CN104285533A - Method for using agricultural straw to improve saline-alkali soil - Google Patents

Method for using agricultural straw to improve saline-alkali soil Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104285533A
CN104285533A CN201410565240.6A CN201410565240A CN104285533A CN 104285533 A CN104285533 A CN 104285533A CN 201410565240 A CN201410565240 A CN 201410565240A CN 104285533 A CN104285533 A CN 104285533A
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soil
mycelium
ditch
lay
bag
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CN104285533B (en
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赵俊瑞
李程才
赵植
殷志华
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Guangzhou Huaren cross border trade Co.,Ltd.
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赵俊瑞
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for using agricultural straw to improve saline-alkali soil and belongs to the technical field of soil improvement. The method includes: using corn straw and bran to make culture media; loading the culture media into a polyethylene bag, performing inoculated culturing after sterilizing and cooling until mycelia mature; furrowing during a lay-up period, removing the mature mycelia from the bag and placing the same in furrows, covering soil, compacting and watering, wherein the intervals among the mycelia are 4-6cm; loosening soil two days after watering and mulching, controlling soil temperature at 5-18 DEG C and moisture at 70-85%; fruiting 22-28 days after mulching, and collecting the mature edible mushrooms; covering the edible mushrooms which stop growing when the temperature is below 3 DEG C to allow the mushrooms live through the winter naturally; watering and mulching after thawing the next year, and fruiting until crop sowing in spring. The method has the advantages that the mycelia are planted during the lay-up period by using the waste agricultural straw, nitrogen phosphorus, potassium and organic matter contents of farmlands are increased, soil alkaline is lowered, the pH value of the soil ranges from neutral to sub-acidity, and crop growth is benefited.

