CN104718923A - Drought-resisting cultivation method for ginkgo trees - Google Patents

Drought-resisting cultivation method for ginkgo trees Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104718923A
CN104718923A CN201310710353.6A CN201310710353A CN104718923A CN 104718923 A CN104718923 A CN 104718923A CN 201310710353 A CN201310710353 A CN 201310710353A CN 104718923 A CN104718923 A CN 104718923A
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China
Prior art keywords
ginkgo
orchard
tree
cultivation
drought
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CN201310710353.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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不公告发明人
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Chongqing One Hundred Fruital Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Chongqing One Hundred Fruital Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201310710353.6A priority Critical patent/CN104718923A/en
Publication of CN104718923A publication Critical patent/CN104718923A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0262Mulches, i.e. covering material not-pre-formed in mats or sheets
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention belongs to ginkgo tree cultivation in the technical field of agriculture and relates to a drought-resisting cultivation method for ginkgo trees. The drought-resisting cultivation method for the ginkgo trees mainly includes selection of drought-resisting tree species and tree stocks, ginkgo tree cultivation and orchard management. The ginkgo tree cultivation includes dense planting, pruning, fertilizing, frequent deep ploughing and terrace and fish-scale pit building. The orchard management includes orchard covering, sod cultivation in an orchard, combination of storing water and fertilizer in hollows with plastic film mulching, water-saving irrigation, moisture absorbent application and transpiration agent application, wherein the orchard covering includes plastic film covering and glass covering, trifolium repens are selected for the sod cultivation in the orchard, and the water-saving irrigation includes drop irrigation and sprinkling irrigation. The drought-resisting cultivation method for the ginkgo trees has the advantages that the technologies are applied comprehensively during ginkgo tree production, so that organic matter content of orchard soil can be improved, plant diseases and insect pests in the orchard are reduced, fruit quality is improved and single-tree fruit setting rate is increased.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of ginkgo drought resisting
Technical field
The invention belongs to the plant cultivation in agricultural technology field, relate to ginkgo culture technique, specifically a kind of ginkgo anti drought cultivation method.
Background technology
Ginkgo is the Main Economic seeds of Chinese upper level, and cultivated area is comparatively large, but grows period ginkgo, often be subject to weather conditions, the restriction of environmental condition, especially arid is the most obvious on the impact of ginkgo growth, and the underproduction of ginkgo can be caused when arid is serious even to have no harvest.This just causes the economic loss that cannot remedy to the upper level of originating using ginkgo as Main Economic, serious constrains local economic development.Production in conjunction with upper level is now actual, and primary technical problem how reasonably to utilize upper level resource, improves the economic benefit of ginkgo unit are, ecological benefits, social benefit.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is based on the basic theories of ginkgo cultivation, according to the biological property of different ginkgo and the natural conditions of upper level, by technical measures such as regulation and control soil moisture and fertility etc., for ginkgo builds good conditions of growth and development, object is to provide a kind of ginkgo anti drought cultivation method.
The present invention mainly comprises selection drought resisting stock, and ginkgo is cultivated, and between garden, management waits technology contents.
Variety classes ginkgo kind water requirement and Drought hardiness are discrepant, and in cultivation seeds, kernel approaches ginkgo is drought-enduring the strongest at present, and the Drought hardiness such as Lee, grape is medium, and the seeds such as apple, pears Drought hardiness is the most weak.The Drought hardiness of cultivation seeds and stock relation are very large, and stock root system drought resistance size decides the Drought hardiness of ginkgo, and stock drought-resistant ability can strengthen greatly the Drought hardiness of ginkgo.Therefore, drought resisting stock should be selected in ginkgo drought-resistant cultivating as the kind of grafting.The present invention selects tall anvil class stock as Grafted Variety, as more drought-enduring Malus baccata, calophyllum inophyllum, sorb, V. amurensis.
Rational cultivation also has important effect to the drought-resistant ability of ginkgo, and the ginkgo culture technique that the present invention takes comprises dense planting, pruning, fertilising, diligent deep ploughing, and builds terraced fields and fish scale pit.
Area under water deficit conditions short of rain, rational close planting can make ginkgo obtain sufficient moisture and nutrient, realizes high grade producing.The present invention adopts intermediate density to plant, and spacing in the rows is 2.5 ~ 3.0 meters.Intermediate density field of planting is as far as possible smooth, hollow place to plant, footpath, hole be 1 meter square.
