CN105706683A - Peanut cultivation method - Google Patents

Peanut cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105706683A
CN105706683A CN201610056649.4A CN201610056649A CN105706683A CN 105706683 A CN105706683 A CN 105706683A CN 201610056649 A CN201610056649 A CN 201610056649A CN 105706683 A CN105706683 A CN 105706683A
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China
Prior art keywords
seed
soil
seedling
furrow
arachidis hypogaeae
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CN201610056649.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李明
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Hexian Niexingwei Vegetable Crop Co Ltd
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Hexian Niexingwei Vegetable Crop Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610056649.4A priority Critical patent/CN105706683A/en
Publication of CN105706683A publication Critical patent/CN105706683A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/34Nitriles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/90Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having two or more relevant hetero rings, condensed among themselves or with a common carbocyclic ring system
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/38Solanaceae [Potato family], e.g. nightshade, tomato, tobacco or chilli pepper
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture

Abstract

The invention discloses a peanut cultivation method.The method includes the following technical scheme including soil preparation and bedding, special pesticide preparation, seed selection and sowing, fertilization management, field management, and harvesting.When upper leaves of plants become yellow, lower leaves of the plants fall gradually, 80% of pod hulls are hardened, patterns are clear, grains are plump and seed coats become red, peanuts can be harvested.The peanut cultivation method is a scientific and standard planting and cultivation technology, the yield of peanuts is increased, quality of the peanuts is improved, and economic benefits of farmer households or an agricultural cooperative are improved.

Description

One cultural method cultivated peanut
Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting field, particularly a cultural method cultivated peanut.
Background technology
Semen arachidis hypogaeae (Peanut) is one of main oil crop of China, and economic worth is high, and purposes is wide.Semen arachidis hypogaeae contains the nutrients such as rich in protein, unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin E, nicotinic acid, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium.Its property is put down, and sweet in the mouth has memory reinforcing, aging resistance, hemostasis, prevention cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease;There is moistening the lung and resolving phlegm simultaneously, nourish regulating QI, the medicinal efficacy of moistening and cleaning throat cough-relieving.Oleum Arachidis hypogaeae semen is the important source material of food industry and light industry, and the peanut residue after Semen arachidis hypogaeae oil expression can be made into food or as concentrated feed and fertilizer, peanut stem leaf goes back to field and makees fertilizer, can increase the content of the soil organism and ammonia, phosphorus, potassium.
At present, the yield of Semen arachidis hypogaeae is uneven, and it main reason is that does not have planting technology scientific, normalized.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is to provide a cultural method cultivated peanut, and scientifically, standardized planting cultivation technique, improves yield and the quality of Semen arachidis hypogaeae, improves the economic benefit of plantation family or agricultural cooperative society.
For achieving the above object, the cultural method cultivated peanut that the present invention proposes, it includes following technical scheme:
One, wholelyly and bedding: Semen arachidis hypogaeae is deep rooted plant, suitably deepens arable layer, is conducive to improving the yield and quality.Preferably on the basis of winter autumn ploughing, early top icepro is raked the soil level, and in order to retaining and conserveing soil moisture, improves ground temperature.Ploughing depth general winter ploughing 26 33cm, spring ploughing 14-17cm is advisable.It is further noted that smooth, loose, in small, broken bits, moistening.Adopt one of narrow furrow, high furrow major measure being to ensure that Semen arachidis hypogaeae stable high yield.Paddy field Semen arachidis hypogaeae furrow width is typically in 132-165cm (containing furrow ditch), and physical features is low, and the field that level of ground water is high can be reduced to 118.8-132cm.High 16.5 26.4cm of furrow.Furrow ditch is advisable with 33 39.6cm.The narrow furrow favourable draining of height furrow, improves germination percentage.Arid hillside field, should adopt wide 198 264cm of furrow, the specification of furrow height 13.2-16.5cm.Ridge culture is adopted to be also beneficial to irrigation and drainage, field management, raising soil temperature and ventilation and penetrating light.
