CN104782463A - Eco-organic type soilless culture technology - Google Patents

Eco-organic type soilless culture technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104782463A
CN104782463A CN201510196708.3A CN201510196708A CN104782463A CN 104782463 A CN104782463 A CN 104782463A CN 201510196708 A CN201510196708 A CN 201510196708A CN 104782463 A CN104782463 A CN 104782463A
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organic
stalk
river sand
water
cultivation
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Inventor
袁涛
李涛
付祖科
梁劲松
刘学帅
黄春生
张�杰
邓士元
董喜梅
熊明
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Jingmen Shuan Fu Ecological Agriculture Development Co Ltd
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Jingmen Shuan Fu Ecological Agriculture Development Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention relates to an eco-organic type soilless culture technology. Local resources such as a large amount of straw, rice husks and mushroom residues generated by local rice, wheat, corn, edible fungi production are fully utilized to prepare novel culture media, a solid organic fertilizer preparation technology of harmless livestock manure and water proof compound fertilizer is originally utilized, and eco-organic type soilless culture with local features is developed and established.

Description

A kind of organic ecological soilless culture technology
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of organic environment-friendly soilless culturing method
Background technology
Organic ecological soilless culture technology refers to without natural soil, and uses matrix, nutrition liquid irrigation root system of plant that need not be traditional, and uses organic solid-state fertile and a kind of cultivation technique without soil of direct clear water irrigated crop.As a kind of agricultural high-tech, except overcoming the shortcoming of traditional chemical nutrient solution soilless culture, also keep the advantage of soilless culture, by region restriction, effectively overcome continuous cropping obstacle, effectively prevent that underground damage by disease and insect, joint are fertile, water saving, the feature such as laborsaving, high yield and high quality, development in recent years is rapid.
Soilless culture effectively can avoid damage by disease and insect and the continuous cropping obstacle of soil infection, and this is one of subject matter that hothouse production exists.Be difficult to find there is no a contaminated land in Suburb Areas of Big Cities at present, soilless culture substrate is by manually preparing, good physical performance, water-saving, province's fertilizer, and can crop yield be improved, the ground that can be unwell to general agricultural tillage at all is divided into row crop and produces, and reduces labor intensity simultaneously, can produce sanitation and hygiene, pollute less, the product of nuisanceless, quality better.
At present, known soilless culture has water planting (nutrient fluid cultivation) mode and solid matrix materials cultivation method.Water planting refers to that most of root growth is in nutrient solution liquid layer layer, only by nutrient solution for its provide moisture, nutrient, oxygen be different from conventional soil planting form under carry out the vegetables cultivated.Solid matrix materials cultivation routine utilizes the materials such as rice husk, the peat composed of rotten mosses, the crops straw of vermiculite and fermentation and animal excrements, is mixed with cultivation matrix after treatment according to a certain percentage, carries out greenhouse by solar heat soilless culture.But these traditional soilless culture substrate planting types all exist very large defect, the shortcoming of soilless culture mainly contains following 2 points: one is that initial one-time investment is large.Adopt any mode to carry out soilless culture and all need the materials such as cultivating facility, fertilizer and water, all will have the investment that considerable compared with earth culture; Two is that soilless culture management (comprising the preparation of nutrient solution, adjustment) needs certain know-how, and the people requiring some special knowledges carries out precision management.
But, residing for soilless culture crop rhizosphere, environment (nutrient solution or solid matrix) buffer capacity is little compared with soil, root system is subject to the impact of the external conditions such as temperature in facility, nutrient solution pH, nutrient status, therefore its comparatively soil cultivation more easily there is physiological disorder, be badly in need of Corresponding Countermeasures in production and overcome.
Current soilless culture method also exists a lot of defect in actual application.If nutrient component collocation is not very balanced ideal, biological organic fertilizer content is little, not comprehensive nutrition, and transplanting property is not strong, and adaptive surface is wideless.The object of the invention is the defect for above-mentioned prior art, provide a kind of more practical, more scientific production method, after improving, technical scheme practicality is higher.
