20 centimetre respectively and finds that Bu Tong the also field method soil weight is substantially poor with 20-40 centimetre of pedotheque analysis after harvesting It is different.
0-20 centimetre of soil weight performance, 1.28 gram/cubic metre of returning, 1.56 gram/cubic metre of mulching and returning;Turn over and bury 0.28 gram/cubic metre is reduced than covering,
20-40 centimetre of soil weight performance, 1.46 gram/cubic metre of returning, 1.57 gram/cubic metre of mulching and returning;Turn over Burying reduces by 0.11 gram/cubic metre than covering.After corn straw returning, 0-40 centimetre of topsoil soils unit weight is substantially reduced, soil Earth gas phase value substantially increases.
From ground corn yield result, 0-40 centimetre of soil nutrient content and 0-40 centimetre of soil weight result total score Analysis, corn straw full dose are ploughed deeply also field technology and not only improve corn yield, increase topsoil soils organic matter again and available nutrient contains Amount, topsoil soils unit weight are substantially reduced, and gas phase value substantially increases.Wide-and narrow-row affects less with uniform row farming to which, and Semen Maydiss are produced Amount is identical with soil nutrient content and soil weight performance trend.
Embodiment 5Impact test of the straw form that different disposal is obtained also before field to corn yield
It is at present domestic to straw is further processed into biological carbon, or compost is more popular into fertilizer, based on this, carries out This test.
1. test site
This test is started from 2011, is placed in Central Jilin area Gongzhuling City Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science experimental field, test 1000 square metres of floor space.
2. test material and method
2.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Charcoal amount also field, i.e. the straw processing heap humic fertileizers such as corn straw also field test indirectly, design corn straw different shape, Straw processes black wood charcoal and straw directly returning to field, three kinds of comparative tests for going back field method, plot experiment, 104 square meter of plot area, weight It is multiple three times.Per hectare applies 3200 kilograms of charcoal amount.Dose (kilogram/hectare):N 225、P2O5 82.5、K2O 82.5;Fertilising side Method:Whole phosphorus, potash fertilizer and 40% nitrogenous fertilizer base fertilizer are applied, and topdress and apply on 60% nitrogenous fertilizer Semen Maydiss jointing stage artificial ridge.Base fertilizer Using low nitrogen composite fertilizer (15-15-15) with sowing side deep placement, topdress and use carbamide.
2.2 content of the test
2.2.1 straw-returning method
Corn straw goes back field method indirectly, and humic fertileizer corn straw heap rotten processing in heaps and anoxycausis are processed into black wood charcoal again Also field.After Return is harvest corn, with clearing in corn straw, it is then by unit area amount of application, respectively equal between ridge It is even to apply heap humic fertileizer, black wood charcoal and straw, then sowing state is treated after stubble-cleaning weight target.
2.2.2 farming and sowing
Uniform row farming, 65 centimetres of row spacing are equidistant, single file sowing;Using Condar corn drill flat planting.Sow, apply fertilizer, Important city pressure is disposably completed, and fertilizer side deep placement, seed manure are separated.
2.2.3 determination of yield
Product method is harvested and surveyed, after Maize Physiological maturation, is selected per cell representative points to survey and is produced, 20 square metres per, repeat Three times, per paid actual measurement grain yield is converted into output per hectare according to every yield.
3. test result analysis
The carbon amounts such as corn straw different shape also field yield result, three kinds of direct-black wood charcoal-heap humic fertileizer also field method, with As a example by 2014 annual productions, maize grain yield is respectively 12248.5-12712.8-12925.0 kilogram/hectare, and black wood charcoal and heap are rotten Fertilizer increases production 3.8%-5.5% than straw directly returning to field.Straw also field performance analysis indirectly, compost-black wood charcoal-straw carbon content difference For, 26.85%, 65.00%, 40.00%, 11918 kilograms of compost, 4923 kilograms of black wood charcoal, straw will be applied equivalent to per hectare 8000 kilograms.2800 yuan of black wood charcoal delivered price per ton, 500 yuan of heap humic fertileizer price per ton, per hectare applies black wood charcoal increases by 6982 yuan of expense, Applying heap humic fertileizer increases by 2979.5 yuan of expense.Comprehensive benefit analysis result, under the premise of maize grain yield does not significantly increase production, straw Direct returning to farmland benefit is optimal.
Embodiment 6The screening test of decay agent
1. test reagent
Stock solution comprising three kinds of strains is mixed according to different proportion, (following ratio is volume to carry out 6 process tests Than).
