CN104255247A - Greenhouse industrialized ginseng potting method - Google Patents

Greenhouse industrialized ginseng potting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104255247A
CN104255247A CN201410471155.3A CN201410471155A CN104255247A CN 104255247 A CN104255247 A CN 104255247A CN 201410471155 A CN201410471155 A CN 201410471155A CN 104255247 A CN104255247 A CN 104255247A
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ginseng
greenhouse
water
plant
temperature
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赵亮
李俊松
李光哲
赵红艳
刘晓明
苏忠民
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Northeast Normal University
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Northeast Normal University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of pharmaceutical plant cultivation, and particularly relates to a greenhouse industrialized ginseng potting method. According to the method, ginseng seedlings cultivated by using a peat substrate are transplanted into flower pots in which composite ginseng soilless cultivation substrates formed by wrapping diatomite with non-woven fabric for cultivation. The method comprises the following steps: growing seedlings by using ginseng nutrition blocks; transplanting into flower pots; dwarfing ginseng plants; enabling the cultivated ginsengs to overwinter; adjusting and controlling ginseng resting stage and the like. The normal resting stage of ginseng is changed through modes such as freezing or insecticidal immersion treatment of the ginseng plants, so that the blossom and the fruit yield of the ginseng are controlled to occur in specific seasons to meet the requirements of festival flower markets. By using the potting mode, the household planting is facilitated, the ginseng can be viewed and harvested in the growth period of the ginseng, and the public awareness of the ginseng as an ornamental flower is improved. The greenhouse industrialized pot ginseng can realize intensive production of potted ginseng landscape and promote the development of ginseng tourism industry.

Description

A kind of greenhouse batch production ginseng method for potted
?
technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of medicinal plant cultivation, be specifically related to a kind of greenhouse batch production ginseng method for potted. background technology
In recent years, carry out ginseng industry development engineering with Jilin Province and deeply advance, ginseng price creates a high position repeatly.Among the people surging for potted plant ginseng enthusiasm.There are many on-line shops selling potted plant ginseng at present, the potted plant ginseng sold is only simply be transplanted to flowerpot by ginseng inside cultivation forest land, Changbaishan area, leave the cold resource of weather of Changbaishan area uniqueness, in subsequent growth, disease is multiple, ginseng is difficult to survive, and this just significantly limit the development of the potted plant ginseng industry of gardening.In addition, there are problems in the cultivation matrix that on-line shop provides: such as take from local ginseng ground soil, itself is a kind of destruction for local environment; The artificial cultivation base starting material formula that theres is provided exist be difficult to find, Feedstock treating is improper, in raw material, miscellaneous bacteria, heavy metal and the agriculture problem such as to exceed standard such as residual, can bring adverse effect to Ginseng Growth.Practice shows that northern medicine develops, and Changbaishan area walked out by ginseng, and break through the rigors of Ginseng Growth for weather, the ginseng kind that seed selection is high temperature resistant, disease resistance is strong is significant.Simultaneously in conjunction with customized ginseng culture flowerpot, propagate ginseng culture, strengthen ginseng industry soft power, improve the public for the ginseng degree of awareness, promote that ginseng industry develops in a healthy way.
We research and develop in novel culture of ginseng mode and have carried out extensive work with application, extensive work has all been carried out in the special compact type substrate of raising ginseng seedlings, booth nutritive cube culture of ginseng, ginseng soilless culture substrate and the special Diatomite composite super-absorbent resin field of culture of ginseng, refer to patent of invention 201010164887.X, 201310034947.X, 201410017623.X and 201410017583.9.Our advantage is as facility ginseng industry leader, have accumulated rich experiences in the ginseng facility cultivation field based on peat block-type matrix, green organic culture of ginseng matrix is extensively admitted, and establishes Demonstration base, many places, has possessed large-scale promotion condition.From prolonging limit international trade Agricultural Technological Garden to Jingyu County ginseng industrial zone, go through development in 4 years, we select the ginseng plant of high-temp resisting high-humidity resisting, strong stress resistance in greenhouse by solar heat, for the industrialization of potted plant ginseng flowers provides important leverage.
About the Patents of potted plant ginseng is little.Zou Junbo describes the culture of ginseng matrix formulations comprising heavy metal Ag in patent of invention (application number 01127999.0), and this is that current ginseng industry development institute is unallowed, and do not relate to potted plant ginseng diseases prevention and control yet, the concrete ins and outs such as to survive the winter.Ma Weiguo describes and ginseng plant and seed to be adopted freezing, medicine leaching etc. to process to change its resting stage to realize ginseng between given period and to hang up red festoons fruit in patent of invention (application number 93117944.0), the technical scheme poor operability adopted, ginseng plant blossom ratio after practice discovery is freezing reduces greatly, and this just strongly limit the development of this kind of potted plant ginseng flowers.Patent CN1327717A only describes the configuration of potted plant culture of ginseng matrix, ginseng seeds process etc., shelters from heat or light, disease control, to survive the winter and the link such as transplanting does not relate to for potted plant ginseng.Liu Ping Ren has briefly introduced the potted plant way to manage of ginseng at the 6th phase " flowers " magazine in 2013, the cultivation matrix proportioning of employing and process, uses base fertilizer etc., brings inconvenience to the development of family potted plant ginseng.The bibliographical information of current relevant potted plant ginseng is how comparatively remote, content repeats in the majority, the way to manage introduced is based on conventional ginseng earth cultivation pattern substantially, simple ginseng of being cultivated by natural environment moves on in flowerpot and cultivates, and has no report for greenhouse factory ginseng in flowerpot culture technique and manager's rule.
The ginseng cultivated ginseng adaptation relative to the earth home environment ability of greenhouse cultivation is stronger, also easily cultivates survive for the new hand lacking culture of ginseng experience.By Information Technology Methods such as the micro-letter Quick Response Code scannings on ginseng flowerpot, for the knotty problem in people's cultivation provides technical support.The seedling adopting nutritive cube to cultivate in greenhouse 1 year is equivalent to earth cultivation 2 years stranger's ginsengs vegetative period, easily delays seedling after field planting.Greenhouse batch production potted plant ginseng production process comprises: the steps such as the nursery of ginseng nutrient block, transplanting enter flowerpot, ginseng plant is downgraded, potted plant ginseng is survived the winter, ginseng resting stage regulation and control.
Composite diatomite culture of ginseng matrix is positioned in liner water-permeable and air permeable non-woven fabrics Potted-plant container, then nutritive cube cultivated ginseng seedling band block is transplanted and cultivate to flowerpot.For grower composite diatomite culture of ginseng matrix bag is provided while supporting ginseng culture and propaganda action flowerpot is provided, make ginseng family potted plant simple and convenient.By adopting water-permeable and air permeable non-woven fabrics by ginseng soilless culture substrate method for coating, can effectively solve in potted plant ginseng exist upper basin, transplant, water, manage in the problems such as the cultivation matrix that runs into pollutes home environment, soil removal and replacement of fetching earth is loaded down with trivial details, family potted plant culture of ginseng is managed clean, quick, easy.
By the potted plant ginseng management mode of greenhouse batch production, the cultivation of ginseng three-dimensional can be carried out.Due to many stem ginseng ginseng root fast gainings, disease-resistant strong stress resistance, saponin content is high, has higher ornamental value, is ginseng flowers industrial emphases development.Adopt greenhouse nutritive cube culture of ginseng pattern, by the regulation and control in cultivation matrix nutrient and greenhouse, in the ginseng cultivated, many stems ginseng ratio is about 20%-30%.
 
