CN104686142A - Aeroponic virus-free seed potato breeding method and accessory equipment - Google Patents

Aeroponic virus-free seed potato breeding method and accessory equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104686142A
CN104686142A CN201510077429.5A CN201510077429A CN104686142A CN 104686142 A CN104686142 A CN 104686142A CN 201510077429 A CN201510077429 A CN 201510077429A CN 104686142 A CN104686142 A CN 104686142A
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China
Prior art keywords
nutrient solution
seedling
greenhouse
cultivation
potato
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Inventor
张胜利
韩忠才
韩宗安
姜润田
李彦军
徐飞
孙静
孙凯
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Vegetable Or Flower Research Institute Of Jilin Province
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Vegetable Or Flower Research Institute Of Jilin Province
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Priority to CN201510077429.5A priority Critical patent/CN104686142A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • A01G31/02Special apparatus therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture

Abstract

The invention provides an aeroponic virus-free seed potato breeding method and equipment. The breeding method includes the following steps: equipment cleaning and disinfection, greenhouse disinfection through a smoke drug, seedling hardening, planting and atomization, illumination and temperature management, seedling shedding, overgrowth and lodging control, nutrient solution concentration management, nutrient solution pH value management, nutrient solution temperature management, pest and disease damage prevention, and harvesting. The breeding equipment includes cultivation tanks, cultivation plates, a nutrient solution, a solution storage container, a solution delivery pipe, atomization nozzles, a circulating pump, and a nutrient solution return pipe, wherein each cultivation tank is a cuboid tank of which the length is much larger than the width, the inner surface of each cultivation tank is painted black, the outer surface of each cultivation tank is painted silvery grey, and each cultivation tank is supported from the ground through a bracket; the solution storage container is an underground solution storage pool, a temperature sensor is arranged in the solution storage pool, and a nutrient solution cooling thermolator is arranged outside the solution storage pool. The method provided by the invention can reduce the seedling time, prolong the collection period, and increase the yield; the number of stolons is increased, so as to lay a foundation for a higher yield of virus-free seed potatoes. The equipment provided by the invention is convenient to manage, can save energy, and runs reliably.

Description

Aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato mating system and corollary equipment
Technical field
The invention belongs to agriculture field, be specifically related to seed potato and breed.
background technology:
Potato detoxicating micro potato mist training production is a new technology of China's R and D in recent years, it is by nutrient solution timing spraying, make plant root in dark with without obtaining the required moisture of growth and nutrient under matrix condition, both solve the nutrient condition needed for potato growth, also solve the aerobic problem of root.
Existing virus-free seed potato aerial fog cultivation, the small size be still in small-sized greenhouse is produced or the scientific research exploratory experiment stage, is not applied in the middle of large area production.On cultivation method, do not carry out systematically with strict production management and supporting Storage Measures.Breed at large area aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato have that the sterilization of detoxic seedling growth irregular, nutrient solution is uncontrollable, after detoxification the easy excessive growth of Later growth rely on merely chemical agent and hormone to carry out controlling and micro potato gather in the crops preserve afterwards in the higher problem of rotten potato rate be all difficult to solve.Cultivation equipment is all the substitute utensil of reply test, as Domestic plastic bucket, plastic tube, micro pump, test cultivating groove etc., be not suitable with the production of large area, scale, commodity potato kind, prior art relatively of the present invention has: 1.CN102295480A, the nutrient solution of potato microtubers by greenhouse gas atomization and cultivation method.given nutrient solution comprises: NH 4nO 3, KNO 3, KH 2pO 4, MgSO 4 .7H 2o, Ca (NO 3) 2 .4H 2O、MnSO 4 4H 2O、H 3BO 3、ZnSO 4 7H 2O、Na 2MoO 4 2H 2O、CuSO 4 5H 2O、FeSO 4 7H 2O、KI、Na 2-EDTA、CoCl 2 6H 2O。The using method of this nutrient solution is: open spraying nutrient solution after potato virus-free plantlet field planting at once; Spray intervals is: 5d before Seeding planting, and spray time is that every 5min sprays 15s; Then spray time is adjusted to 10min and sprays 15s, then spray 5d; Finally the spray time is adjusted to 20min and sprays 15s.The potato plant photosynthesis that adopts this invention nutrient solution to obtain strengthens, and plant height, stem are slightly apparently higher than technology at that time, and Mineral Elements Content significantly improves, and decreases production cost, adds the validity of nutrient solution. 