Description

A kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of land improvement, relate to a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil.
Background technology
China is vast in territory, but having a large portion to plough belongs to saline land, saline land due to saline and alkaline heavy, soil nutrient content is low, soil compaction, causes crop yield low, so a lot of place can only allow saline land lie waste.
The method of traditional improvement soil saline alkali, is adopt comprehensive farmland technical measures, comprises Modern Water Conservancy engineering construction technology, agrotechnique, chemical modifying technology; Wherein hydraulic engineering construction technology mainly comprises the technology such as gutter drainage, closed drainage, shaft well irrigation and drainage, the anti-seepage of channels and spray drop lavation salt; Agrotechnique comprises traditional dry drainage technology, in good time plough and broadcasts intertillage, broad irrigation pressure salt, applying organic manure, and with the modern agricultural technology that bar field, feed ditch, Pai Qu, road, forest belt, residential area construction are main contents; Chemical modifying technology is the chemical improvement agent such as gypsuming mainly.No matter be above-mentioned that improving technology, all have that cost is high, take effect slow shortcoming.
China is an agricultural production big country, often produce the stalk that 1Kg grain will produce 1.5-2Kg, and the stalk produced is mainly through burning disposal, does like this and not only causes data waste, and serious affects environment.
The present invention is the above-mentioned defect existed to solve prior art, and provides a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
Utilize agricultural stalk to improve a method for alkaline land soil, step is:
(1) be respectively 40-70 maize straw, 16 wheat brans, 7 corn flours, 1 pulverized limestone, 1 land plaster with mass fraction and make medium for raw material, and the water adding raw material gross weight 1.2 times stirs, obtained medium;
(2) medium is loaded Polythene Bag, keep 10h sterilizing at 100 DEG C of constant temperature, after cooling, inoculated and cultured is ripe to mycelium;
(3) wide at lay-up period arable land excavation 38-42cm, the ditch that 32-37cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3-4cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 4-6cm between mycelium;
(4) within after watering two days, loosen the soil and overlay film, control ground temperature at 5-18 DEG C, humidity 70-85%;
(5) fruiting after overlay film 22-28 days, gathers ripe edible mushroom;
(6) as temperature < 3 DEG C, edible mushroom stops growing, and earthing makes its overwintering;
(7) next year thaw after to water overlay film, fruiting sows crops to spring.
Further, described edible mushroom comprises Pleuotus nebrodensis Quel, Xingbao mushroom, White mushroom, flat mushroom, coprinus comatus, Asparagus.
Described medium also comprises 0-25 wood chip, 0-35 corncob, 0-35 cow dung.
Described step (3) is ploughed at lay-up period, and 40cm is wide for excavation, and the ditch that 35cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 5cm between mycelium.
The present invention utilizes agricultural stalk to make medium for primary raw material, through artificially breeding, Mycelium culture, field domestication, breeding sporophore growth is completed in natural environment, utilize lay-up period to plough and plant edible mushroom, bacterium slag as the alternative inorganic fertilizer of organic manure, thus is improved saline land, and the soil before and after plantation edible mushroom is carried out nutrient component contrast chemical examination respectively, as can be seen from experimental data, this method effectively can improve saline land.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
(1) utilize plough and agriculture waste resource non-planting season, agricultural stalk is converted into organic edible fungus and biological organic fungi-manure, produce natural organic edible fungus, plough at lay-up period and sow a large amount of mycelium, increase arable land N P and K and the content of organic matter, reduce surface soil alkalinity, be of value to the crop growth in arable land, substitute inorganic fertilizer with remaining bacterial classification residue after adopting mushroom, improving soil function, promote increases in grain production, improve agricultural product quality;
(2) wild cultivating edible mushroom of the present invention, do not account for and plough planting season, do not build canopy, inapplicable chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals and any chemical raw material, reduce production cost, improve agricultural byproducts added value, cultivation method has the advantages that risk is little, the cycle is short, instant effect, product are of fine quality;
(3) using the nutrient matrix raw material of agricultural stalk as edible mushroom, and then be converted into edible mushroom organic food and bio-bacterial manure, achieve the reciprocal circulation of microbial world and botanic biological chain dexterously, change traditional farming practices of crop straw burning, decrease the pollution of flue dust to environment, protect ecotope;
(4) lay-up period arable land culturing edible fungus is utilized, create the organic Multiple Cropping Rotation mode of agricultural of " bacterium+grain+bacterium ", expand field of planting, improve cropping index and cultivated land utilization rate, facilitate increases in grain production and farmers' income, be conducive to saving and resource of protecting farmland;
(5) the present invention wild cultivating edible mushroom in natural environment in the wild, mycelium is placed in soil, and with plastic mulching, fruit body absorbs the steam in soil completely naturally, eliminate manually with the water pollution issue in running water sprinkling process, the quality of product is high;
(6) the present invention uses plastic mulching edible mushroom, optimize the configuration of edible fungi growth key element, for its wild cultivating provides the favourable growth conditions such as drought resisting, moisturizing, prevention waterlogging, achieve edible mushroom by the transformation of indoor culture to outdoor wild cultivating, increase substantially the yield and quality of edible mushroom, solve the problem that edible mushroom wild cultivating difficulty is large, for edible mushroom wild cultivating provides a kind of new way of high yields irrespective of drought or water logging.
