CN105660108A - High-yield cultivation method for alfalfa in semi-arid region - Google Patents

High-yield cultivation method for alfalfa in semi-arid region Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105660108A
CN105660108A CN201610023848.5A CN201610023848A CN105660108A CN 105660108 A CN105660108 A CN 105660108A CN 201610023848 A CN201610023848 A CN 201610023848A CN 105660108 A CN105660108 A CN 105660108A
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Prior art keywords
alfalfa
sowing
ground
soil
yield
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CN201610023848.5A
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Inventor
梁秀芝
郑敏娜
韩志顺
薛龙飞
王娟
李荫藩
康佳惠
杨富
王雁丽
李占成
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CROP Science Research Institute of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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CROP Science Research Institute of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-yield cultivation method for alfalfa in a semi-arid region. Spring seed sowing and dressing, precision strip cropping, quantitative fertilization and total membrane coverage are integrated. The method comprises the specific steps that during seed sowing in spring, alfalfa seeds are soaked in a rhizobium solution for 15-30 min, then, ditching is performed immediately for seed sowing, and calcium superphosphate is used for a base fertilizer to be applied at a time; then, four rows of alfalfa seeds are sown in each strip, total ground coverage is performed through a plastic film with the width being 120 cm and the thickness being 0.08 mm, the sowing line spacing is 15 cm, the sowing depth is 1.5 cm, and the seeding rate is 25 kg/hm<2>; then, soil is used on the edge of a ground membrane for fixed pressing so as to prevent the membrane from being damaged by wind, holes are punched every other about 50 cm on the ground membrane when seedlings grow 2 cm above the ground so as to prevent the seedlings from being burnt; the covered ground membrane is removed when stubble plants grow to be 10 cm high. According to the method, water evaporation caused by wind erosion can be obviously lowered, low temperature is increased, and the emergence rate of alfalfa seedlings inside the first year and the late biological yield are increased.

Description

A kind of semiarid region alfalfa high yield cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to alfalfa technical field of cultivation, be specifically related to a kind of semiarid region alfalfa high yield cultivating method.
Background technology
Edge, northeast, loess plateau and handing-over area, mountain range, Taihang Mountain, be the lower limit district of the arctogaean realm of northern China Agro-grazing ecotone and rain-fed agriculture, belongs to comparatively typical ecologically fragile area. Its weather belongs to arid continental monsoon climate, and average annual precipitation is at about 400mm, and spring is the violent evaporation phase, and moisture loss is relatively big, and this is unfavorable for emerging and growth of seedling of spring-sown crops.
Alfalfa is excellent Perennial legume forages, and plant not only has high protein, and can also utilize its efficient nitrogen fixing capacity culture fertility, improves the ecological environment. Recently as the layout again of the development of China's animal husbandry and industry, alfalfa effect in agricultural and animal husbandry is increasing, is leguminous forage first-selected in grass farm development. Sowing alfalfa in spring, be conducive to it to take root, but dried in spring, wind become greatly again the key factor that harm alfalfa seedling survives, traditional Alfalfa Growing method is difficult to solve the problem that in planting process in spring, emergence rate is low, survival rate is little.
Summary of the invention
For solving the problems referred to above, the invention provides a kind of semiarid region alfalfa high yield cultivating method, it is possible to significantly reduce the moisture evaporation caused due to wind erosion, improve low temperature, improve emergence rate and the later stage biological yield of seedling in alfalfa First Year.
For achieving the above object, the technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
A kind of semiarid region alfalfa high yield cultivating method, comprises the steps:
S1, selection breeding: select drought resisting, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, suitable local high-yield variety, such as huge energy salt tolerant, huge energy 2, middle lucerne 1 etc.