2.CN103159528A nutrient solution and the method for potato primary stock are produced in mist training.the formula of the nutrient solution that this invention provides mainly comprises the elements such as N P and K, is after improvement, suitably to adjust the concentration ratio of N P and K according to potato different growing based on the formula of potato MS culture fluid.The method that potato primary stock is produced in the training of mist that this invention provides is started with from each link of large-scale production virus-free basic potato seed, comprises the operation measure of each side such as the later process warehouse-in of nutrient solution, plantlet in vitro, upper Miao Lamiao, the extermination of disease and insect pest, potato harvest. 3.CN1207866A, matrix-less potato cultivating method and equipment.the method provided is: detoxification test tube plantlet nurturing staff in conical flask, to 8 leaves, be soaked in 2-4 hour in the methyl α-naphthyl acetate of 20ppm, cuttage is in the field planting hole of cultivation bed, by Timer Controlling water pump every 3-5 minute hydrojet once, each 30-50 second, liquid, from shower nozzle atomisation, falls into mother liquor in field planting groove from liquid back pipe from flowing back to fluid storage tank.Nutrient solution in fluid storage tank is diluted by A, B, C, D tetra-kinds of mother liquor and forms, and solution temperature is at 18-21 DEG C, and first quarter moon is changed once. 4.CN1220822A, the method for soilless, no-base material and timing aerial fog de-poison and planting for cultivating potato and device.the technical scheme provided is: nutrient solution in early stage is diluted one times and be used for practicing seedling 10-30 days, and the cultivation of bud seedling is fixed in spray nutrient solution 20-40 days in early stage after on plate, then the root 30-45 days of later stage nutrient solution spray bud seedling, sprays 30-45 second, interval 3-5 minute.Culturing device is fixed in groove by plate and forms fixture, and woven hose is fixed on groove inner bottom part, and shower nozzle is fixed on pipe equidistantly, and pipe is communicated with Liquid storage container through self priming pump. 5.CN1631088A, the little potato highly effective stereo breeding method of a kind of potato detoxicating and breeding equipment thereof.be characterised in that: making a cross section is trapezoidal cultivation case, make to remain dark state in cultivation case; Beat on the surface at cultivation case and get field planting hole, wrap the stem of detoxic seedling with flexible material, be fixed in field planting hole; In cultivation case, be provided with atomizer, external root nutrition liquid supply system, carries out batch (-type) spraying to crop root.The present invention can make full use of hothouse production space, increases substantially unit are small de-poisoned patato output; Improve potato plant rhizosphere growing environment, significantly improve the quantity of potato plant individual plant small de-poisoned patato, be also conducive to gathering of small de-poisoned patato.
In above-mentioned patent, first two is all be described the preparation of nutrient solution and cultivation method.Its Patent 1, just for the screening of small size scientific research and testing and nutrient solution prescription, do not carry out the production testing of scale, although patent 2 is applied in the production of scale, description comparatively detailed, wherein also has some defects, one, this patent does not carry out disinfection to greenhouse space, after last stubble is produced and terminated, due to multiplying of a large amount of germ of meeting in production process, bad if sterilize, affect the survival rate of next batch of transplanting stock; Its two, for avoiding seedling to wilt after this patent detoxic seedling field planting, need sooner or later regularly to spray water to detoxic seedling every day.Due to the space that greenhouse is relative closure, frequent water spray can cause warm indoor air humidity to increase, and increases the occurrence probability of disease; They are three years old, after detoxic seedling field planting when one month, carry out drawing seedling when stolon grows when stem tuber starts to be formed, grow in field planting hole to avoid potato tubers, because now detoxic seedling grows up to, and the root system of prosperity can be covered with around field planting hole, now draws the root system of seedling meeting major injury detoxic seedling, and only once draw seedling in production process, be unfavorable for the trend playing mist training production increase of production; Its four, detoxic seedling growth mid-term have impact in order to avoid excessive growth and on output, by use hormone-uniconazole P to controlling, mist training method produce be potato primary stock, the excessive use of hormone can affect the kind of potato seed, easily morphs; They are five years old, production patent 3 only utilizes chemical agent to carry out wiping examination sterilization to cultivation cell body, do not consider disinfecting of feed liquid pipeline and water return pipeline, produce the later stage because plant is aging, resistance is weak for upper one batch, the germ that the plant of rotting and root system produce can remain in the duct, if produced, terminating does not sterilize thoroughly can affect next batch of production of seed stock, and the survival rate of detoxic seedling.