Process 1:Koning trichoderma:Streptomycete:Bacillus subtilises=2:1:2
Process 2:Koning trichoderma:Streptomycete:Bacillus subtilises=1:1:1
Process 3:Koning trichoderma:Streptomycete:Bacillus subtilises=2:1:1
Process 4:Koning trichoderma:Streptomycete:Bacillus subtilises=1:2:1
Process 5:Koning trichoderma:Streptomycete:Bacillus subtilises=2:2:1
Process 6:Koning trichoderma:Streptomycete:Bacillus subtilises=1:1:2
2. test method
The measure of living bacteria count, using colony counting method.
A, dilution:Mixed bacteria liquid is taken in 10 milliliters of sterilized water for adding 90 milliliters, 20 minutes is stood, in rotary shaker Upper 200 revs/min of fully shakings 30 minutes, mother solution bacteria suspension (basal liquid)
5.0 milliliters of mother solution bacteria suspensions are drawn respectively with Sterile pipette to add in 45 milliliters of sterilized water, according to 1:10 are carried out It is serially diluted, respectively obtains 1:1*101, 1:1*102, 1:1*108
B, sample-adding and culture:Each sample takes 106Dilution factor, with Sterile pipette draw respectively different dilution factor bacterium hang 0.1 milliliter of liquid, adds on solid medium flat board well prepared in advance, respectively with sterile glass scraper by different dilution bacterium Suspension is equably applied to agar surface.Each dilution factor is repeated 3 times, while blank is made with sterilized water, in suitable condition Lower culture.
C, bacterium colony identification:Taking-up represents bacterium colony and confirms the validity bacterium by smear, dyeing, microscopy, carries out plate count.
D, colony counting:
Computational methods:
nv:Volume living bacteria count (hundred million/milliliter), v1:Basal liquid volume (milliliter), v2:Bacteria suspension addition (milliliter), v0:Sample size (milliliter),Bacterium colony average (individual), K:Extension rate.
3. result of the test
Koning trichoderma can be seen that by result in table:Streptomycete:The optimal proportion of bacillus subtilises is 2:1:2.
Embodiment 7Different decay agents process impact test of the straw to straw degradative
1. test site
In city of Gongzhuling of Jilin Province towards tailo town great Fang Shen villages, carry out from bacteriostatic agent and other two kinds of microbial inoculum field efficacies Plot experiment is contrasted, in order to verify the Degradation effect of becoming thoroughly decomposed from bacteriostatic agent in corn straw.
2. materials and methods
2.1 test articles for use
Composting strain has 3:1) the VT-1000 bacterium of Beijing Voto Sky & Land Biotech Co., Ltd.'s production introduced Agent;2) (debirs zymocyte is bent, and product is stepped on for the straw decomposing inoculant of the system in Beijing Jing Pu Yuan biological engineering company limited production introduced Note card number:Microorganism fertilizer (2003) is quasi- word (0114) number;Execution standard:GB20287-2006);3) from bacteriostatic agent:Will be comprising chain The stock solution of mycete, bacillus subtilises and koning trichoderma is 2 according to volume ratio:1:2 are added to comprising following mass percent In the fluid medium of material:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5%NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder, connect Kind of amount cultivates 3d for 0.1% (volume ratio), then in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, and the mixed-culture medium of gained is the decomposition Agent.
2.2 test period
On July 8,2015 on the 8th June in 2015.
2.3 test soil
It is black earth for trying soil Gongzhuling, soil pH value 6.7, organic matter 2.8%, 124.3 mg/kg of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen are fast Effect 19.6 mg/kg of phosphorus, 131.4 mg/kg of available potassium.
2.4 test method:
Fermentation material proportioning is corn straw 80%, and cattle manure (or pig manure) 20%, 1000 kilograms of siccatives add 1.5 kilograms of brown sugar, Plus 3 kilograms of carbamide, 300 kilograms of clear water are added, 2 liters of (2 kilograms) microbial inoculums are added.0.2% microbial bacterial agent of compost dry weight is pressed Uniformly apply in compost, the trapezoidal heap fermentation of material, high 150 cm of heap, wide 200 cm in windrow bottom, length Do not limit.Straw is crushed with pulverizer.The appropriate shading such as Polypropylence Sheet is covered after bank is good.Fermentation time 1 month or so, works as material Start turning when temperature is more than 60 degree, it is ensured that compost aerobic process, it is to avoid cause local anaerobic process, turning in 5-6 days 1 time, one As turning 3-4 time.
This test sets 3 process altogether:
1) 80%+20% cattle manure of corn straw+straw decomposing inoculant;
2)+20% cattle manure+VT-1000 microbial inoculums of 80% corn straw;
3)+20% cattle manure of 80% corn straw+from bacteriostatic agent.