Summary of the invention
The present invention makes full use of agricultural resources (a large amount of stalk utilizing paddy rice, wheat, corn, Edible Fungi to produce and rice husk, mushroom slag etc.) and prepares novel cultivation matrix, use the fertile preparation technique of the organic solid-state of innoxious feces of livestock and poultry and water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer originally, develop and set up the organic ecological soilless culture of characteristic.For achieving the above object, the present invention takes following technical scheme:
The present invention is that inorganic material is joined choosing and enriched organic material as soilless culture Major Nutrient material with river sand, take animal dung as auxiliary material, uses the fertile preparation technique of organic solid-state.Technology novelty after reformed AHP is stronger, and practicality is higher, and technology is more stable, and survival rate is higher, and adaptive surface is wider, is widely used in all kinds of economic crops such as planting vegetable, flowers and agricultural crops.
The present invention is a kind of production and using method of practicality and high efficiency soilless culture substrate material, is that with biological organic fertilizer (animal dung) for auxiliary material, mixed preparing forms in proportion with river sand, stalk, mushroom slag for main nutrient composition raw material.Its technological process is through material preparation technology, zymotechnique, mixing procedure.Production method is: select river sand as inorganic material, is exposed to the sun through 1-2 days high temperature, or adopts sterilization and disinfection, is crushed to 0.5-1mm particle diameter; Selecting agricultural crop straw as paddy rice, wheat, maize straw, naturally dry, pulverizing, as getting the raw materials ready; Select mushroom slag, as produced mushroom, flat mushroom etc. waste material, after sterilization, adjusted to ph is 6-7, gets the raw materials ready; Animal dung is got the raw materials ready after naturally drying.
Prepare inorganic material and organic material in proportion, by weight, inorganic material: organic material is 2-4:8-6, preferred 3:7, river sand: stalk: mushroom slag: animal dung=2:4:2:2, or 3:3:3:1, or 4:2:2:2.
Zymotechnique: by the segment of crushed stalk into about 2cm, by water-soaked, animal dung evenly mixed, stockpile is become 1.50m height buttress, upper cover canopy film ferments.Every 7 ~ 10 days stirrings 1 time, and supply moisture according to dry wet degree, itself and mushroom slag are mixed when stalk gives out fragrant and ferment 7 days again, then river sand mixes.Fermentation process preferably on the sunny side, high land, preferably cement flooring is carried out, and every 667 ㎡ plastic greenhouses need 35m3 matrix.
Batch mixing is prepared: according to the total amount of compound, then add water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer, the former powder of chlorophos crystal, carbendazol wettable powder, fusion evenly piles vexed 3 days afterwards, makes cultivation matrix.Preferred: water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer (potassium sulfate type) 12kg/m3, the former powder 20g/m3 of 90% chlorophos crystal, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20g/m3.
Cultivation: cultivating groove adopts brick, centre-to-centre spacing 140cm, cultivating groove inner width 48m, and namely 2 pieces of bricks are long; Cultivation groove depth 25cm; " U " type backwater furrow width 25cm, dark 10cm at the bottom of cultivating groove; Low north, cultivating groove south is high, the gradient 3 ~ 5 °, and every 2 cultivating grooves dig the dark soakaway of the square 50cm of 30cm 1 in the south, bottom with plastic film or woven bag by cultivation matrix and soil completely isolated.Irrigate and adopt under-film drip irrigation, preferably 1, the built-in pond in greenhouse, small pump is installed, in cultivating groove, spreads 2 irrigate bands, road, to ensure crop water requirements, reduce air humidity in canopy.
After adopting such scheme, organic ecological soilless culture method of the present invention, soilless culture organic matrix used is loose, ventilative, wherein contained trace and nutritive element can not be fixed by cultivation matrix, ion exchange enlivens, and is beneficial to plant strain growth, compared with existing earth culture cultivation method, output can improve 10-20%, and many batches of continuous croppings still can ensure constant rate of production and quality.The problems such as taking a lot of work of solving that traditional cultivation and Soilless Culture Methods exist is bothersome, cost is high, not easy to operate, contaminated environment.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the invention will be further described.