In above-mentioned patent, rear three patents 3, patent 4 and patent 5 are described cultivation method and breeding equipment.3 patents are all scientific research and testing of small size, are not applied in large-area large-scale production.Being described nutrient solution prescription of its Patent 3, patent 4 or greatly length, mist training equipment is also relatively simple, is applied in scientific research and testing among a small circle passable, is unable to undergo the inspection of large area, large-scale production.Patent 5 illustrates relatively simple, inconvenient operation in the larger production of cultivating groove volume, and especially potato seed is gathered trouble.The breeding equipment of 3 patents has common defect: one, and cultivating groove material is plastics extrusion molding benzene plate, uses middle compactedness, closure and heat conductive poor; Its two, nutrient solution backflow need to utilize self priming pump to operate, the invention of difference in height and facilities and equipment itself cannot be utilized to realize, increase energy resource consumption; They are three years old, nutrition liquid pool is the material such as Plastic Drum or plastic basin, and such device can only be applied in the test of small size, if a large amount of nutrient solution compactedness of splendid attire is very poor, need temperature lower when potato knot potato in addition, this device is uncontrollable at production in summer Middle nutrition liquid temp; They are four years old, all nonnutritive liquid filter in the breeding equipment of 3 patents, because aeroponics Commercial cultivation shower nozzle requires very high to the impurity in nutrient solution, can cause shower nozzle to block if effectively can not filter nutrient solution, affect the growth of detoxic seedling, especially the survival rate of field planting initial stage detoxic seedling.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato mating system, overcome existing mating system above shortcomings.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a kind of mist de-poison and planting for cultivating potato breeding equipment.Realize the large area of potato seed, propagation in scale.
Mating system of the present invention comprises experienced seedling, field planting, the management in spraying vegetative period, results, and the improvement done has:
1, corollary equipment and greenhouse plant pre-treatment;
corollary equipment is sterilized: corollary equipment and greenhouse clean up at cultivation Miao Qianyao and carry out disinfection, cultivation plate, field planting hole, cultivating groove, water inlet pipe, return pipe, nutrition liquid pool and Hai Jin plug, carry out pharmacy disinfection, medicament can adopt the double agricultural chemicals (as special in ash frost) controlled of fungus and bacterium, liquid is by operation instruction preparation, agricultural streptomycin is added again, spraying or immersion more than 1 day by 20mg/l.0.1% liquor potassic permanganate used by seedling-cultivating tray, sponge plug etc., soaks more than 1 hour.After chemicals treatment, fall residual liquor with clear water cleaning down.
greenhouse disinfection:closed greenhouse, by little for fumicants disinfectant metal basin packing, is placed in equably on greenhouse floor, lights rear enclosed greenhouse with fuse, processes airtight sterilization 1-2d.
, hardening;
The detoxification test tube plantlet of growth selection stalwartness is as nursery material, and before transplanting, seedling is moved to greenhouse test-tube plantlet daytime with illumination at 20-25 DEG C by 7-9d, and night 10-15 DEG C carries out practicing seedling.
, field planting and spraying growing season management
field planting:by being highly the detoxic seedling of 10-15cm, being colonizated in the culture hole of cultivation plate, cultivation plate being stayed 3 leaf 1 hearts or 4 leaf 1 hearts, fixing with Hai Jinsai.Every field planting hole field planting 1 strain, sprays after field planting.
light and temperature manages:detoxic seedling field planting 1d, whole day to shade, and 2d to 4d is shown in light sooner or later, and shade afterwards before midday, 5d water root has grown absorbing capacity, starts normal illumination.Suitable temperature changing amplitude is: daytime 20-30 DEG C, night 10-15 DEG C.
take off seedling:seeding planting 3d to 4d starts to take root, and about 8d plant obviously grows, and at this moment carries out the 1st time and takes off seedling.Under being placed in plate by the base portion stipes of plant in cultivation plate, saving position under increasing plate, and extract the vanelets on corresponding joint position.During operation, according to growth of seedling situation, a seedling 1-2 stipes can be taken off at every turn, carries out 1 time every 5-10d, need seedling be taken off 5-8 time altogether.
spindling control and lodging:the intermediary and later stages of plant fertility, support bar is utilized to prevent lodging with the seedlings device of holding up holding up seedling iron wire to form.With the growth of plant height, adjust the height of iron wire at any time.
nutrient solution concentration manages:the formula concentration of nutrient solution is 0.21%.In the different bearing stage at field planting initial stage, concentration adopts following process: be 1/3 of formula concentration during field planting, and adds 0.2mg/l NAA stimulation seedling root of hair.Along with seedling grow up and root system increases, nutrient solution concentration can be increased to 1/2,1/3 gradually by 1/3, and often kind of concentration service time is 5-7 days, finally reaches formula concentration.The working concentration of change nutrient solution, just changes macroelement, and trace element still needs to use by formula concentration, in case cause trace element deficiency.