2.5 data statistical approach
Result of the test statistical analysiss are test using t.
3. result of the test
The straw degradative speed of three kinds of process is all increased over time and is accelerated, and is not significantly different from.But straw degradative Degree truly has difference, and the straw degradative rate for processing 1 is 35.77%, and the straw degradative rate for processing 2 is 38.82%, processes 3 straw Stalk degradation rate is 40.2%, is better than other two kinds of microbial inoculums it is possible thereby to verify from bacteriostatic agent.
Embodiment 8The decay agent difference amount of spraying field efficacy experiment
1. test site
Jilin Province Qianan County Yan Zi townshiies, have carried out the field efficacy experiment of the decay agent difference amount of spraying, in order to verify difference Straw decomposing effect under the conditions of the amount of spraying.
2. materials and methods
2.1 test material
Fertilizer:Decay agent (the self-control i.e. of the invention that Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science agricultural resource is produced with Environmental Research Institute Decay agent), the product living bacteria count be >=2.0 hundred million/gram.
Crop:Corn straw (length is 5 cms).
2.2 for examination soil
It is light chernozem for trying soil, basic physicochemical character pH value, organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, rapid available phosphorus, available potassium are distinguished For:7.9th, 2.5%, 125.7 mg/kgs, 21.2 mg/kgs, 130.8 mg/kgs.
2.3 test method
Test sets 5 process:
Control (ck):650,000 grams/acre of straw-returning, fresh water spraying.
Process 1:650,000 grams/acre of straw-returning, 4,000 grams/acre of decay agent are watered 20 liters and spray.
Process 2:650,000 grams/acre of straw-returning, 3,000 grams/acre of decay agent are watered 20 liters and spray.
Process 3:650,000 grams/acre of straw-returning, 2,000 grams/acre of decay agent are watered 20 liters and spray.
Process 4:650,000 grams/acre of straw-returning, 1,000 grams/acre of decay agent are watered 20 liters and spray.
Each process is repeated 3 times, and sample is taken out in the 10th day, 20 days and 30 days respectively in straw decomposition, dries, weighs, For determining degradation effect of the different decomposing agents to straw.
3 results and analysis
It it is 650,000 grams/acre in crop-residue incorporation, control straw degradative rate is 12.3%, the 1 straw degradative rate of process is 41.01%, the 2 straw degradative rates that process are 40.85%, and the 3 straw degradative rates that process are 40.8%, and the 4 straw degradative rates of process are 30.92%, as a result as can be seen that process 1, process 2, process 3 degradation rate it is very nearly the same.It is so certain in area, spray into Under conditions of this is certain, 2,000 grams/acre of best results of decomposing agent.
Embodiment 9Different suppression intensive parameter comparative tests
Important city pressure is an important step in implantation methods of the invention, is capable of achieving soil moisture conservation, strengthens the effect of root after the pressure of important city, Based on this, for important city Compressive Strength is screened.
1. test method
With reference to zero property test standard, soil is ploughed, depth is 25 centimetres, soil through sieve it is thin, pave, reach unit weight To 0.95 gram/cc or so, module static pressure is taken in suppression, and during process, soil moisture keeps 20.1% and 20.6%, then Simulated using different pressure, Parameters variation is by 0,300,600,1200,2400 grams/cm;It is black earth and chestnut for trying soil Calcium soil.
2. result of the test
As a result show, on chestnut soil, under different pressure, soil weight change is extremely close with the result of the test on black earth. On black earth during 600 grams/cm of unit area pressure, unit weight is 1.28 grams/cc (preferable unit weight state), in chestnut On calcium soil, during 600 grams/cm of unit area pressure, unit weight is 1.23 grams/cc (optimal unit weight state);Unit During 1200 grams/cm of area pressure, the unit weight at two is 1.38 grams/cc.
Heavy compactor is made with reference to this quantitative value, from the point of view of land presser is using rear field soil compacting situation, mostly for Between 1.21-1.25 (the optimal unit weight state of soil), preserve soil moisture, keep a full stand of seedings all right, do not find bad phenomenon.Based on this, middle part The reasonable pressure of black earth test is 600-650 gram/cm.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of implantation methods based on corn straw total crop return, methods described comprise the steps:
1), after Semen Maydiss enter full ripe stage, harvested using large-scale maize harvesting machine, while by corn straw smashing, and uniformly throw Dissipate in field;
2) 1.5-3.5 kg/acre of corn straw decay agent is sprayed, 6-8 kg/acre of carbamide is spread fertilizer over the fields;
3) straw is ploughed deeply to 20-30 cm layer of soil using pivot plow, rotary tillage is raked, reaches sowing state;
4) spring in next year when 5 centimetres of ground temperature of soil be 6-10 DEG C, soil plough horizon water content in 16%-24%, using flat planting side Formula, disposably completes sowing, fertilising operation, important city pressure.