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is for developing potted plant ginseng industry, promoting to go sightseeing join industry development and provide a kind of regulation and standardization factory greenhouse ginseng potted plant management method.
Technical solution of the present invention is:
Greenhouse batch production potted plant ginseng production process comprises: the steps such as the nursery of ginseng nutrient block, transplanting enter flowerpot, ginseng plant is downgraded, potted plant ginseng is survived the winter, ginseng resting stage regulation and control.First composite diatomite culture of ginseng matrix is positioned in liner water-permeable and air permeable non-woven fabrics Potted-plant container, then nutritive cube cultivated ginseng seedling band block is transplanted and cultivate to flowerpot.By making ginseng plant type compact, short strong to the B9 of potted plant ginseng spray concentration 3000-4000ppm, improve sight.Within the potted plant Ginseng Growth phase, warm indoor relative humidity controls at 70-90%, temperature 18-25 DEG C, basin soil humidity 30-40%.After potted plant ginseng enters resting stage, can not to heat safe overwintering winter in greenhouse, and only need cover the coverings such as one deck straw or leaf on flowerpot, whole winter need not water.Through about 3 months time, after spring temperature gos up, ginseng can germinate by self-sow.Ginseng resting stage is changed, according to market demand breaking dormancy listing in batches by prescription medicament or plant freezing method.
 
Major advantage of the present invention:
(1) with new woods soil or farmland compared with the ginseng of cultivating, it is strong that employing nutritive cube greenhouse pot culture pattern selects high-temp resisting high-humidity resisting, the ginseng plant of strong stress resistance has adaptation family potted plant environment capacity, easily delay seedling after field planting, survival rate is high, many stems ginseng ratio advantages of higher.By the regulation and control of cultivation matrix nutrient and greenhouse, in the ginseng cultivated, many stems ginseng ratio is 20%-30%.
(2) batch production ginseng in greenhouse is potted plant realizes ginseng potted landscape intensive manufacture, improves the public cognitive degree of ginseng as ornamental flower, promotes ginseng sightseeing industry development.
(3) by adopting water-permeable and air permeable non-woven fabrics by ginseng soilless culture substrate method for coating, the upper basin existed in effective solution family potted plant ginseng, transplant, water, manage in the problems such as the cultivation matrix that runs into pollutes home environment, soil removal and replacement of fetching earth is loaded down with trivial details, family potted plant culture of ginseng is managed clean, quick, easy.
 