nutrition liquid acidityalkalinity manages:the PH that potato is suitable for is 5.5-6.5, and pH value utilizes sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide to be adjusted, and the mensuration of pH value can adopt PH precision test paper or acidometer.During compounding, pH value controls about 6, uses middle pH value to change within 0.5, can adjust.
solution temperature manages:nutrient solution greenhouse luffing is 16-21 DEG C and is advisable, and greenhouse carries out Automated condtrol by temperature control system, and when temperature exceedes the bound of setting, temperature control system automatically can start and carry out work.
the replacing of nutrient solution:according to nutrient solution consumption, when water pump is taken out less than nutrient solution, nutrient solution is all taken out, and with clear water, nutrition liquid pool is rinsed well, then utilize thimerosal by the disinfection of nutrition liquid pool.After being disposed, be replaced by new nutrient solution.
, damage by disease and insect prevention;
pest prevention:between whole breeding time, spray insecticide 1 time every 7-20d.Heterogeneity medicament is used alternatingly.Optional clean, the Lv Dingbao of medicament, Du Pont ten thousand spirit, ddvp smoke agent etc.
prevention of damage by disease:to in 30d after field planting from nursery survives, every 7-14d dispenser once, and be used alternatingly heterogeneity medicament.Medicament can select metalaxyl-mn-zn, Sandofan, gram dew etc.
, results;
When potato seed reaches 8-10g, can gather in batches, 3 days results once; After terminating breeding time, carry out disposable gathering.After potato seed cleaning after gathering is rinsed well, in greenhouse or under scattered light condition, tiling one deck, through the airing of about 7 days, treats that potato block turns green, after the suberification of potato skin, puts into 2-4 DEG C, the environment low temperature storage of humidity 80%-90%.It is more than the basic technical scheme of mating system of the present invention.
For guaranteeing the Disinfection Effect in greenhouse, use self-control sulphur fumicants disinfectant in the present invention, the configuration proportion of sulphur fumicants is: sawdust 215kg, ammonium nitrate 2.6kg, 98% Cosan 2.5kg, diesel oil 0.25kg.Consumption is 0.13kg/100m 2.
Breeding equipment of the present invention comprises cultivating groove, cover in cultivating groove cultivation plate suitable for reading, nutrient solution, Liquid storage container, connect the infusion nutrition liquor pipe that nutrient solution hold-up vessel gos deep into cultivating groove, be distributed in the nutrient liquid atomizing shower nozzle in cultivating groove on woven hose, circulating pump, nutrient solution return duct, the improvement done is: cultivating groove is wherein the cuboid groove of length much larger than width, bottom land and sidewall are tightly connected, the nutritious liquid backflow in one end refluxing opening of bottom land, the nutritious liquid carrier pipe of groove sidewall penetrates hole, bottom land and cell wall inner surface are coated with the black of extinction, outer surface scribbles the silver gray of keeping away insect function, cultivating groove support props up overhead.Liquid storage container is wherein the liquid storage tank falling into below greenhouse floor, installing submersible pump in liquid storage tank, the distance meeting the selected minimum surplus of nutrient solution is reserved at the bottom of the water inlet of immersible pump and pond, be arranged on the immersible pump timed power switch outside liquid storage tank, submersible pump outlet connects the woven hose imported in cultivating groove, connects return duct between the refluxing opening on cultivating groove bottom surface and liquid storage tank.Be more than the basic scheme of breeding equipment of the present invention.
For making cultivation plate have higher intensity and insulation, extinction, reflective combination property, cultivation plate of the present invention adopts extruded polystyrene board, and above cover black and white one film, down, white is appearance to black.
For preventing the lodging of rice shoot, medium-height trestle of the present invention and cultivating groove length direction sidewall being installed and exceeds cultivating groove support bar suitable for reading, connect between support bar and hold up seedling silk.
Concentrate to liquid-leaking nozzle for ease of phegma, the leg of support has the telescoping mechanism of adjustment cultivating groove small skew.
For the filter effect that improves the fine impurities particle in nutrient solution and the harmful bacteria killed in nutrient solution, the filter on woven hose adopts laminated filter, and woven hose installs ultraviolet ray disinfector.
Suitable temperature is exceeded for avoiding the liquid temperature of nutrient solution, the following temperature sensor of liquid level is contained in liquid storage tank, the thermosistor that recirculating nutrient solution carries out freezing is set outside liquid storage tank, controller (control circuit) controlling run of thermosistor by taking temperature sensor as signal source.