This working of an invention process is as follows:
1, matrix is got the raw materials ready: select river sand as inorganic material, is exposed to the sun through 1-2 days high temperature, or adopts sterilization and disinfection, is crushed to 0.5-1mm particle diameter; Select agricultural crop straw as paddy rice, wheat, maize straw, naturally dry, pulverize, length and width degree is determined on a case-by-case basis, as getting the raw materials ready; Select mushroom slag, as produced mushroom, flat mushroom etc. waste material, after sterilization, adjusted to ph is 6-7, gets the raw materials ready; Animal dung is got the raw materials ready after naturally drying.
2, batch mixing preparation: prepare inorganic material and organic material in proportion, by weight, inorganic material: organic material is 3:7, river sand: stalk: mushroom slag: animal dung=3:3:3:1.
By the segment of crushed stalk into about 2cm, by water-soaked, animal dung evenly mixed, stockpile is become 1.50m height buttress, upper cover canopy film ferments.Every 7 ~ 10 days stirrings 1 time, and supply moisture according to dry wet degree, itself and mushroom slag are mixed when stalk gives out fragrant and ferment 7 days again, then river sand mixes.Fermentation process is selected on the sunny side, high land, and preferably cement flooring is carried out, and every 667 ㎡ plastic greenhouses need 35m3 matrix.
3, matrix batch mixing: according to the total amount of compound, add water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer (potassium sulfate type) 12kg/m3, the former powder 20g/m3 of 90% chlorophos crystal, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20g/m3 again, fusion evenly piles vexed 3 days afterwards, makes cultivation matrix.
Water-holding compound fertilizer makes carrier with macromolecular material, by organic elements such as a certain proportion of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, formed by absorbing polymer and be integrated, form a kind of colloidal spheres, it has excellent water retention property, and water absorption is self more than 3 times, and moisture and fertilizer only have during Crop and just can discharge, along with the growth needs of crop, and determine the size of burst size.
4, cultivate: protection facility: steelframe booth, beam-connected greenhouse, greenhouse by solar heat etc., length 50-60 rice is advisable.Cultivating groove adopts brick, centre-to-centre spacing 140cm, cultivating groove inner width 48m, and namely 2 pieces of bricks are long; Cultivation groove depth 25cm; " U " type backwater furrow width 25cm, dark 10cm at the bottom of cultivating groove; Low north, cultivating groove south is high, the gradient 3 ~ 5 °, and every 2 cultivating grooves dig the dark soakaway of the square 50cm of 30cm 1 in the south, bottom with plastic film or woven bag by cultivation matrix and soil completely isolated.For ensureing crop water requirements, reducing air humidity in canopy, irrigating and adopting under-film drip irrigation, generally 1, the built-in pond in greenhouse, small pump is installed, in cultivating groove, spreads 2 irrigate bands, road.
Key link in cultivation
1, crops for rotation arrangement:
1. steelframe booth, beam-connected greenhouse cultivation
Spring is ahead of time: solanaceous vegetables 10 nursery the middle ten days and the last ten days, and January on, the middle ten days adopts the field planting of multilayer soverlay technique, and in 3 months, the last ten-days period go on the market, and uproot plants after their edible portions have been harvested by the end of July.Gourd vegetables is according to different varieties of plant determination seedling raise period.
Autumn is delayed: solanaceous vegetables mid or late July nursery, and in 8 months, field planting in the last ten-days period, mid-October goes on the market, and uproots plants after their edible portions have been harvested by the end of December.
2. greenhouse by solar heat Long term cultivation
General at early August seeding and seedling raising, transplant planting, started listing mid-November, uprooted plants after their edible portions have been harvested mid-July to Second Year mid-September.Mainly be suitable for solanaceous vegetables to produce.
2, nursery
Adopt cave dish soilless substrate nursery, select commodity matrix, select disk hole footpath, cave according to Different Crop, use early spring heating wire to heat or hot-blast stove heats nursery, use summer and autumn sunshade net to lower the temperature nursery.