Plastic film mulching cultivation, by the width bedding of film, if film width 80cm, then furrow width also should be 80cm, and wherein furrow ditch is 30 33cm, furrow face width 47 50cm.Sow while there is sufficient moisture in the soil after Ying Qi furrow and carry out overlay film, film must be made to be close to furrow face, and with earth, film surrounding is compressed.
Two, special-purpose insecticide is prepared: special-purpose insecticide is prepared by the component raw material of following weight portion and obtained: Flos Daturae 2, Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii 3, Radix Gentianae 3, Rhizoma Coptidis 1, Folium Perillae 1, Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii 1, Herba et Flos Pyrethri Cinerariifolii 5, water 16, its preparation process is: 1, boiled by above-mentioned raw materials, and maintain boiling time 3-6h, now leach solution A, every kilogram of A adds 50% avilamycin 200-300 gram, mixes to obtain the first insecticide;2, Flos Daturae prepared for previous step, Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii, Radix Gentianae, Rhizoma Coptidis, Folium Perillae, Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii, Herba et Flos Pyrethri Cinerariifolii are pulverized by cintrifugal disintegrator, 1500 times of liquid of Bravo wettable powder are injected again in this ground product, the weight ratio of ground product and aqueous solution is 2:7, after depositing 48 hours, leach solution and obtain the second insecticide;3, soil insecticide made by the waste residue collecting second step generation;
Three, seed selection and sowing:
1, seed selection and seed treatment: selecting fruit type big, peel is thin, fruit shape is rectified, and the kind that commodity is higher, as Shandong spends 8,9, No. 10;Basking seeds before broadcasting, before sowing of in good time peeling off, band shell is basked seeds l-2d, it is desirable to shine on soil threshing ground, in order to avoid high-temperature damage seed.Germination test should be carried out, to measure germinating energy and the germination percentage of seed before peeling off.Should peel off by l 2d prior to seeding, with stripping with broadcasting, it is to avoid peel off too early make seed water suction make moist, courses of infection or mechanical damage.After peeling off should hybrid, blighted grain, granule, broken kind of grain, infect pest and disease damage and have the seed of feature of going mouldy to sort out, being important to sort out seed coat has local shedding or the seed of the slight damaged of cotyledon.Remaining full seed is divided into two-stage by size, full big grain as one-level, remaining is as two grades.According to test: first order seed (every 100 weight 90g) is made kind of average every 0.067m2 and produced pod 286.4kg, the ratio 263kg of secondary seed (every 100 weight 70g) increases production 8.9%.Peanut seed is dressed seed by the first insecticide and the molydbenum fertilizer mixing that use 22%, accelerates nodule formation, strengthen the nitrogen fixation of Semen arachidis hypogaeae while sterilization and disinsection;
2, sowing: mid-March, seeding layer ground temperature is stable to be sowed when more than 15C.Plastic-film-covered cultivation can improve soil temperature, and the total activity accumulated temperature grown flowers the raw time of infertility than dew increases by 195.3 370.8 DEG C, and therefore, sowing time does sth. in advance about 10 days because of what plant than locality dew.Early sowing within the scope of proper seeding, improves setting ratio to making full use of effective accumulated temperature condition, significant.The quality of peanut seeding should meet the requirement that Seedling is complete, Miao Qi, Seedling are strong.Miao Quan and emergence rate are at more than 90%-95%;Miao Qi and germinable seed all sprout at beginning Seedling for 34 days entirely;Namely Miao Zhuan goes out cotyledon when growing sturdily and reveals soil or partly reveal soil, and the petiole that first launches leaf is long, and blade is big, and leaf color is bud green.For ensureing full stand, improve per unit area yield, after Semen arachidis hypogaeae is emerged 34 days, Seedling should be looked in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, the seed reseeded should first presoaking and germinating, to catch up with the seedlings speed of growth of early sowing as far as possible.