The good effect that mating system of the present invention produces is:
1. detoxication and tissue culture bottle seedling enters into greenhouse, without the need to heeling in after hardening, can directly be colonizated in cultivation plate, saves seedling raise period 20-25 days, utilizes the method detoxic seedling to take root soon, can direct growth without the need to slow seedling.Extend picking time simultaneously, increase the output of virus-free seed potato;
2. the present invention adopts the cultivation and banking technology of class in field cultivation-take off seedling, and when in cultivation plate, seedling grows to 10-15cm, namely starting first time takes off seedling, and whole breeding time can take off seedling 5-7 time.Can increase growth joint position under detoxic seedling cultivation plate by taking off seedling, increase the growth population of stolon while increasing joint position, the raising for virus-free seed potato output provides basis.
3., due to utilize greenhouse aerial fog cultivation to breed whole year production that virus-free seed potato can realize 1 year 2-3 stubble, need to carry out thorough disinfection to greenhouse space after each stubble terminates, remove foreign material and eliminate the pest such as fungi, bacterium.The present invention adopts independent research sulphur fumicants to carry out greenhouse pasteurised completely.Apply this Smoke Agent, non agricultural chemical residuum, use safety.
The good effect that breeding equipment provided by the invention brings has:
Cultivating groove of the present invention and cultivation plate, cell body globality and seal be strong, be that heat conductivity is lower, effectively can reduce the conduction of external heat to temperature in groove, ensure that by the solution temperature of temperature control system process in safe range.Outer painting silver gray coating utilizes insect to the feature of silver color phobotaxis, reduces number of pest, reduces the usage amount of agricultural chemicals.By force, cell body is solid, durable, safety for cell body globality and seal.
Use cultivating groove support of the present invention, be convenient to cultivating groove Slope angle adjustment, make the nutrient solution dropping down onto bottom land flow to refluxing opening smoothly and be back to liquid storage tank.The difference in height that support makes the relative ground of cultivating groove be formed is conducive to the natural back flow of nutrient solution.Nutrient solution is forced to suck back nutrition liquid pool by the self priming pump that utilizes comparing the employing of other mists training method, decreases the use of equipment, decreases the consumption of the energy.Support bar on support effectively prevents from growth potential from crossing prosperously occurring that potato virus-free plantlet lodges.Than the method by using hormone (paclobutrazol, chlormequat) to control its growth potential in the past, saving agricultural chemicals, ensure that agricultural product quality.
The present invention is used to build the liquid storage tank of below ground in, make use of the temperature adjusting function of deep soil, training with other mist to build in nutrition liquid pool on the ground or adopts compared with Plastic Drum splendid attire nutrient solution when method is produced, one is during the broiling summer or can well ensures the safe temperature of nutrient solution the winter of cold, and making full use of natural conditions is nutrient solution cooling.Decrease the service time of temperature controller, reduce energy resource consumption.Two is form larger height with cultivating groove, and nutrient solution is back in nutrition liquid pool by gravity is smooth and easy by return duct.Work is carried out without the need to using self priming pump.
Use nutrient solution filter of the present invention and sterilizer, ensure that the cleaning of nutrient solution is without harmful bacteria, be conducive to the normal operation of equipment and breeding of potato seed.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is breeding equipment overall structure schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the layout drawing of breeding equipment of the present invention in greenhouse.
Embodiment
breeding equipment is formed:
Consult Fig. 1, manufacture the uncovered cultivating groove 1 in upper end with glass-reinforced plastic material manufacture technology, the length × wide=7.6m × 0.5m of cultivating groove.Cultivating groove inside panel coats that black is light tight, exterior panel utilizes insect to keep away look for silver gray coating.Cultivation plate 2 uses extruded polystyrene board, thickness 3cm, and parcel black and white film, white is outer surface, and black is nexine.Cultivation plate 2 is placed on above cultivating groove 1; Support 4 utilizes reinforcing bar to form according to cultivating groove dimensioned, and the leg 3 utilizing threaded adjustment flexible bottom support 4 supports, bottom support support cultivating groove; Support bar 13 uses the reinforcing bar of diameter 1.2cm, exceeds support 80cm.Each cultivating groove is established eight support bars, four are vertically fixed in the corner of cultivating groove, each vertically fix two in cultivating groove length direction both sides by equidistant, and then apart from height 20cm place, cultivation plate face, the surrounding transverse direction along 8 root posts fixes No. 8 iron wires as holding up seedling silk 14.Liquid storage tank 8 build greenhouse ground level less than 4 meters in, and in square, volume is depending on desired nutritional liquid.Installing submersible pump 7 in liquid storage tank.The distance meeting the selected minimum surplus of nutrient solution is reserved at the bottom of the water inlet of immersible pump and pond.Immersible pump delivery port is installed the woven hose 5 passing to cultivating groove, woven hose is installed ultraviolet ray disinfector 10, laminated filter 9.Woven hose stretches into the partial fixing of cultivating groove bottom cultivating groove, and the woven hose in cultivating groove installs a shower nozzle 6 every 50cm, and the spout of shower nozzle aims at the root of detoxic seedling, connects return duct 12 between cultivating groove refluxing opening and liquid storage tank.At liquid storage tank liquid level with underlying temperature sensor, the thermosistor 11 that recirculating nutrient solution carries out freezing is set outside liquid storage tank, controller (control circuit) controlling run of thermosistor by taking temperature sensor as signal source.