3, field management
Identical with general facility cultivation.It should be noted that much the general requirements of organic ecological soilless culture to the needs of moisture more do not lack, otherwise once occur here withering, be difficult to recover, cause Severe Reduction; Topdressing then adopts water-fertilizer integral facility to use instant capacity punching fertilising according to the fertilizer requirement of Different Crop.
4, the recycling of matrix
Matrix should upgrade once for general 2 ~ 3 years, should sterilize and add new matrix every year.
The present invention makes full use of local resource (a large amount of stalk utilizing local paddy rice, wheat, corn, Edible Fungi to produce and rice husk, mushroom slag etc.) and prepares novel cultivation matrix, use the fertile preparation technique of the organic solid-state of innoxious feces of livestock and poultry and water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer originally, development and foundation have the organic ecological soilless culture of local characteristic.

Claims (4)

1. a production method for practicality and high efficiency soilless culture substrate material is that with biological organic fertilizer (animal dung) for auxiliary material, mixed preparing forms in proportion with river sand, stalk, mushroom slag for main nutrient composition raw material.Its technological process is through material preparation technology, zymotechnique, mixing procedure;
Production method is: select river sand as inorganic material, is exposed to the sun through 1-2 days high temperature, or adopts sterilization and disinfection, is crushed to 0.5-1mm particle diameter; Selecting agricultural crop straw as paddy rice, wheat, maize straw, naturally dry, pulverizing, as getting the raw materials ready; Select mushroom slag, as produced mushroom, flat mushroom etc. waste material, after sterilization, adjusted to ph is 6-7, gets the raw materials ready; Animal dung is got the raw materials ready after naturally drying; Prepare inorganic material and organic material in proportion, by weight, inorganic material: organic material is 2-4:8-6, preferred 3:7, river sand: stalk: mushroom slag: animal dung=2:4:2:2, or 3:3:3:1, or 4:2:2:2;
Zymotechnique: by the segment of crushed stalk into about 2cm, by water-soaked, animal dung evenly mixed, stockpile is become 1.50m height buttress, upper cover canopy film ferments.Every 7 ~ 10 days stirrings 1 time, and supply moisture according to dry wet degree, itself and mushroom slag are mixed when stalk gives out fragrant and ferment 7 days again, then river sand mixes.Fermentation process preferably on the sunny side, high land, preferably cement flooring is carried out, and every 667 ㎡ plastic greenhouses need 35m3 matrix;
Batch mixing is prepared: according to the total amount of compound, then add water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer, the former powder of chlorophos crystal, carbendazol wettable powder, fusion evenly piles vexed 3 days afterwards, makes cultivation matrix.Preferred: water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer (potassium sulfate type) 12kg/m 3, the former powder 20g/m of 90% chlorophos crystal 3, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20g/m 3;
Cultivation: cultivating groove adopts brick, centre-to-centre spacing 140cm, cultivating groove inner width 48m, and namely 2 pieces of bricks are long; Cultivation groove depth 25cm; " U " type backwater furrow width 25cm, dark 10cm at the bottom of cultivating groove; Low north, cultivating groove south is high, the gradient 3 ~ 5 °, and every 2 cultivating grooves dig the dark soakaway of the square 50cm of 30cm 1 in the south, bottom with plastic film or woven bag by cultivation matrix and soil completely isolated.Irrigate and adopt under-film drip irrigation, preferably 1, the built-in pond in greenhouse, small pump is installed, in cultivating groove, spreads 2 irrigate bands, road, to ensure crop water requirements, reduce air humidity in canopy.
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: prepare inorganic material and organic material in proportion, by weight, and inorganic material: organic material is preferably 3:7, river sand: stalk: mushroom slag: animal dung=3:3:3:1.
3. according to the method for one of claim 1-2, it is characterized in that: in batch mixing preparation, water-conservation seepage-resistance compound fertilizer (potassium sulfate type) 12kg/m 3, the former powder 20g/m of 90% chlorophos crystal 3, 50% carbendazol wettable powder 20g/m 3.