Ideal tree-like of drought resisting is free spindle and slender spindle like, and the present invention is trimmed to free spindle or slender spindle like tree-like.Make wound less during pruning, stay protection stake more.Smear in time with seal and shear oil or soothing oil after pruning and cut, saw wound, prevent resin from evaporating.To erase in time spring unnecessary rudiment, be thinning out invalid raw branch summer, carry out with Hua Dingguo, sensible load, limit output, reduce the effective consumption that tree is recuperated point.
In order to strengthen tree vigo(u)r, improving ginkgo drought resistance, carrying out rational application of fertilizers, applying organic manure, change the fertilising custom of inclined nitrogen.Autumn, rainfall was more, and soil moisture is large, and timely basal dressing is beneficial to tree body and reserves nutrient, though such next year spring arid, but reserve nutrient more due to tree body, make Growth status healthy and strong, blade is large, and fruit-setting rate of blooming is high, and drought resistance strengthens.Fertilising should be advisable with reasonable deep placement, and induction root system grows downwards, strengthens drought resistance.
For preventing soil water evaporation, diligent deep ploughing is carried out in orchard.Deep ploughing of the present invention combines with thin rake, will prevent erosion while deep ploughing.A kind of way is some leguminous green manures of deep ploughing orchard intercropping, plays the effect in solid clay fertilizer field.
Level land to non-, as mountain region, arid hillside field and hilly ground, terraced fields and fish scale pit are built in orchard, carry out contour famring, and rainwater is accumulated in row and under tree, and the water utilization ability of office of raising portion soil, increases drought resistance.
Between garden, management comprises Orchard mulch, orchard ground cover, plastic mulching cave storage rich water, water-saving irrigation, and uses hygroscopic agent, applies anti-steaming agent.
Orchard mulch comprises plastic film covering and covers grass.
Covering careless thickness is 15 ~ 20 centimetres, Orchard Plant Cover throughout the year, with spring as well, poor rainfed land covers grass when 20 cm layer of soil temperature reach 20 DEG C.Wheat straw, wheat bran, weeds, leaf, crops straw and broken faggot all can be used for Orchard Plant Cover.The quantity of Orchard Plant Cover, grass 2000 ~ 2500 kilograms every mu is covered in full garden, and covering careless thickness is 15 ~ 20 centimetres.
Plastic film covering and cover grass can reduce moisture evaporation, improve photosynthetic rate, there is good Water storage.Can soil temperature be improved, be conducive to the raising of root physiological activity in early spring, promote microbial activities, accelerate organic matter decomposition, increase soil fertility.Treelet planting survival rate can be significantly improved, promote young sprout growth, be conducive to tree crown and expand rapidly.Also has the effect promoting fruit maturation and suppress weed growth in addition.
Orchard ground cover of the present invention plants to grow useful grass to ginkgo in orchard, and this grass can be Trifolium repense.Trifolium repense belongs to perennial root plant, and seed lands natural renovation ability by force, and utilization periods is about 8 years, has shade tolerance energy, normal growth under the environment of 30% light transmittance, suitable orchard planting.There is after Trifolium repense Cheng Ping more flourishing side root and stolon, have stronger competitiveness compared with other weeds, and there is certain cold-resistant and temperature capacity, 4.5 ~ 8.5 are reached to the accommodation of P in soil H value.Because Trifolium repense optimum growth temperature is 19 DEG C ~ 24 DEG C, sow with season in spring and autumn two as the best.Spring at mid or late March, can be able to be sowed when temperature is stabilized in more than 15 DEG C.Autumn sowing generally started from mid-August until mid or late September, autumn good conditions for soil moisture, weed growth gesture is weak, is conducive to Trifolium repense and grows into level ground, therefore comparatively sows in spring preferably.Trifolium repense grass seeds by ginkgo inter-row weed and eliminating impurities, should turn over rear leveling before broadcasting, and earthing should be shallow, at 1 ~ 2 centimetre, harrows after generally seed being spread on earth's surface with slight spike-tooth harrow, every mu of amount of broadcasting 0.4 ~ 0.6 kilogram.Seedling stage keeps ground moistening, supplements a small amount of nitrogenous fertilizer, and weeds a garden in time, need supplementary phosphorus, potash fertilizer, and suitably water during prolonged drought after Cheng Ping.The major measure that butch clover upgrades cradles and turns over, and butch clover is lower numerous grass, and plant is short, general 30 cm, and can cradle in time highly growing to 20 cm, when cradling, toothing is not less than 5 centimetres, in order to regeneration.2 ~ 4 times can be cradled every year, after cradling, all will supplement rich water at every turn.Newly-built grass is not preferably cut by initial some months, and the grass cut off can cover on the spot, also can make forage feed and use.After sward about 5 years, grass is aging, should turn in time, lie fallow after 1 ~ 2 year, reseeding.Time of ploughing deeply was advisable with late fall, and should be noted and prevent infringement ginkgo root system.