Embodiment
Below by concrete example, the invention will be further described.
Greenhouse batch production ginseng is potted plant comprises following concrete steps:
One, ginseng nutrient block nursery
1. on substrate soil, neatly put raising ginseng seedlings special nutritive block, interblock, apart from 1-2cm, is put according to 5 × 5 one prescription formulas, and group spacing 8-10cm, puts 200-300 block for every square metre.
2. nutritive cube first sprays a water with watering can, make surface wettability, then use weep instead and pour water to ginseng bed edge, make water logging not have nutrition block, until nutritive cube suctions permeable completely, loose expansion, without hard core.
3. the ginseng seed after clicking and entering vernalization process in the preset hole of nutritive cube, every block point seed 1-2 grain, then covers the substrate soil that 2-3cm is thick.(referring to granted patent Z L 03127061.1)
Two, basin dress forming matrix
The circle that cultivated ginseng selects high 30cm, diameter (length) is 25cm or rectangle flowerpot are advisable, at the bottom of basin, first put into the sterilization river sand after 3-5cm.Then use the non-woven fabrics (specification 30cm × 25cm) of water-permeable and air permeable composite diatomite culture of ginseng matrix to be wrapped up, then matrix bag is placed in Potted-plant container, cultivation matrix is uniformly distributed in flowerpot.For grower composite diatomite culture of ginseng matrix bag is provided while supporting ginseng culture and propaganda action flowerpot is also provided, directly can cultivate after ginseng florist buys back, make ginseng family potted plant simple and convenient.By adopting water-permeable and air permeable cloth by ginseng soilless culture substrate method for coating, the upper basin existed in effective solution family potted plant ginseng, transplant, water, manage in the problems such as the cultivation matrix that runs into pollutes home environment, soil removal and replacement of fetching earth is loaded down with trivial details, family potted plant culture of ginseng is managed clean, quick, easy.
Three, nutritive cube cultivates seedling transplanting
For guaranteeing to transplant not loose block, to water once before transplanting, wetting nutritive cube epidermis.Be put in plastic box for subsequent use by scoop band block code, be transferred to for convenience in flowerpot and should spread layer of plastic film bottom plastic box.Nutritive cube is cultivated seedling immigration to be equipped with in the Potted-plant container of cultivation matrix.Water immediately after transplanting, keep kind of a cultivation bud bud humidity subsequently.After being unearthed, in basin, soil temperature should keep 17-28 DEG C, humidity 40-50%.The northern area spring plants suitable the end of month mid-March to 4, and the autumn plants suitable mid-September; The south spring plants and can be advanced to March-April, and the southern area that temperature the is higher unsuitable autumn plants.Emerge after 2-3, need carry out down pot transplanting, spring, transplanting was advisable.The coated matrix of non-woven fabrics of former potted plant ginseng is taken out and is replaced with new cultivation matrix.
Four, warm indoor pot ginseng management
1. illumination management: potted plant ginseng fibrous root is shaded, and gives light scattering.Late June to early August (30 ~ 40 days) covers light transmittance 30% shade net, and after considering the beginning of autumn, short-term backheat weather is on the impact of seedling, answers the proper extension shade net cover time.
2. water management: after seedling is unearthed, overdrying as native in basin can water a small amount of water, and irrigation times is unsuitable many with amount, in order to avoid rotten, waters and adopts installation sprinkling irrigation equipment in greenhouse to carry out.Water temperature will remain at 15-20 DEG C, waters with standing more than 2 days water.Watering time the morning 9 time before, after when afternoon 3.Whether suitable the humidity of soil is agglomerating to hold, and looses one's grip, fall apart for simple criterion.
3. temperature controls: warm indoor temperature remains on 18-25 DEG C, and temperature opens aeration-cooling equipment higher than when 27 DEG C.Temperature adjusting is most important to greenhouse pot culture ginseng, incremental during temperature adjustment, prevents variations in temperature too large, works the mischief to ginseng.
4. disease control: before ginseng is emerged, sprays 1 120 times, Bordeaux liquid and carries out basin soil disinfection.After emerging, interval 10 days spray twice 3% polyoxins, 1000 times of liquid carry out disease control.Note the diseases such as epidemic disease, gray mold and black spot seedling stage, can spray 40% Flusilazole, 2000 times of liquid and prevent and treat, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate simultaneously spraying 1 time 0.3% strengthens seedling resistance against diseases.Laxative will avoid the greenhouse megathermal period, usually in the afternoon 15-18 time carry out, once, preferred low residual, high-performance bio sterilization pesticide, adopts the metering outfit such as graduated cylinder or measuring cup to get it filled to 8-10 days laxatives.
5 plant are downgraded: potted plant ginseng is placed on indoor or balcony and views and admires, if limb is too high, branches and leaves are evacuated, and will lose or reduce ornamental value, therefore to downgrade as well.Suppress nourishing and growing of ginseng etc. with B9, its plant type can be made to downgrade, improve sight.B9 does not affect the total number of sheets of ginseng plant, but plant plant type is compact, short strong, is not only conducive to resistant to lodging, is also conducive to increasing planting density, increases the yield per unit area.B9 spray concentration is advisable at 3000-4000ppm, respectively sprays once at leaf stretching period, vegetative period, flowering stage and fruiting period.
6. overwinter management: greenhouse culture ginseng can not to be heated safe overwintering winter, only need cover the coverings such as one deck straw or leaf on flowerpot; After family potted plant ginseng general late September, leaves of panax ginseng enters resting stage after withering.Now cut off stem, move to shady and cool place's (remaining between 0-5 DEG C), whole winter does not generally water.Through about 3 months time, after spring temperature gos up, ginseng can germinate by self-sow.
 