potato seed is bred:
1, corollary equipment and greenhouse plant pre-treatment;
corollary equipment is sterilized: corollary equipment and greenhouse clean up at cultivation Miao Qianyao and carry out disinfection, cultivation plate, field planting hole, cultivating groove, water inlet pipe, return pipe, nutrition liquid pool and Hai Jin plug, carry out pharmacy disinfection, medicament can adopt the double agricultural chemicals (as special in ash frost) controlled of fungus and bacterium, liquid is by operation instruction preparation, agricultural streptomycin is added again, spraying or immersion more than 1 day by 20mg/l.0.1% liquor potassic permanganate used by seedling-cultivating tray, sponge plug etc., soaks more than 1 hour.After chemicals treatment, fall residual liquor with clear water cleaning down.
greenhouse disinfection:closed greenhouse, will with sawdust 215kg, ammonium nitrate 2.6kg, 98% Cosan 2.5kg, diesel oil 0.25kg.Consumption is 0.13kg/100m 2the little basin packing of sulphur fumicants disinfectant metal of preparation, is placed in equably on greenhouse floor, lights rear enclosed greenhouse with fuse, process airtight sterilization 1-2d.
, hardening;
The detoxification test tube plantlet of growth selection stalwartness is as nursery material, and before transplanting, seedling is moved to greenhouse test-tube plantlet daytime with illumination at 20-25 DEG C by 7-9d, and night 10-15 DEG C carries out practicing seedling.
, field planting and spraying growing season management
field planting and spraying:by being highly the detoxic seedling of 10-15cm, being colonizated in the culture hole of cultivation plate, cultivation plate being stayed 3 leaf 1 hearts or 4 leaf 1 hearts, fixing with Hai Jinsai.Every field planting hole field planting 1 strain.Field planting seeding row spacing: late variety 25cm × 20cm; Early-maturing variety is 20cm × 15cm, stays work road 50cm every 4 row.After field planting with Timer Controlling water pump every 3-5 minute hydrojet once, each 30-50 second, liquid, from shower nozzle atomisation, flows to shoot root
light and temperature manages:detoxic seedling field planting 1d, whole day to shade, and 2d to 4d is shown in light sooner or later, and shade afterwards before midday, 5d water root has grown absorbing capacity, starts normal illumination.Suitable temperature changing amplitude is: daytime 20-30 DEG C, night 10-15 DEG C.
take off seedling:seeding planting 3d to 4d starts to take root, and about 8d plant obviously grows, and at this moment carries out the 1st time and takes off seedling.Under being placed in plate by the base portion stipes of plant in cultivation plate, saving position under increasing plate, and extract the vanelets on corresponding joint position.During operation, according to growth of seedling situation, a seedling 1-2 stipes can be taken off at every turn, carries out 1 time every 5-10d, need seedling be taken off 5-8 time altogether.
spindling control and lodging:the intermediary and later stages of plant fertility, support bar is utilized to prevent lodging with the seedlings device of holding up holding up seedling iron wire to form.With the growth of plant height, adjust the height of iron wire at any time.
nutrient solution concentration manages:the formula concentration of nutrient solution is 0.21%.In the different bearing stage at field planting initial stage, concentration adopts following process: be 1/3 of formula concentration during field planting, and adds 0.2mg/l NAA stimulation seedling root of hair.Along with seedling grow up and root system increases, nutrient solution concentration can be increased to 1/2,1/3 gradually by 1/3, and often kind of concentration service time is 5-7 days, finally reaches formula concentration.The working concentration of change nutrient solution, just changes macroelement, and trace element still needs to use by formula concentration, in case cause trace element deficiency.
nutrition liquid acidityalkalinity manages:the PH that potato is suitable for is 5.5-6.5, and pH value utilizes sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide to be adjusted, and the mensuration of pH value can adopt PH precision test paper or acidometer.During compounding, pH value controls about 6, uses middle pH value to change within 0.5, can adjust.
solution temperature manages:nutrient solution greenhouse luffing is 16-21 DEG C and is advisable, and greenhouse carries out Automated condtrol by temperature control system, and when temperature exceedes the bound of setting, temperature control system automatically can start and carry out work.
the replacing of nutrient solution:according to nutrient solution consumption, when water pump is taken out less than nutrient solution, nutrient solution is all taken out, and with clear water, nutrition liquid pool is rinsed well, then utilize thimerosal by the disinfection of nutrition liquid pool.After being disposed, be replaced by new nutrient solution.