Butch clover can improve soil, increases soil fertility, and suppresses weed growth, regulates ground temperature, improve ginkgo growing environment, prevent erosion, strengthen biocontrol efficacy, reduce damage by disease and insect and occur, improve ginkgo yield and quality, fruit is herded and combines development, improve overall economic efficiency.
Cave storage rich water film-mulching technique is simple, and small investment takes effect greatly, has the advantages that joint is fertile, economize on water, generally can save fertile 30%, water saving 70% ~ 90%; Thinner at soil layer, the anhydrous hill effect watering condition is particularly remarkable, is the important drought resisting in arid orchard, water conservation technology.Concrete technology is as follows: careless handle crops straw or weeds being bundled into diameter 15 ~ 25 centimetres, length 30 ~ 35 centimetres, is placed in water or in the urine of 5% ~ 10% and soaks into.At crown mapping edge, inside 50 ~ 70 centimeters dig dark 40 centimetres, diameter ratio is careless supports cave slightly large storage, and hole is rounded round tree root, determines to store foster cave quantity according to tree crown size, crown diameter 3.5 ~ 4.0 meters, digs 4 caves; Crown diameter 6 meters, digs 6 ~ 8 caves.By grass standing on cave central authorities, around tread with the native landfill mixing fertilizer, 5 kilograms, every cave farmyard manure, mix 150 grams of superphosphate, 50 ~ 100 grams of urea or composite fertilizer, and water in right amount, then tree dish is arranged, make nutrition cave lower than 1 ~ 2 centimetre, ground, form plate shape, 3 ~ 5 kilograms/cave of watering gets final product overlay film; Old plastic sheeting for farm use is cut apart with a knife or scissors and evens up, on Gai Shu dish, and must nutrition cave be covered under film, surrounding and centre soil pressure reality, every cave covering with plastic film 1.5 ~ 2.0 square metres, ground film edge soil pressure is tight, central authorities just wear an aperture to grass upper end, block with stone or soil, water to topdress in the future.The mulch film of cave overcentre is worn an aperture, so that later fertilizing, watering or undertaking rainwater, and on aperture, presses a finger stone, in case moisture evaporation.General after spending as early and middle ten days in May, young sprout stops growing the phase as 3 periods after mid-June and fruit picking, and topdressing 50 ~ 100 grams of urea or composite fertilizer in every cave, is put in by fertilizer careless top, waters about 3.0 ~ 4.0 kilograms immediately; Enter rainy season, mulch film can be removed, storage is supported in cave and stores rainwater; Cave is supported in general storage can maintain 2 ~ 3 years, and grass, changing once every year, finds that mulch film should be changed after damaging in time, again arranges when cave is supported in storage and changes position, realize the improvement of full garden gradually.
Water-saving irrigation technique comprises drip irrigation, sprinkling irrigation.
Drip irrigation whole system comprises control appliance as water pump, water meter, manometer, filter, mixed fertile tank etc., main pipe, arm, hollow billet and water dropper.Have the water of certain pressure, flow into main pipe and arm, water is transported to ginkgo in the ranks from water source after strict filtration, be connected, hollow billet be equipped with 4 ~ 6 water droppers with the hollow billet around tree strain with arm, dripping end flow is generally 2 ~ 4 public ls/h.Water instills soil continuously by water dropper, makes the soil of ginkgo Root Distribution layer keep optimum moisture condition always.Drip irrigation is a kind of water economy, saving of labor, labour-saving irrigation method, is specially adapted to the arid upper level lacking water source.Application drip irrigation, than spray irrigation economize 36% ~ 50%, economizes on water 80% ~ 92% than flood irrigation.Owing to supplying water evenly, lastingly, root system ambient stable, is extremely conducive to the growth of ginkgo, growth, general volume increase more than 25%.The drip irrigation time should grasp moistening root system integrated distribution layer for degree, and drip irrigation should be determined with the demand of ginkgo growing process interval.Usually, when there is not wilting phenomenon, pour water without the need to overfrequency.