In sum, the present invention utilizes plough and agricultural stalk waste resource non-planting season, ploughs sow mycelium at lay-up period, increase arable land N P and K and the content of organic matter, reduce surface soil alkalinity, pH value has remained between neutrality to subacidity, is of value to crop growth; Organic bacteria slag thoroughly alternative inorganic fertilizer is remained after adopting mushroom; the mutual benefit achieving microbial world and vegetative kingdom's biological chain dexterously circulates; improve farmland quality; facilitate increases in grain production; protect natural resources and ecotope; produce natural organic food simultaneously, facilitate the synchronized development of economy and zoology, be conducive to promoting the fundamental shifts of traditional farming to organic farming.
concrete fertilization mode
Embodiment 1
Utilize agricultural stalk to improve a method for alkaline land soil, step is:
(1) take 75Kg maize straw, 16Kg wheat bran, 7Kg corn flour, 1Kg pulverized limestone, 1Kg land plaster, mixing, and the water adding raw material gross weight 1.2 times stirs, obtained medium;
(2) medium is loaded Polythene Bag, keep 10h sterilizing at 100 DEG C of constant temperature, after cooling, inoculated and cultured is ripe to mycelium;
(3) wide at lay-up period arable land excavation 38-42cm, the ditch that 32-37cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3-4cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 4-6cm between mycelium;
(4) within after watering two days, loosen the soil and overlay film, control ground temperature at 5-18 DEG C, humidity 70-85%;
(5) fruiting after overlay film 22-28 days, gathers ripe edible mushroom;
(6) as temperature < 3 DEG C, edible mushroom stops growing, and earthing makes its overwintering;
(7) next year thaw after to water overlay film, fruiting sows crops to spring.
Soil before and after plantation edible mushroom is carried out respectively nutrient component contrast chemical examination: full nitrogen increases 1.69g/Kg, increases by 264.06%; Alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen increases 80.5mg/Kg, increases by 143.75%; Available phosphorus increases 26.02mg/Kg, increases by 385.48%; Available potassium increases 291.39mg/Kg, increases by 225.10%; Slowly available potassium increases 177.49mg/Kg, increases by 21.7%; Organic increase 28.9g/Kg, increases by 178.84%; PH value reduces by 1.02, in neutral, is conducive to crop growth.
Embodiment 2
Utilize agricultural stalk to improve a method for alkaline land soil, step is:
(1) take 50Kg maize straw, 25Kg wood chip, 16Kg wheat bran, 7Kg corn flour, 1Kg pulverized limestone, 1Kg land plaster, mixing, and the water adding raw material gross weight 1.2 times stirs, obtained medium;
(2) medium is loaded Polythene Bag, keep 10h sterilizing at 100 DEG C of constant temperature, after cooling, inoculated and cultured is ripe to mycelium;
(3) wide at lay-up period arable land excavation 38-42cm, the ditch that 32-37cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3-4cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 4-6cm between mycelium;
(4) within after watering two days, loosen the soil and overlay film, control ground temperature at 5-18 DEG C, humidity 70-85%;
(5) fruiting after overlay film 22-28 days, gathers ripe edible mushroom;
(6) as temperature < 3 DEG C, edible mushroom stops growing, and earthing makes its overwintering;
(7) next year thaw after to water overlay film, fruiting sows crops to spring.
Soil before and after plantation edible mushroom is carried out respectively nutrient component contrast chemical examination: full nitrogen increases 2.03g/Kg, increases by 317.19%; Alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen increases 84.3mg/Kg, increases by 150.54%; Available phosphorus increases 34.9mg/Kg, increases by 517.04%; Available potassium increases 386.59mg/Kg, increases by 298.64%; Slowly available potassium increases 194.5mg/Kg, increases by 23.80%; Organic increase 36.96g/Kg, increases by 228.71%; PH value reduces by 1.12, in subacidity, is conducive to crop growth.
Embodiment 3
Utilize agricultural stalk to improve a method for alkaline land soil, step is:
(1) take 40Kg maize straw, 35Kg corncob, 16Kg wheat bran, 7Kg corn flour, 1Kg pulverized limestone, 1Kg land plaster, mixing, and the water adding raw material gross weight 1.2 times stirs, obtained medium;
(2) medium is loaded Polythene Bag, keep 10h sterilizing at 100 DEG C of constant temperature, after cooling, inoculated and cultured is ripe to mycelium;
(3) wide at lay-up period arable land excavation 38-42cm, the ditch that 32-37cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3-4cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 4-6cm between mycelium;
(4) within after watering two days, loosen the soil and overlay film, control ground temperature at 5-18 DEG C, humidity 70-85%;
(5) fruiting after overlay film 22-28 days, gathers ripe edible mushroom;
(6) as temperature < 3 DEG C, edible mushroom stops growing, and earthing makes its overwintering;
(7) next year thaw after to water overlay film, fruiting sows crops to spring.
Embodiment 4
Utilize agricultural stalk to improve a method for alkaline land soil, step is:
(1) take 50Kg maize straw, 35Kg cow dung, 16Kg wheat bran, 7Kg corn flour, 1Kg pulverized limestone, 1Kg land plaster, mixing, and the water adding raw material gross weight 1.2 times stirs, obtained medium;
(2) medium is loaded Polythene Bag, keep 10h sterilizing at 100 DEG C of constant temperature, after cooling, inoculated and cultured is ripe to mycelium;
(3) wide at lay-up period arable land excavation 38-42cm, the ditch that 32-37cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3-4cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 4-6cm between mycelium;
(4) within after watering two days, loosen the soil and overlay film, control ground temperature at 5-18 DEG C, humidity 70-85%;
(5) fruiting after overlay film 22-28 days, gathers ripe edible mushroom;
(6) as temperature < 3 DEG C, edible mushroom stops growing, and earthing makes its overwintering;
(7) next year thaw after to water overlay film, fruiting sows crops to spring.