Four, fertilizing management:
1, base manure: Semen arachidis hypogaeae base manure amount of application generally should account for the 70%-80% of total fertilization amount, based on the organic fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, coordinates the inorganic fertilizer such as calcium superphosphate, potassium chloride, Calx.The nitrogen of base manure, phosphorus, potassium can be used in the ratio of 1:1:2.Base manure consumption is few, should concentrate and make lid seed manure, in order to growth of seedling.Plant ash, potassium sulfate, Calx etc. in conjunction with seedbed preparation, should uniformly be removed and execute, and harrow an even rear drill seeding kind.Calcium superphosphate to do sth. in advance more than 15 20 days with become thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure compost, be beneficial to improve the fertilizer efficiency of phosphate fertilizer.
2, topdressing: should topdress based on Seedling Stage, the florescence, fruiting period, topdresses is auxiliary, and the full fruit phase determines foliage top dressing according to Plant status.
(1) seedling stage 35, the leaf phase used quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer, to promoting branch early to send out energetic and increase the aspects such as flower, pod number have good effect.General every 667m2 carbamide 5 6kg, or people and animals' liquid dung 1500 2000kg.
(2) bloom, fruiting period begin spend after to Nutrient Absorption increase sharply, but root nodule bacteria also begin to continuously supply Semen arachidis hypogaeae nitrogen nutrition, as Nitrogen Top Dressing is excessive, Spring Peanut easily cause later stage stem and leaf excessive growth and fall Seedling.Therefore generally do not carry out rhizosphere Nitrogen Top Dressing after blooming, and mainly catch the Semen arachidis hypogaeae early flowering season to combine last middle weeding, use calcareous fertilisers and potash fertilizer.Generally every 667m2 liming and each 25 50kg of plant ash.
Five, field management:
1, restraining the growth of seedlings, seedling exercising is also in restraining the growth of seedlings, refers to that Seedling Stage controls moisture, it is suppressed that aerial growth, promotes to prick under root system, in order to the technology forming short strong sprout.After resuming water supply, second pair of side shoot is easier to catch up with the growth of first pair of side shoot, plants and smears more neat and consistent, and plays the production-increasing function of these two pair side shoot, is also beneficial to prevent the later stage from lodging.Restraining the growth of seedlings carries out when being typically in 4 true leaves of seedling, does not affect normal physiological activity with arid for degree, and growing thin and weak seedling should not carry out.
2, clear, clear is seed deeply full stand and first for solution Semen arachidis hypogaeae to be embedded in soil on side shoot and affect the technical measures taked that bear pods, and clear can be increased production more than 10% than unclear.The time of clear should carry out when basic neat Seedling, in conjunction with weeding in first time, with spud, the soil around peanut seedling is pushed aside, two panels cotyledon and lateral bud dew soil is allowed to see the elongation of Xanthophyll cycle internode, make first pair of collateral development stalwartness, reduce the fruit pin of a few joint of base portion and Secondary branches thereon and bury distance.The earth pushed aside buries after 15 20d nest, and pin is met in ridging.
3, drawing liter cotyledonary node to be unearthed, Semen arachidis hypogaeae is capping table soil in the process of emerging, crack printing opacity, sprout see light after hypocotyl to stop growing be the basic reason be not unearthed of cotyledonary node.Traditional cultivation method is to carry out clear restraining the growth of seedlings after the neat Seedling of Semen arachidis hypogaeae.Draw liter cotyledonary node be unearthed then change traditional flat planting ridge planting.Namely outdoor cropping by the width of sowing row, to carry out ridge, then sows Semen arachidis hypogaeae on ridge, earthing becomes the ridge on pointed top again, when after planting 78 days, leaves the thin soil of l cm thick above cotyledon, surface dust above is removed the rib piling high 7 8cm on row, when Semen arachidis hypogaeae is emerged, the rib on film is removed.According to test, the raw fruit 45 that increases of every ZHUHUA can be made by drawing liter cotyledonary node, even more.Realize peanut cultivation machinery hole increase with seed decrease, individual plant dense planting technology and live coverlay and draw the enforcement of the unearthed technology of liter cotyledonary node, it may be achieved peanut cultivation machinery.