4. according to the method for one of claim 1-3, it is characterized in that: river sand: stalk: mushroom slag: animal dung=2:4:2:2, or 4:2:2:2.
CN201510196708.3A 2015-04-23 2015-04-23 Eco-organic type soilless culture technology Pending CN104782463A (en)

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Cited By (13)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105210832A (en) * 2015-10-26 2016-01-06 李金新 A kind of soilless culture method improving quantity production of bitter melon
CN105237273A (en) * 2015-08-21 2016-01-13 南宁三达奥克化学有限责任公司 Vegetable seedling raising substrate
CN105613233A (en) * 2015-12-21 2016-06-01 天津百利种苗培育有限公司 Fruit tree seedling breeding substrate
CN106256194A (en) * 2016-08-08 2016-12-28 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of cotton stalk composite interstitial substance and preparation method thereof
CN106258877A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-01-04 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of wheat straw organic substrate vegetable soilless culture method
CN106258901A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-04 柳州放心源农业有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate
CN106305377A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-01-11 河南省农业科学院园艺研究院 Wheat straw composite substrate and preparation method
CN106431591A (en) * 2015-08-04 2017-02-22 张掖市经济作物技术推广站 Tomato seedling growing matrix and production method thereof
CN106665175A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-05-17 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 Rice straw composite substrate suitable for soilless cultivation of vegetables and preparation method of rice straw composite substrate
CN107235777A (en) * 2017-07-24 2017-10-10 彭鸿博 Organic paddy rice seedling medium prepared by a kind of utilization waste edible fungus rejected material and its preparation method and application
CN107253879A (en) * 2017-07-06 2017-10-17 酒泉农辉农业科技开发有限公司 Prevent and treat soilless culture substrate of eggplant disease and preparation method thereof
CN109169221A (en) * 2018-08-23 2019-01-11 肃州区蔬菜技术服务中心 A kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix reparation utilization technology
CN110073964A (en) * 2019-06-01 2019-08-02 江苏丰收大地种业发展有限公司 A kind of device and method of vegetables organic soilless cultivation

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106431591A (en) * 2015-08-04 2017-02-22 张掖市经济作物技术推广站 Tomato seedling growing matrix and production method thereof
CN106431591B (en) * 2015-08-04 2020-01-10 张掖市经济作物技术推广站 Tomato seedling culture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN105237273A (en) * 2015-08-21 2016-01-13 南宁三达奥克化学有限责任公司 Vegetable seedling raising substrate
CN105210832A (en) * 2015-10-26 2016-01-06 李金新 A kind of soilless culture method improving quantity production of bitter melon
CN105613233A (en) * 2015-12-21 2016-06-01 天津百利种苗培育有限公司 Fruit tree seedling breeding substrate
CN106256194B (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-11-21 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of cotton stalk composite interstitial substance preparation method
CN106305377A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-01-11 河南省农业科学院园艺研究院 Wheat straw composite substrate and preparation method
CN106258877A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-01-04 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of wheat straw organic substrate vegetable soilless culture method
CN106256194A (en) * 2016-08-08 2016-12-28 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of cotton stalk composite interstitial substance and preparation method thereof
CN106665175A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-05-17 河南省农业科学院园艺研究所 Rice straw composite substrate suitable for soilless cultivation of vegetables and preparation method of rice straw composite substrate
CN106258901A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-04 柳州放心源农业有限公司 A kind of soilless culture substrate
CN107253879A (en) * 2017-07-06 2017-10-17 酒泉农辉农业科技开发有限公司 Prevent and treat soilless culture substrate of eggplant disease and preparation method thereof
CN107235777A (en) * 2017-07-24 2017-10-10 彭鸿博 Organic paddy rice seedling medium prepared by a kind of utilization waste edible fungus rejected material and its preparation method and application
CN109169221A (en) * 2018-08-23 2019-01-11 肃州区蔬菜技术服务中心 A kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix reparation utilization technology
CN110073964A (en) * 2019-06-01 2019-08-02 江苏丰收大地种业发展有限公司 A kind of device and method of vegetables organic soilless cultivation

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