Claims (4)

1. utilize agricultural stalk to improve a method for alkaline land soil, it is characterized in that, step is:
(1) be respectively 40-70 maize straw, 16 wheat brans, 7 corn flours, 1 pulverized limestone, 1 land plaster with mass fraction and make medium for raw material, and the water adding raw material gross weight 1.2 times stirs, obtained medium;
(2) medium is loaded Polythene Bag, keep 10h sterilizing at 100 DEG C of constant temperature, after cooling, inoculated and cultured is ripe to mycelium;
(3) wide at lay-up period arable land excavation 38-42cm, the ditch that 32-37cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag and is placed in ditch, earthing 3-4cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 4-6cm between mycelium;
(4) within after watering two days, loosen the soil and overlay film, control ground temperature at 5-18 DEG C, humidity 70-85%;
(5) fruiting after overlay film 22-28 days, gathers ripe edible mushroom;
(6) as temperature < 3 DEG C, edible mushroom stops growing, and earthing makes its overwintering;
(7) next year thaw after to water overlay film, fruiting sows crops to spring.
2. a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described edible mushroom comprises Pleuotus nebrodensis Quel, Xingbao mushroom, White mushroom, flat mushroom, coprinus comatus, Asparagus.
3. a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that, described medium also comprises 0-25 wood chip, 0-35 corncob, 0-35 cow dung.
4. a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to improve alkaline land soil according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that, described step (3) is ploughed at lay-up period, and 40cm is wide for excavation, the ditch that 35cm is dark, the mycelium cultivating maturation is taken off bag to be placed in ditch, earthing 3cm, compacting is watered, wherein interval 5cm between mycelium.
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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104830346A (en) * 2015-05-08 2015-08-12 中国热带农业科学院橡胶研究所 Method for sieving and utilizing agricultural waste serving as acid soil conditioner
CN105766123A (en) * 2016-03-30 2016-07-20 天津市福森园林景观工程有限公司 Soil improvement method for saline-alkali soil
CN105850618A (en) * 2016-04-08 2016-08-17 宁夏大学 Weakly alkaline ecological rice and method for planting same
CN106342436A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-25 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Method for controlling salt up-going and soil surface accumulation of secondary salinization land
CN107646225A (en) * 2017-09-29 2018-02-02 河北省农林科学院滨海农业研究所 A kind of method of heavy saline-alkali area at seashore original soil furnished equipments
CN107743746A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-03-02 天津泰达绿化集团有限公司 A kind of strand hydraulic reclamation geavy salt alkali open ground vegetation fast construction method
CN108901600A (en) * 2018-08-09 2018-11-30 合肥福泉现代农业科技有限公司 A kind of method that expired milk recycles cultivation milk fragrance edible mushroom
CN108949582A (en) * 2018-07-24 2018-12-07 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 A kind of high cadmium resistance Eight Strains of Pleurotus Ostreatus and its application
CN109042133A (en) * 2018-07-26 2018-12-21 宁夏夏能生物科技有限公司 It is a kind of improve soil method and honeydew melon implantation methods