, damage by disease and insect prevention;
pest prevention:between whole breeding time, spray insecticide 1 time every 7-20d.Heterogeneity medicament is used alternatingly.Optional clean, the Lv Dingbao of medicament, Du Pont ten thousand spirit, ddvp smoke agent etc.
prevention of damage by disease:to in 30d after field planting from nursery survives, every 7-14d dispenser once, and be used alternatingly heterogeneity medicament.Medicament can select metalaxyl-mn-zn, Sandofan, gram dew etc.
, results;
When potato seed reaches 8-10g, can gather in batches, 3 days results once; After terminating breeding time, carry out disposable gathering.After potato seed cleaning after gathering is rinsed well, in greenhouse or under scattered light condition, tiling one deck, through the airing of about 7 days, treats that potato block turns green, after the suberification of potato skin, puts into 2-4 DEG C, the environment low temperature storage of humidity 80%-90%.

Claims (8)

1. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato mating system, comprises experienced seedling, field planting and spray growing season management, results, it is characterized in that:
(1) corollary equipment and greenhouse plant pre-treatment
Corollary equipment is sterilized: corollary equipment and greenhouse clean up at cultivation Miao Qianyao and carry out disinfection, cultivation plate, field planting hole, cultivating groove, water inlet pipe, return pipe, nutrition liquid pool and Hai Jin plug, carry out pharmacy disinfection, medicament can adopt the double agricultural chemicals (as special in ash frost) controlled of fungus and bacterium, liquid is by operation instruction preparation, agricultural streptomycin is added again by 20mg/l, spraying or immersion more than 1 day, 0.1% liquor potassic permanganate used by seedling-cultivating tray, sponge plug etc., soak more than 1 hour, after chemicals treatment, fall residual liquor with clear water cleaning down;
Greenhouse disinfection: closed greenhouse, by little for fumicants disinfectant metal basin packing, is placed in equably on greenhouse floor, lights rear enclosed greenhouse with fuse, processes airtight sterilization 1-2d;
(2) hardening
The detoxification test tube plantlet of growth selection stalwartness is as nursery material, and before transplanting, seedling is moved to greenhouse test-tube plantlet daytime with illumination at 20-25 DEG C by 7-9d, and night 10-15 DEG C carries out practicing seedling;
(3) field planting and growing season management
Field planting: by being highly the detoxic seedling of 10-15cm, be colonizated in the culture hole of cultivation plate, cultivation plate is stayed 3 leaf 1 hearts or 4 leaf 1 hearts, fixes with Hai Jinsai, every field planting hole field planting 1 strain;
Light and temperature manages: detoxic seedling field planting 1d, whole day to shade, and 2d to 4d is sooner or later shown in light, and shade afterwards before midday, 5d water root has grown absorbing capacity, beginning normal illumination, and suitable temperature changing amplitude is: daytime 20-30 DEG C, night 10-15 DEG C;
Take off seedling: Seeding planting 3d to 4d starts to take root, about 8d plant obviously grows, at this moment carry out the 1st time and take off seedling, under being placed in plate by the base portion stipes of plant in cultivation plate, under increasing plate, save position, and the vanelets extractd on corresponding joint position, during operation, according to growth of seedling situation, a seedling 1-2 stipes can be taken off at every turn, carry out 1 time every 5-10d, need seedling be taken off 5-8 time altogether;
Spindling control and lodging: the intermediary and later stages that plant gives birth to, utilize support bar to prevent lodging with the seedlings device of holding up holding up seedling iron wire to form, with the growth of plant height, adjust the height of iron wire at any time;
Nutrient solution concentration manages: the formula concentration of nutrient solution is 0.21%, in the different bearing stage at field planting initial stage, concentration adopts following process: be 1/3 of formula concentration during field planting, and add 0.2mg/l NAA stimulation seedling root of hair, along with seedling grow up and root system increase, nutrient solution concentration can be increased to 1/2,1/3 gradually by 1/3, often kind of concentration service time is 5-7 days, finally reach formula concentration, the working concentration of change nutrient solution, just change macroelement, and trace element still needs to use by formula concentration, in case cause trace element deficiency;
Nutrition liquid acidityalkalinity manages: the PH that potato is suitable for is 5.5-6.5, and pH value utilizes sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide to be adjusted, the mensuration of pH value, PH precision test paper or acidometer can be adopted, during compounding, pH value controls about 6, uses middle pH value to change within 0.5, can adjust;
Solution temperature manages: nutrient solution greenhouse luffing is 16-21 DEG C and is advisable, and greenhouse carries out Automated condtrol by temperature control system, and when temperature exceedes the bound of setting, temperature control system automatically can start and carry out work;