S2, root nodule bacteria bacterium solution preparation: activation Sinorhizobium meliloti strain, be cultured to bacterium solution OD600Value is to 0.5~0.8, standby;
S3, seed dressing: sow immediately after alfalfa seed is soaked 15~30min in the bacterium solution of step S2 gained;
S4, sowing ground prepare: need before broadcasting finely wholely, remove weeds, and deep plough 25-30cm, and without obvious clod, upper Panasonic is real, to ensure that seed and soil are fully contacted, improve emergence rate;
S5, basal dressing: calcium superphosphate is applied as base manure is disposable;
S6, begin sowing in good time: in the first tenday period of a month May late April, adopting full overlay film strip sowing planting mode to sow, application rate is 25kg/hm2, line-spacing is 15cm, seed level 1.5cm, every drilling 4 row alfalfa, and with the full covered ground of plastic foil of wide 120cm, 0.08mm, edge soil solid pressure, in case being broadcast rear suppression of soil by windage loss evil; When seedling grows ground 2cm, punching every about 50cm on mulch film, preventing and treating seedling is scorched to death; Plant to be planted removes the mulch film of covering when growing to 10cm;
S7, field management: impose a small amount of carbamide squaring period; Branching stage, harvesting after, enter the winter before respectively pour water 1 time; Carry out intertillage weeding after Seedling Stage, every time harvesting, loosen the soil in conjunction with weeding;
S8, cradle: spring sowing alfalfa then can 2 times, Second Year starts to gather in 3 times; First batch cradles to budding the Sheng phase to initial bloom stage harvesting the best, and the height for the stubble left is 4-6cm; Cradling for the last time and carry out in mid-September, the height for the stubble left is 7-10cm, is beneficial to survive the winter and next year high yield.
Wherein, effective P of described calcium superphosphate2O5Content is 43%, and application rate is 350kg/hm2
The method have the advantages that
Implement the plantation of full overlay film collection rain, it is possible to suppress evaporation, reduce the invalid evaporation of moisture, increase soil moisture content, effectively suppress weeds in field, alleviate the saline and alkaline degree of soil. Additionally, enforcement Rhizobium Inoculation On Medicago Sativa, it is possible to promoting Herba Medicaginis early dross, many drosses and increase amount of nitrogen fixation, effect of increasing production highly significant, this measure can make homobium total amount of fixed nitrogen from air reach 200~400kg/hm2, can provide, for the alfalfa of trophophase, the nitrogen growing required 46%~92%.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to make objects and advantages of the present invention clearly understand, below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further elaborated. Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein is only in order to explain the present invention, is not intended to limit the present invention.
Embodiment 1
Place: Dong Wang village village of Shui Bosi township, Datong City of Shanxi Province, height above sea level 1050m, average annual rainfall is 370~460mm, and evaporation capacity is 1876mm, and the violent evaporation phase, average temperature of the whole year was 7.0 DEG C, frost-free period 138d in spring and autumn.
1. select breeding: select drought resisting, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, suitable local high-yield variety, such as huge energy salt tolerant, huge energy 2, middle lucerne 1 etc.
2. root nodule bacteria bacterium solution preparation: activation Sinorhizobium meliloti strain, is cultured to bacterium solution OD600Value is 0.5~0.8, standby.
3. seed dressing:: sow immediately after alfalfa seed is soaked 15~30min in bacterium solution.
4. sowing ground prepares: need before broadcasting finely wholely, removes weeds, and deep plough 25-30cm, and without obvious clod, upper Panasonic is real, to ensure that seed and soil are fully contacted, improves emergence rate.
5 basal dressings: calcium superphosphate (effective P2O5Content 43%, 350kg/hm2) apply as base manure is disposable.
6. begin sowing in good time: be suitable for sowing in the first tenday period of a month May late April.
7. seeding method: adopting full overlay film strip sowing planting mode, application rate is 25kg/hm2, line-spacing is 15cm, seed level 1.5cm, every drilling 4 row alfalfa, with the full covered ground of plastic foil of wide 120cm, 0.08mm, edge soil solid pressure, in case being broadcast rear suppression of soil by windage loss evil, when seedling grows ground about 2cm, punching every about 50cm on mulch film, preventing and treating seedling is scorched to death.Finally, plant is waited when growing to about 10cm, to remove the mulch film of covering.