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CN1080463A (en) * 1992-07-03 1994-01-12 黄克允 Wheat straw, straw raw material bag cultivating flat mushroom high yield technique
CN1432268A (en) * 2003-03-04 2003-07-30 柏林 Xianggu mushroom cultivating technology in sand, dry and saline-alkali land
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CN101361421A (en) * 2008-10-09 2009-02-11 东北林业大学 Shallow-groove improved in-situ repair saline-land vegetable planting method
CN101622921A (en) * 2009-06-09 2010-01-13 东北林业大学 Method for restoring severe saline-alkali field in situ by building bed to pave and bury mushroom rod directly
JP2011109995A (en) * 2009-11-30 2011-06-09 Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kk Add-in material for mushroom cultivation, artificial culture medium for mushroom, and method for artificially cultivating mushroom using the culture medium
CN102391979A (en) * 2011-12-16 2012-03-28 天津理工大学 Corn straw compost for improving saline-alkali soil and wheat field application method thereof
JP2012085622A (en) * 2010-10-15 2012-05-10 Shoji Sawada Method for producing culture medium base material in plant cultivation using natural extract

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1080463A (en) * 1992-07-03 1994-01-12 黄克允 Wheat straw, straw raw material bag cultivating flat mushroom high yield technique
CN1432268A (en) * 2003-03-04 2003-07-30 柏林 Xianggu mushroom cultivating technology in sand, dry and saline-alkali land
CN101361420A (en) * 2008-10-09 2009-02-11 东北林业大学 Deep-groove improved in-situ repair saline-land white mushroom insemination method
CN101361421A (en) * 2008-10-09 2009-02-11 东北林业大学 Shallow-groove improved in-situ repair saline-land vegetable planting method
CN101622921A (en) * 2009-06-09 2010-01-13 东北林业大学 Method for restoring severe saline-alkali field in situ by building bed to pave and bury mushroom rod directly
JP2011109995A (en) * 2009-11-30 2011-06-09 Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kk Add-in material for mushroom cultivation, artificial culture medium for mushroom, and method for artificially cultivating mushroom using the culture medium
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CN102391979A (en) * 2011-12-16 2012-03-28 天津理工大学 Corn straw compost for improving saline-alkali soil and wheat field application method thereof

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104830346A (en) * 2015-05-08 2015-08-12 中国热带农业科学院橡胶研究所 Method for sieving and utilizing agricultural waste serving as acid soil conditioner
CN105766123A (en) * 2016-03-30 2016-07-20 天津市福森园林景观工程有限公司 Soil improvement method for saline-alkali soil
CN105850618A (en) * 2016-04-08 2016-08-17 宁夏大学 Weakly alkaline ecological rice and method for planting same
CN106342436A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-25 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Method for controlling salt up-going and soil surface accumulation of secondary salinization land
CN107646225A (en) * 2017-09-29 2018-02-02 河北省农林科学院滨海农业研究所 A kind of method of heavy saline-alkali area at seashore original soil furnished equipments
CN107743746A (en) * 2017-11-20 2018-03-02 天津泰达绿化集团有限公司 A kind of strand hydraulic reclamation geavy salt alkali open ground vegetation fast construction method
CN108949582A (en) * 2018-07-24 2018-12-07 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 A kind of high cadmium resistance Eight Strains of Pleurotus Ostreatus and its application
CN108949582B (en) * 2018-07-24 2020-06-30 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 High-cadmium-resistance oyster mushroom strain and application thereof
CN109042133A (en) * 2018-07-26 2018-12-21 宁夏夏能生物科技有限公司 It is a kind of improve soil method and honeydew melon implantation methods
CN108901600A (en) * 2018-08-09 2018-11-30 合肥福泉现代农业科技有限公司 A kind of method that expired milk recycles cultivation milk fragrance edible mushroom

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