2. method according to claim 1, wherein in step 1) in, corn stalk powder is broken to into length<12 centimetres, preferably Be crushed to length<10 centimetres.
3. method according to claim 1 and 2, wherein in step 2) in, the decay agent includes streptomycete, hay spore Bacillus and koning trichoderma;
Preferably, in step 2) in, the decay agent is prepared by the following method:Will comprising streptomycete, bacillus subtilises and The stock solution of koning trichoderma is 2 according to volume ratio:1:2 are added in fluid medium, and inoculum concentration is 0.1% (volume ratio), then Cultivate 3 days in 38 DEG C of constant-temperature tables, the mixed-culture medium of gained is the decay agent;
Wherein, material of the fluid medium comprising following mass percent:0.5% peptone, 0.5% sucrose, 0.5% NaCl, 0.3%CaCO3With 0.1% yeast powder;
Preferably, in step 2) in, living bacteria count 200,000,000 in the decay agent/gram.
4. the method according to any one of claim 1-3, wherein in step 2) in, the amount of spraying of decay agent is 1.5- 2.5 kgs/acre, most preferably 2 kgs/acre;
Preferably, in step 2) in, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of carbamide is 6.5-7.5 kg/acre, most preferably 7 kgs/acre.
5. the method according to any one of claim 1-4, wherein in step 3) in, the power of the pivot plow is 130 More than horsepower, ploughed depth is 30-35 centimetre.
6. the method according to any one of claim 1-5, wherein in step 4) in, the ground temperature is 7-9 DEG C, more preferably Ground is 8 DEG C;
Preferably, in step 4) in, the water content be 18%-22%, more preferably 20%.
7. the method according to any one of claim 1-6, wherein in step 4) in, the density of the sowing is:Low fertilizer Ten thousand plants/hectare of power plot 5.5-6.0, high ten thousand plants/hectare of fertility plot 6.0-7.0;
Preferably, in step 4) in, the intensity of the important city pressure is 400-800 gram/cm, more preferably 500-700 Gram/cm, most preferably 600 grams/cm.
8. the method according to any one of claim 1-7, wherein in step 4) in, the fertilising is public for imposing 60-90 The nitrogenous fertilizer of jin/hectare, the potash fertilizer of 60-90 kilogram/hectare of phosphate fertilizer and 70-100 kilogram/hectare are used as base fertilizer, and deep placement 10- 15 centimetres.
9. the method according to any one of claim 1-8, the method is additionally included in Semen Maydiss needs the fertile critical period to adopt high stalk The step of crop fertilization machine topdresses (step 5), wherein typhon mouth phase impose 90-110 kilogram/hectare of nitrogenous fertilizer, and the pustulation period chases after Apply 36-45 kilogram/hectare of nitrogenous fertilizer.
10. the method according to any one of claim 1-9, wherein methods described are on Manchurian middle part and east ground Area is carried out;
Preferably, the annual rainfall in the area is more than 450mm, and accumulated temperature is more than 2600 DEG C.
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CN108283030A (en) * 2017-06-27 2018-07-17 湖北农谷畅响土壤修复科技股份有限公司 A kind of method that high stubble straw-returning rots soon
CN108142030A (en) * 2018-02-01 2018-06-12 鞍山市欣鑫农资销售连锁有限公司 A kind of corn soil improvement combating drought and raising yields method
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CN108863495A (en) * 2018-09-28 2018-11-23 周口市农业科学院 Shajiang black meadow soil area glutinous corn formulation fertilizer and use technology
CN111226709A (en) * 2018-11-29 2020-06-05 长春市农业机械研究院 Corn straw full-quantity row-concentration covering no-tillage operation method
CN109717028A (en) * 2019-03-02 2019-05-07 吉林省农业科学院 Crop rotation implantation methods between a kind of corn soybean returning total stalks into fields
CN110574644A (en) * 2019-09-18 2019-12-17 广东省生物工程研究所(广州甘蔗糖业研究所) Green planting method for fruit corn
CN110574644B (en) * 2019-09-18 2021-05-11 广东省生物工程研究所(广州甘蔗糖业研究所) Green planting method for fruit corn
CN111096203A (en) * 2019-11-13 2020-05-05 吉林省农业科学院 Spring corn super-high-yield nutrient efficient planting method
CN111010916A (en) * 2019-12-25 2020-04-17 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所 Method for in-situ rapid degradation of dragon fruit branches

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