Six, gather: coming off gradually when plant upper blade turns yellow, lower blade, the hardening of pod shell, the reticulate pattern of 80% are clear, can gather in the crops when full seed, seed coat redden.
The cultural method that proposed by the invention one cultivates peanut, scientifically, standardized planting cultivation technique, improves yield and the quality of Semen arachidis hypogaeae, improves the economic benefit of plantation family or agricultural cooperative society.
Detailed description of the invention
One cultural method cultivated peanut, it includes following technical scheme:
One, wholelyly and bedding: Semen arachidis hypogaeae is deep rooted plant, suitably deepens arable layer, is conducive to improving the yield and quality.Preferably on the basis of winter autumn ploughing, early top icepro is raked the soil level, and in order to retaining and conserveing soil moisture, improves ground temperature.Ploughing depth general winter ploughing 26 33cm, spring ploughing 14-17cm is advisable.It is further noted that smooth, loose, in small, broken bits, moistening.Adopt one of narrow furrow, high furrow major measure being to ensure that Semen arachidis hypogaeae stable high yield.Paddy field Semen arachidis hypogaeae furrow width is typically in 132-165cm (containing furrow ditch), and physical features is low, and the field that level of ground water is high can be reduced to 118.8-132cm.High 16.5 26.4cm of furrow.Furrow ditch is advisable with 33 39.6cm.The narrow furrow favourable draining of height furrow, improves germination percentage.Arid hillside field, should adopt wide 198 264cm of furrow, the specification of furrow height 13.2-16.5cm.Ridge culture is adopted to be also beneficial to irrigation and drainage, field management, raising soil temperature and ventilation and penetrating light.
Plastic film mulching cultivation, by the width bedding of film, if film width 80cm, then furrow width also should be 80cm, and wherein furrow ditch is 30 33cm, furrow face width 47 50cm.Sow while there is sufficient moisture in the soil after Ying Qi furrow and carry out overlay film, film must be made to be close to furrow face, and with earth, film surrounding is compressed.
Two, special-purpose insecticide is prepared: special-purpose insecticide is prepared by the component raw material of following weight portion and obtained: Flos Daturae 2, Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii 3, Radix Gentianae 3, Rhizoma Coptidis 1, Folium Perillae 1, Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii 1, Herba et Flos Pyrethri Cinerariifolii 5, water 16, its preparation process is: 1, boiled by above-mentioned raw materials, and maintain boiling time 3-6h, now leach solution A, every kilogram of A adds 50% avilamycin 200-300 gram, mixes to obtain the first insecticide;2, Flos Daturae prepared for previous step, Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii, Radix Gentianae, Rhizoma Coptidis, Folium Perillae, Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii, Herba et Flos Pyrethri Cinerariifolii are pulverized by cintrifugal disintegrator, 1500 times of liquid of Bravo wettable powder are injected again in this ground product, the weight ratio of ground product and aqueous solution is 2:7, after depositing 48 hours, leach solution and obtain the second insecticide;3, soil insecticide made by the waste residue collecting second step generation;
Three, seed selection and sowing:
1, seed selection and seed treatment: selecting fruit type big, peel is thin, fruit shape is rectified, and the kind that commodity is higher, as Shandong spends 8,9, No. 10;Basking seeds before broadcasting, before sowing of in good time peeling off, band shell is basked seeds l-2d, it is desirable to shine on soil threshing ground, in order to avoid high-temperature damage seed.Germination test should be carried out, to measure germinating energy and the germination percentage of seed before peeling off.Should peel off by l 2d prior to seeding, with stripping with broadcasting, it is to avoid peel off too early make seed water suction make moist, courses of infection or mechanical damage.After