8. field management: impose a small amount of carbamide squaring period. Branching stage, harvesting after, enter the winter before respectively pour water 1 time; Carry out intertillage weeding after Seedling Stage, every time harvesting, loosen the soil in conjunction with weeding.
9. cradle: spring sowing alfalfa then can 2 times, Second Year starts to gather in 3 times; First batch cradles to budding the Sheng phase to initial bloom stage harvesting the best, and the height for the stubble left is 4-6cm; Cradling for the last time and should carry out in mid-September, the height for the stubble left is 7-10cm, is beneficial to survive the winter and next year high yield.
Embodiment 2
Place: Huairen County, city of Xinzhou Shanxi hair soap, height above sea level 1070m, average annual rainfall is 350~470mm, and evaporation capacity is 1800mm, and the violent evaporation phase, average temperature of the whole year was 7.3 DEG C, frost-free period 135d in spring and autumn.
1. select breeding: select drought resisting, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, suitable local high-yield variety, such as huge energy salt tolerant, huge energy 2, middle lucerne 1 etc.
2. root nodule bacteria bacterium solution preparation: activation Sinorhizobium meliloti strain, is cultured to bacterium solution OD600Value is 0.5~0.8, standby.
3. seed dressing:: sow immediately after alfalfa seed is soaked 15~30min in bacterium solution.
4. sowing ground prepares: need before broadcasting finely wholely, removes weeds, and deep plough 25-30cm, and without obvious clod, upper Panasonic is real, to ensure that seed and soil are fully contacted, improves emergence rate.
5 basal dressings: calcium superphosphate (effective P2O5Content 43%, 350kg/hm2) apply as base manure is disposable.
6. begin sowing in good time: be suitable for sowing in the first tenday period of a month May late April.
7. seeding method: adopting full overlay film strip sowing planting mode, application rate is 25kg/hm2, line-spacing is 15cm, seed level 1.5cm, every drilling 4 row alfalfa, with the full covered ground of plastic foil of wide 120cm, 0.08mm, edge soil solid pressure, in case being broadcast rear suppression of soil by windage loss evil, when seedling grows ground about 2cm, punching every about 50cm on mulch film, preventing and treating seedling is scorched to death. Finally, plant is waited when growing to about 10cm, to remove the mulch film of covering.
8. field management: impose a small amount of carbamide squaring period. Branching stage, harvesting after, enter the winter before respectively pour water 1 time; Carry out intertillage weeding after Seedling Stage, every time harvesting, loosen the soil in conjunction with weeding.
9. cradle: spring sowing alfalfa then can 2 times, Second Year starts to gather in 3 times; First batch cradles to budding the Sheng phase to initial bloom stage harvesting the best, and the height for the stubble left is 4-6cm; Cradling for the last time and should carry out in mid-September, the height for the stubble left is 7-10cm, is beneficial to survive the winter and next year high yield.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention; it should be pointed out that, for those skilled in the art, under the premise without departing from the principles of the invention; can also making some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications also should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. a semiarid region alfalfa high yield cultivating method, it is characterised in that comprise the steps:
S1, selection breeding: select drought resisting, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, suitable local high-yield variety;
S2, root nodule bacteria bacterium solution preparation: activation Sinorhizobium meliloti strain, be cultured to bacterium solution OD600Value is to 0.5~0.8, standby;
S3, seed dressing: sow immediately after alfalfa seed is soaked 15~30min in the bacterium solution of step S2 gained;
S4, sowing ground prepare: need before broadcasting finely wholely, remove weeds, and deep plough 25-30cm, and without obvious clod, upper Panasonic is real, to ensure that seed and soil are fully contacted, improve emergence rate;
S5, basal dressing: calcium superphosphate is applied as base manure is disposable;
S6, begin sowing in good time: in the first tenday period of a month May late April, adopting full overlay film strip sowing planting mode to sow, application rate is 25kg/hm2, line-spacing is 15cm, seed level 1.5cm, every drilling 4 row alfalfa, and with the full covered ground of plastic foil of wide 120cm, 0.08mm, edge soil solid pressure, in case being broadcast rear suppression of soil by windage loss evil; When seedling grows ground 2cm, punching every about 50cm on mulch film, preventing and treating seedling is scorched to death; Plant to be planted removes the mulch film of covering when growing to 10cm;
S7, field management: impose a small amount of carbamide squaring period; Branching stage, harvesting after, enter the winter before respectively pour water 1 time; Carry out intertillage weeding after Seedling Stage, every time harvesting, loosen the soil in conjunction with weeding;
S8, cradle: spring sowing alfalfa then can 2 times, Second Year starts to gather in 3 times; First batch cradles to budding the Sheng phase to initial bloom stage harvesting the best, and the height for the stubble left is 4-6cm; Cradling for the last time and carry out in mid-September, the height for the stubble left is 7-10cm, is beneficial to survive the winter and next year high yield.