Sprinkling irrigation comprises sprinkling irrigation and micro-spray, and sprinkling irrigation system comprises a few part of water source, water inlet pipe, pump works, aqueduct, vertical tube and shower nozzle.Can regulate pressure, select shower nozzle and determine application rate of sprinkler irrigation according to the soil texture, moistening degree, wind-force size etc. during application, to reach ne-leakage, runoff loss, not spoiled soil structure again, simultaneously can the object of even moistening soil.The using water wisely of sprinkling irrigation energy, water consumption is 1/4 of surface irrigation, soil protection structure, regulates orchard microclimate, and clean blade face, also can alleviate freeze injury when running into frost; Spray at dusk in Apple maturing stage, can promote painted, increasing sugar; Hot summer sprinkling irrigation can reduce leaf temperature, temperature and soil temperature, prevents high temperature, day burns evil.Sprinkling irrigation can, in conjunction with spraying insecticide and liquid fertilizer, be a kind of comparatively ideal irrigation method.
Micro-spray has sprinkling irrigation and the strong point of drip irrigation technique, overcomes both disadvantages, than more water-saving of spraying, than drip irrigation anti-clogging, supplies water very fast.The technology emphasis of the present invention's application microspray irrigation is, utilizes two mountain springs, lays house steward 1, main 2, arm 14, connects hollow billet under arm, arrange along contour, spacing is consistent with ginkgo line-spacing, fixes a two-way refraction mini sprinkler of WP-Z1.2 under every strain tree, be connected with hollow billet with the plastic tube of diameter 4 millimeters, shower nozzle injection flow rate is 62 public ls/h, and spraying diameter is 2.9 meters, than common irrigated area volume increase 43.4%, with flood irrigation ratio, the whole year can economize on water 70%, and recoups capital outlay 260%.
Hygroscopic agent is a kind of PP type, and water absorbing and retaining properties is extremely strong, and its water absorbing properties exceedes 1000 times of deadweight, and has excellent water retention property, can form resistance film at the environment lower surface of drying, the excessive and evaporation of moisture in block film.If spread lower 100 grams in the scope of 1 square metre, soil moisture just can be made to increase by 800 times, make soil water evaporation reduce 75%, and can absorb water from air.Once watering or just moisture can being remained for a long time after rain, absorb all the year round for ginkgo.Because the circulation of its water-swellable and dehydration drying shrinkage can also increase soil porosity, keep soil from packing together, be conducive to root system respiration and grow.
Apply anti-steaming agent.The most of moisture that ginkgo absorbs is used for rising, and only accounts for few part for what set body physiological metabolism.Therefore under the prerequisite not affecting tree body physiological activity, suitably reduce moisture transpiration, just can reach water for economy, improve the object of tree body efficiency of water application.The present invention uses fulvic acid as anti-steaming agent, and fulvic acid can promote root system development, can close pore to a certain extent again, reduces rising, namely has the effect of " increasing income " and " throttling " simultaneously.The application of fulvic acid on ginkgo, more than 18 days period of validity, obviously reduce rising 50% ~ 59% and the raising flow of water 0.2 ~ 0.4MMPa, leaf Wen Wei is significantly affected.Spraying in early days, can obviously improve water regime in its body.
Embodiment
The present invention is at Northeast China upper level, and holy water town, Liuhe County, Jilin Province is tested.This area is typical semiarid type upper level, and natural conditions are severe, are suitable for enforcement of the present invention.
Select drought-resistant ability medium, be suitable for upper level ginkgo and produce actual Japanese plum as experimental subjects, selection calophyllum inophyllum is Grafted Variety.
Ginkgo carries out the cultivation of intermediate density, and spacing in the rows is at 2.5m, and footpath, hole is at 1m.Tree-like is free spindle, smears in time after pruning with seal and shear oil.Carry out rational application of fertilizers, applying organic manure.Deep ploughing in orchard, builds terraced fields, carries out contour dense planting.
The grass carrying out orchard May covers, and cover when 20 cm layer of soil temperature reach 20 DEG C, cover leaf, crops straw and broken faggot, covering careless thickness is 15 ~ 20 centimetres.
It is cover the front furrow ridge or the work road building 45 centimetres wide in the middle of Liang Hangshu of grass that tree dish covers grass, flattens and make nearly trunk place slightly high in tree furrow, reserves the space of 20 centimetres during lid grass around trunk.Combine before covering grass to plough deeply or deeply uproot and water, every strain nitrogen fertilizer application 0.35 kilogram, covering careless thickness is 17 centimetres.After covering grass Cao Po broadcast TV programs by satellite asterism point pressure point soil, scrape and fire with windproof.Cover the fresh covering of grass after rainy season tentatively rots, after covering grass, many insects perch in grass, spray medicine, play concentrated trapping effect on grass.The lower fallen leaves of tree and sick branch should be cleared up autumn, the generations such as control early defoliation disease, leaf miner, anthracnose.