peeling off should hybrid, blighted grain, granule, broken kind of grain, infect pest and disease damage and have the seed of feature of going mouldy to sort out, being important to sort out seed coat has local shedding or the seed of the slight damaged of cotyledon.Remaining full seed is divided into two-stage by size, full big grain as one-level, remaining is as two grades.According to test: first order seed (every 100 weight 90g) is made kind of average every 0.067m2 and produced pod 286.4kg, the ratio 263kg of secondary seed (every 100 weight 70g) increases production 8.9%.Peanut seed is dressed seed by the first insecticide and the molydbenum fertilizer mixing that use 22%, accelerates nodule formation, strengthen the nitrogen fixation of Semen arachidis hypogaeae while sterilization and disinsection;
2, sowing: mid-March, seeding layer ground temperature is stable to be sowed when more than 15C.Plastic-film-covered cultivation can improve soil temperature, and the total activity accumulated temperature grown flowers the raw time of infertility than dew increases by 195.3 370.8 DEG C, and therefore, sowing time does sth. in advance about 10 days because of what plant than locality dew.Early sowing within the scope of proper seeding, improves setting ratio to making full use of effective accumulated temperature condition, significant.The quality of peanut seeding should meet the requirement that Seedling is complete, Miao Qi, Seedling are strong.Miao Quan and emergence rate are at more than 90%-95%;Miao Qi and germinable seed all sprout at beginning Seedling for 34 days entirely;Namely Miao Zhuan goes out cotyledon when growing sturdily and reveals soil or partly reveal soil, and the petiole that first launches leaf is long, and blade is big, and leaf color is bud green.For ensureing full stand, improve per unit area yield, after Semen arachidis hypogaeae is emerged 34 days, Seedling should be looked in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, the seed reseeded should first presoaking and germinating, to catch up with the seedlings speed of growth of early sowing as far as possible.
Four, fertilizing management:
1, base manure: Semen arachidis hypogaeae base manure amount of application generally should account for the 70%-80% of total fertilization amount, based on the organic fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, coordinates the inorganic fertilizer such as calcium superphosphate, potassium chloride, Calx.The nitrogen of base manure, phosphorus, potassium can be used in the ratio of 1:1:2.Base manure consumption is few, should concentrate and make lid seed manure, in order to growth of seedling.Plant ash, potassium sulfate, Calx etc. in conjunction with seedbed preparation, should uniformly be removed and execute, and harrow an even rear drill seeding kind.Calcium superphosphate to do sth. in advance more than 15 20 days with become thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure compost, be beneficial to improve the fertilizer efficiency of phosphate fertilizer.
2, topdressing: should topdress based on Seedling Stage, the florescence, fruiting period, topdresses is auxiliary, and the full fruit phase determines foliage top dressing according to Plant status.
(1) seedling stage 35, the leaf phase used quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer, to promoting branch early to send out energetic and increase the aspects such as flower, pod number have good effect.General every 667m2 carbamide 5 6kg, or people and animals' liquid dung 1500 2000kg.
(2) bloom, fruiting period begin spend after to Nutrient Absorption increase sharply, but root nodule bacteria also begin to continuously supply Semen arachidis hypogaeae nitrogen nutrition, as Nitrogen Top Dressing is excessive, Spring Peanut easily cause later stage stem and leaf excessive growth and fall Seedling.Therefore generally do not carry out rhizosphere Nitrogen Top Dressing after blooming, and mainly catch the Semen arachidis hypogaeae early flowering season to combine last middle weeding, use calcareous fertilisers and potash fertilizer.Generally every 667m2 liming and each 25 50kg of plant ash.