The replacing of nutrient solution: according to nutrient solution consumption, when water pump is taken out less than nutrient solution, all takes out nutrient solution, and with clear water, nutrition liquid pool is rinsed well, then utilize thimerosal by the disinfection of nutrition liquid pool, after being disposed, be replaced by new nutrient solution;
(4) damage by disease and insect prevention
Pest prevention: between whole breeding time, spray insecticide 1 time every 7-20d, heterogeneity medicament is used alternatingly, optional clean, the Lv Dingbao of medicament, Du Pont ten thousand spirit, ddvp smoke agent;
Prevention of damage by disease: in 30d after field planting from nursery survives, every 7-14d dispenser once, and be used alternatingly heterogeneity medicament, medicament can select metalaxyl-mn-zn, Sandofan, Ke Lu;
(5) gather in the crops
When potato seed reaches 8-10g, can gather in batches, within 3 days, gather in the crops once, after terminating breeding time, carry out disposable gathering, after potato seed cleaning after gathering is rinsed well, in greenhouse or under scattered light condition, tiling one deck, through the airing of about 7 days, treat that potato block turns green, after the suberification of potato skin, put into 2-4 DEG C, the environment low temperature storage of humidity 80%-90%.
2. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato mating system according to claim 1, is characterized in that: greenhouse disinfection agent is that consumption is 0.13kg/100m with sawdust 215kg, ammonium nitrate 2.6kg, 98% Cosan 2.5kg, diesel oil 0.25kg 2the sulphur aerosol disinfectant of preparation.
3. an aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato breeding equipment according to claim 1, comprise cultivating groove, cover in cultivating groove cultivation plate suitable for reading, nutrient solution, Liquid storage container, connect the infusion nutrition liquor pipe that nutrient solution hold-up vessel gos deep into cultivating groove, be distributed in the nutrient liquid atomizing shower nozzle in cultivating groove on woven hose, circulating pump, nutrient solution return duct, it is characterized in that: cultivating groove is wherein the cuboid groove of length much larger than width, bottom land and sidewall are tightly connected, the nutritious liquid refluxing opening in one end of bottom land, the nutritious liquid carrier pipe of groove sidewall penetrates hole, bottom land and cell wall inner surface are coated with the black of extinction, outer surface scribbles the silver gray of keeping away insect function, cultivating groove support props up overhead, Liquid storage container is wherein the liquid storage tank falling into below greenhouse floor, installing submersible pump in liquid storage tank, the distance meeting the selected minimum surplus of nutrient solution is reserved at the bottom of the water inlet of immersible pump and pond, be arranged on the immersible pump timed power switch outside liquid storage tank, submersible pump outlet connects the woven hose imported in cultivating groove, connects return duct between the refluxing opening on cultivating groove bottom surface and liquid storage tank.
4. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato breeding equipment according to claim 3, is characterized in that: cultivation plate adopts extruded polystyrene board, and above cover black and white one film, down, white is appearance to black.
5. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato breeding equipment according to claim 3, is characterized in that: on support and cultivating groove, have rice shoot support bar, connects holder seedling silk between support bar.
6. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato breeding equipment according to claim 3, is characterized in that: the telescoping mechanism having adjustment cultivating groove small skew on the leg of support.
7. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato breeding equipment according to claim 3, is characterized in that: the filter on woven hose adopts laminated filter, and woven hose installs ultraviolet ray disinfector.
8. aerial fog cultivation virus-free seed potato breeding equipment according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: in liquid storage tank, be contained in the following temperature sensor of liquid level, the thermosistor that recirculating nutrient solution carries out freezing is set outside liquid storage tank, the controller controlling run of thermosistor by taking temperature sensor as signal source.
CN201510077429.5A 2015-02-13 2015-02-13 Aeroponic virus-free seed potato breeding method and accessory equipment Pending CN104686142A (en)

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CN113728920A (en) * 2021-08-03 2021-12-03 福建省亚热带植物研究所 Device for plant detoxification, seedling transplanting and rooting culture
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CN105532412A (en) * 2016-02-01 2016-05-04 云南农业大学 Aeroponic cultivation seedling culture method of sweet potatoes
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WO2021184050A3 (en) * 2020-03-09 2022-02-10 Windsor Peter Dudley An aeroponic plant growing system and method
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