2. a kind of semiarid region alfalfa high yield cultivating method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that effective P of described calcium superphosphate2O5Content is 43%, and application rate is 350kg/hm2
CN201610023848.5A 2016-01-08 2016-01-08 High-yield cultivation method for alfalfa in semi-arid region Pending CN105660108A (en)

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Cited By (10)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106717911A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-31 陈真 A kind of method for improving Along The Great Wall Wind-sandy Area sand ground alfalfa output
CN106797786A (en) * 2017-01-20 2017-06-06 石河子大学 A kind of implantation methods that can effectively improve alfalfa output and nutritional quality
CN106900344A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-06-30 北京师范大学 A kind of method by cradling improvement Medicago varia cv.Caoyuan No.3 quality
CN107118004A (en) * 2017-06-27 2017-09-01 黑龙江省科学院大庆分院 Extremely frigid zones alfalfa cultivation method
CN107231931A (en) * 2017-07-13 2017-10-10 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A kind of alfalfa center pivot formula sprinkling irrigation comprehensive water-saving pattern
CN107360834A (en) * 2017-08-05 2017-11-21 青海省畜牧兽医科学院 A kind of cold semiarid areas area clover type of seeding
CN108076980A (en) * 2017-12-27 2018-05-29 新疆大学 A kind of aridity grass land high yield artificial grass plantation and screening technique
CN108207499A (en) * 2017-12-27 2018-06-29 新疆大学 A kind of aridity grass land artificial grass mixed planting and the method for high yield
CN109041656A (en) * 2018-07-27 2018-12-21 内蒙古蒙草生态环境(集团)股份有限公司 A kind of harvesting method of Alfalfa and the implantation methods of Alfalfa
CN109892173A (en) * 2017-12-07 2019-06-18 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 A kind of Karst Regional leguminous forage introduction method

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106717911A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-31 陈真 A kind of method for improving Along The Great Wall Wind-sandy Area sand ground alfalfa output
CN106797786A (en) * 2017-01-20 2017-06-06 石河子大学 A kind of implantation methods that can effectively improve alfalfa output and nutritional quality
CN106900344A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-06-30 北京师范大学 A kind of method by cradling improvement Medicago varia cv.Caoyuan No.3 quality
CN107118004A (en) * 2017-06-27 2017-09-01 黑龙江省科学院大庆分院 Extremely frigid zones alfalfa cultivation method
CN107231931A (en) * 2017-07-13 2017-10-10 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A kind of alfalfa center pivot formula sprinkling irrigation comprehensive water-saving pattern
CN107360834A (en) * 2017-08-05 2017-11-21 青海省畜牧兽医科学院 A kind of cold semiarid areas area clover type of seeding
CN109892173A (en) * 2017-12-07 2019-06-18 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 A kind of Karst Regional leguminous forage introduction method
CN108076980A (en) * 2017-12-27 2018-05-29 新疆大学 A kind of aridity grass land high yield artificial grass plantation and screening technique
CN108207499A (en) * 2017-12-27 2018-06-29 新疆大学 A kind of aridity grass land artificial grass mixed planting and the method for high yield
CN109041656A (en) * 2018-07-27 2018-12-21 内蒙古蒙草生态环境(集团)股份有限公司 A kind of harvesting method of Alfalfa and the implantation methods of Alfalfa

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Application publication date: 20160615