Five, field management:
1, restraining the growth of seedlings, seedling exercising is also in restraining the growth of seedlings, refers to that Seedling Stage controls moisture, it is suppressed that aerial growth, promotes to prick under root system, in order to the technology forming short strong sprout.After resuming water supply, second pair of side shoot is easier to catch up with the growth of first pair of side shoot, plants and smears more neat and consistent, and plays the production-increasing function of these two pair side shoot, is also beneficial to prevent the later stage from lodging.Restraining the growth of seedlings carries out when being typically in 4 true leaves of seedling, does not affect normal physiological activity with arid for degree, and growing thin and weak seedling should not carry out.
2, clear, clear is seed deeply full stand and first for solution Semen arachidis hypogaeae to be embedded in soil on side shoot and affect the technical measures taked that bear pods, and clear can be increased production more than 10% than unclear.The time of clear should carry out when basic neat Seedling, in conjunction with weeding in first time, with spud, the soil around peanut seedling is pushed aside, two panels cotyledon and lateral bud dew soil is allowed to see the elongation of Xanthophyll cycle internode, make first pair of collateral development stalwartness, reduce the fruit pin of a few joint of base portion and Secondary branches thereon and bury distance.The earth pushed aside buries after 15 20d nest, and pin is met in ridging.
3, drawing liter cotyledonary node to be unearthed, Semen arachidis hypogaeae is capping table soil in the process of emerging, crack printing opacity, sprout see light after hypocotyl to stop growing be the basic reason be not unearthed of cotyledonary node.Traditional cultivation method is to carry out clear restraining the growth of seedlings after the neat Seedling of Semen arachidis hypogaeae.Draw liter cotyledonary node be unearthed then change traditional flat planting ridge planting.Namely outdoor cropping by the width of sowing row, to carry out ridge, then sows Semen arachidis hypogaeae on ridge, earthing becomes the ridge on pointed top again, when after planting 78 days, leaves the thin soil of l cm thick above cotyledon, surface dust above is removed the rib piling high 7 8cm on row, when Semen arachidis hypogaeae is emerged, the rib on film is removed.According to test, the raw fruit 45 that increases of every ZHUHUA can be made by drawing liter cotyledonary node, even more.Realize peanut cultivation machinery hole increase with seed decrease, individual plant dense planting technology and live coverlay and draw the enforcement of the unearthed technology of liter cotyledonary node, it may be achieved peanut cultivation machinery.
Six, gather: coming off gradually when plant upper blade turns yellow, lower blade, the hardening of pod shell, the reticulate pattern of 80% are clear, can gather in the crops when full seed, seed coat redden.
The cultural method that proposed by the invention one cultivates peanut, scientifically, standardized planting cultivation technique, improves yield and the quality of Semen arachidis hypogaeae, improves the economic benefit of plantation family or agricultural cooperative society.

Claims (1)

1. a cultural method cultivated peanut, it includes following technical scheme:
One, wholelyly and bedding: on the basis of winter autumn ploughing, early top icepro is raked the soil level, and in order to retaining and conserveing soil moisture, improves ground temperature;Ploughing depth winter ploughing 26 33cm, plough in the spring 14-17cm, and loam is smooth, loose, in small, broken bits, moistening;Paddy field Semen arachidis hypogaeae furrow width is at 132-165cm (containing furrow ditch), and physical features is low, and the field that level of ground water is high can be reduced to 118.8-132cm;High 16.5 26.4cm of furrow;Furrow ditch 33 39.6cm;The narrow furrow favourable draining of height furrow, improves germination percentage;Arid hillside field, adopts wide 198 264cm of furrow, the specification of furrow height 13.2-16.5cm;Plastic film mulching cultivation, by the width bedding of film, if film width 80cm, then furrow width also should be 80cm, and wherein furrow ditch is 30 33cm, furrow face width 47 50cm;Sow while there is sufficient moisture in the soil after Ying Qi furrow and carry out overlay film, film must be made to be close to furrow face, and with earth, film surrounding is compressed;