The plastic mulching of cave storage rich water is careless handle weeds being bundled into 20 centimetres, growing 32 centimetres, is placed in the urine of 8% and soaks into.At crown mapping edge, inside 60 centimeters dig dark 40 centimetres, diameter ratio is careless supports cave slightly large storage, and hole is rounded round tree root, crown diameter 3.5 ~ 4 meters, digs 4 caves; Crown diameter 6 meters, digs 6 ~ 8 caves.By grass standing on cave central authorities, around with the native landfill mixing fertilizer tread 5 kilograms, every cave farmyard manure, mix 150 grams of superphosphate, 75 grams of urea or composite fertilizer, and to water in right amount, then arrange tree dish, make nutrition cave lower than 2 centimetres, ground, form plate shape, to water 4 kilograms/cave, and overlay film.Every cave covering with plastic film 1.5 square metres, ground film edge is tight by soil pressure, and central authorities just wear an aperture to grass upper end, block with stone or soil, waters to topdress in the future or accepts rainwater.Grass, changing once every year, finds that mulch film should be changed after damaging in time.
Adopt the mode of dripping and filling with, hollow billet is equipped with 5 water droppers, dripping end flow is 2 ~ 4 public ls/h.

Claims (1)

1. a ginkgo anti drought cultivation method, comprises and selects drought resisting seeds and stock, and ginkgo is cultivated, and orchard management, is characterized in that selecting the kind of drought resisting stock grafting as cultivar, ginkgo spacing in the rows, at 2.5 ~ 3m, with the hollow place plantation that 1m is square, is trimmed to free spindle or slender spindle like tree-like, May carries out Orchard mulch, every mu with careless 2000 ~ 2500 kilograms, tree dish covers the work road that grass builds 40 ~ 50 centimetres wide in the middle of Liang Hangshu, the space of 18 ~ 22 centimetres is reserved around trunk during lid grass, orchard ground cover uses clover, every mu of amount of broadcasting 0.4 ~ 0.6 kilogram, earthing 1 ~ 2 centimetre, apply nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer is applied after Cheng Ping, size according to tree crown is digged pit, crown diameter 3.5 ~ 4 meters, dig 4 caves, crown diameter 6 meters, dig 6 ~ 8 caves, bag crop is bundled into diameter 15 ~ 25 centimetres, the careless handle of long 30 ~ 35 centimetres, be placed in the urine of 5% ~ 10% and soak into, cave is supported in the storage that inside 50 ~ 70 centimeters dig dark 40 centimetres at crown mapping edge, by grass standing in cave, to water 3 ~ 5 kilograms/cave, and overlay film immediately, irrigate and adopt drip irrigation or sprinkling irrigation, apply hygroscopic agent and anti-steaming agent simultaneously.
CN201310710353.6A 2013-12-22 2013-12-22 Drought-resisting cultivation method for ginkgo trees Pending CN104718923A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105494024A (en) * 2015-10-23 2016-04-20 赣州江洪果业发展有限公司 Novel grape plantation method
CN106165631A (en) * 2016-07-08 2016-11-30 合肥公盈园艺科技有限公司 A kind of method for cultivating Drought-resistant ginkgo
CN106857145A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-20 湖南麓园银杏产业开发有限公司 A kind of Leaf-harvesting Ginkgo section fertilizer exempts careless cultural method
CN106857146A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-20 湖南麓园银杏产业开发有限公司 A kind of ginkgo gently simplifies concentrates method for culturing seedlings
CN108307984A (en) * 2018-03-05 2018-07-24 甘肃省农业科学院林果花卉研究所 A kind of fertile method of collection rain storage of mountain orchard

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105494024A (en) * 2015-10-23 2016-04-20 赣州江洪果业发展有限公司 Novel grape plantation method
CN106165631A (en) * 2016-07-08 2016-11-30 合肥公盈园艺科技有限公司 A kind of method for cultivating Drought-resistant ginkgo
CN106857145A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-20 湖南麓园银杏产业开发有限公司 A kind of Leaf-harvesting Ginkgo section fertilizer exempts careless cultural method
CN106857146A (en) * 2017-02-17 2017-06-20 湖南麓园银杏产业开发有限公司 A kind of ginkgo gently simplifies concentrates method for culturing seedlings
CN108307984A (en) * 2018-03-05 2018-07-24 甘肃省农业科学院林果花卉研究所 A kind of fertile method of collection rain storage of mountain orchard

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