Two, special-purpose insecticide is prepared: special-purpose insecticide is prepared by the component raw material of following weight portion and obtained: Flos Daturae 2, Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii 3, Radix Gentianae 3, Rhizoma Coptidis 1, Folium Perillae 1, Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii 1, Herba et Flos Pyrethri Cinerariifolii 5, water 16, its preparation process is: 1, boiled by above-mentioned raw materials, and maintain boiling time 3-6h, now leach solution A, every kilogram of A adds 50% avilamycin 200-300 gram, mixes to obtain the first insecticide;2, Flos Daturae prepared for previous step, Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii, Radix Gentianae, Rhizoma Coptidis, Folium Perillae, Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii, Herba et Flos Pyrethri Cinerariifolii are pulverized by cintrifugal disintegrator, 1500 times of liquid of Bravo wettable powder are injected again in this ground product, the weight ratio of ground product and aqueous solution is 2:7, after depositing 48 hours, leach solution and obtain the second insecticide;3, soil insecticide made by the waste residue collecting second step generation;
Three, seed selection and sowing:
1, seed selection and seed treatment: selecting fruit type big, peel is thin, fruit shape is rectified, and the kind that commodity is higher, as Shandong spends 8,9, No. 10;Basking seeds before broadcasting, before sowing of in good time peeling off, band shell is basked seeds l-2d, it is desirable to shine on soil threshing ground, in order to avoid high-temperature damage seed;Germination test should be carried out, to measure germinating energy and the germination percentage of seed before peeling off;Should peel off by l 2d prior to seeding, with stripping with broadcasting, it is to avoid peel off too early make seed water suction make moist, courses of infection or mechanical damage;After peeling off should hybrid, blighted grain, granule, broken kind of grain, infect pest and disease damage and have the seed of feature of going mouldy to sort out, being important to sort out seed coat has local shedding or the seed of the slight damaged of cotyledon;Remaining full seed is divided into two-stage by size, full big grain as one-level, remaining is as two grades;According to test: first order seed (every 100 weight 90g) is made kind of average every 0.067m2 and produced pod 286.4kg, the ratio 263kg of secondary seed (every 100 weight 70g) increases production 8.9%;Peanut seed is dressed seed by the first insecticide and the molydbenum fertilizer mixing that use 22%, accelerates nodule formation, strengthen the nitrogen fixation of Semen arachidis hypogaeae while sterilization and disinsection;
2, sowing: mid-March, seeding layer ground temperature is stable to be sowed when more than 15C;Plastic-film-covered cultivation can improve soil temperature, and the total activity accumulated temperature grown flowers the raw time of infertility than dew increases by 195.3 370.8 DEG C, and therefore, sowing time does sth. in advance about 10 days because of what plant than locality dew;The quality of peanut seeding should meet the requirement that Seedling is complete, Miao Qi, Seedling are strong;Miao Quan and emergence rate are at more than 90%-95%;Miao Qi and germinable seed all sprout at beginning Seedling for 34 days entirely;Namely Miao Zhuan goes out cotyledon when growing sturdily and reveals soil or partly reveal soil, and the petiole that first launches leaf is long, and blade is big, and leaf color is bud green;For ensureing full stand, improve per unit area yield, after Semen arachidis hypogaeae is emerged 34 days, Seedling should be looked in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, the seed reseeded should first presoaking and germinating, to catch up with the seedlings speed of growth of early sowing as far as possible;
Four, fertilizing management:
1, base manure: Semen arachidis hypogaeae base manure amount of application should account for the 70%-80% of total fertilization amount, based on the organic fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, coordinates the inorganic fertilizer such as calcium superphosphate, potassium chloride, Calx, then soil insecticide is used in mixing;The nitrogen of base manure, phosphorus, potassium can be used in the ratio of 1:1:2;Base manure consumption is few, should concentrate and make lid seed manure, in order to growth of seedling;Plant ash, potassium sulfate, Calx etc. in conjunction with seedbed preparation, should uniformly be removed and execute, and harrow an even rear drill seeding kind;Calcium superphosphate to do sth. in advance more than 15 20 days with become thoroughly decomposed farmyard manure compost, be beneficial to improve the fertilizer efficiency of phosphate fertilizer;
2, topdressing: should topdress based on Seedling Stage, the florescence, fruiting period, topdresses is auxiliary, and the full fruit phase determines foliage top dressing according to Plant status;
(1) seedling stage 35, the leaf phase used quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer, to promoting branch early to send out energetic and increase the aspects such as flower, pod number have good effect;Every 667m2 carbamide 5 6kg, or people and animals' liquid dung 1500 2000kg;
(2) the Semen arachidis hypogaeae early flowering season combines last middle weeding, uses calcareous fertilisers and potash fertilizer;Every 667m2 liming and each 25 50kg of plant ash;
Five, field management:
1, restraining the growth of seedlings, seedling exercising is also in restraining the growth of seedlings, refers to that Seedling Stage controls moisture, it is suppressed that aerial growth, promotes to prick under root system, in order to the technology forming short strong sprout;After resuming water supply, second pair of side shoot is easier to catch up with the growth of first pair of side shoot, plants and smears more neat and consistent, and plays the production-increasing function of these two pair side shoot, is also beneficial to prevent the later stage from lodging;Restraining the growth of seedlings carries out when 4 true leaves of seedling, does not affect normal physiological activity with arid for degree, and growing thin and weak seedling should not carry out;
2, clear, clear is seed deeply full stand and first for solution Semen arachidis hypogaeae to be embedded in soil on side shoot and affect the technical measures taked that bear pods, and clear can be increased production more than 10% than unclear;The time of clear should carry out when basic neat Seedling, in conjunction with weeding in first time, with spud, the soil around peanut seedling is pushed aside, two panels cotyledon and lateral bud dew soil is allowed to see the elongation of Xanthophyll cycle internode, make first pair of collateral development stalwartness, reduce the fruit pin of a few joint of base portion and Secondary branches thereon and bury distance;The earth pushed aside buries after 15 20d nest, and pin is met in ridging;
3, drawing liter cotyledonary node to be unearthed, Semen arachidis hypogaeae is capping table soil in the process of emerging, crack printing opacity, sprout see light after hypocotyl to stop growing be the basic reason be not unearthed of cotyledonary node;Traditional cultivation method is to carry out clear restraining the growth of seedlings after the neat Seedling of Semen arachidis hypogaeae;When after planting 78 days, leave the thin soil of l cm thick above cotyledon, surface dust above is removed the rib piling high 7 8cm on row, when Semen arachidis hypogaeae is emerged, the rib on film is removed;
Six, gather: coming off gradually when plant upper blade turns yellow, lower blade, the hardening of pod shell, the reticulate pattern of 80% are clear, can gather in the crops when full seed, seed coat redden.
CN201610056649.4A 2016-01-26 2016-01-26 Peanut cultivation method Pending CN105706683A (en)

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CN106258311A (en) * 2016-07-28 2017-01-04 桐城市牯牛背农业开发有限公司 A kind of oil tea and the method for Semen arachidis hypogaeae stereo planting
CN106538214A (en) * 2016-11-10 2017-03-29 济南金果村农业科技有限公司 A kind of little Semen arachidis hypogaeae former material implantation methods for preparing that express oil from peanuts of the ancient method of ecosystem
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CN107743839A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-03-02 梁家贵 A kind of high-yield planting method of cordate houttuynia
CN107836314A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-03-27 山东省花生研究所 A kind of Cultivation of High Yield Peanuts method for releasing continuous cropping obstacle
CN111165299A (en) * 2020-02-25 2020-05-19 慈溪市农业科学研究所 Cultivation method suitable for fresh peanuts to come into market in spring festival in subtropical regions
CN111165299B (en) * 2020-02-25 2021-07-23 慈溪市农业科学研究所 Cultivation method suitable for fresh peanuts to come into market in spring festival in subtropical regions

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