Five, ginseng resting stage regulation and control
Potted plant ginseng, American Ginseng, northern area is bloomed June, and July, visible green fruit, reached the haw phase after late July gradually.Can bloom May in southern area, see green fruit June, reaches the haw phase gradually after July.
We are by special florescence control method, according to varying environment and season, take different control measure to change Ginseng Growth resting stage, artificially meet the natural law of Ginseng Growth and necessary condition, realize potted plant ginseng with this to bloom in specific red-letter day, meet the demand of festival marketplace to ginseng flowers.
Change the ginseng normal hibernation phase by modes such as or medicine freezing to ginseng plant leaching process, thus control it and yield positive results it in regulation season.To greenhouse culture 3 years raw ginsengs, with 20-30ppm gibberellin leaching 12-14 hour, ginseng winter dormancy can be broken, emerge ahead of time, and normally blossom and bear fruit; Below greenhouse, building basement, the potted plant ginseng of plant layoutization can be realized on the one hand and store nearby, in addition by controlling basement temperature, the ginseng of Different growth phases being deposited in batches, according to market demand breaking dormancy listing in batches.Non-heat supply greenhouse late October potted plant ginseng start to wither, when temperature is initially located in resting state lower than 10 DEG C.To make potted plant ginseng go on the market during 11, following measure can be adopted: the potted plant ginseng being in resting state is moved into refrigerating chamber, making it continue to keep resting state (temperature of refrigerating chamber is no more than 2 DEG C).Greenhouse culture was moved into before and after May 15.Within the Ginseng Growth phase, warm indoor relative humidity controls at 70-90%, temperature 18-25 DEG C, and basin soil humidity 30-40%, enters the haw phase in late September.

Claims (1)

1. a greenhouse batch production ginseng method for potted, is characterized in that concrete steps are as follows:
One, ginseng nutrient block nursery
Substrate soil neatly puts raising ginseng seedlings special nutritive block, and interblock, apart from 1-2cm, is put according to 5 × 5 one prescription formulas, group spacing 8-10cm;
Nutritive cube first sprays a water, make surface wettability, then use weep instead and pour water to ginseng bed edge, make water logging not have nutrition block, until nutritive cube is inhaled permeable completely;
Ginseng seed click and enter vernalization process in the preset hole of nutritive cube after, every block point seed 1-2 grain, then covers the substrate soil that 2-3cm is thick;
Two, basin dress forming matrix
Cultivated ginseng selects circle or rectangle flowerpot, puts into the sterilization river sand after 3-5cm at the bottom of basin, composite diatomite culture of ginseng matrix is wrapped up, then is placed in Potted-plant container by matrix bag, make cultivation matrix be uniformly distributed in flowerpot with the non-woven fabrics of water-permeable and air permeable;
Three, nutritive cube cultivates seedling transplanting
Water before transplanting once, wetting nutritive cube epidermis, be put in plastic box for subsequent use, nutritive cube being cultivated seedling immigration is equipped with in the Potted-plant container of cultivation matrix, waters immediately after transplanting, keeps kind of a cultivation bud bud humidity subsequently, after being unearthed, in basin, soil temperature should keep 17-28 DEG C, humidity 40-50%, the northern area spring plants the end of month mid-March to 4, and the autumn plants mid-September; The south spring plants and is advanced to March-April, after 2-3 of emerging, need carry out the spring of falling basin and transplant, the coated matrix of non-woven fabrics of former potted plant ginseng taken out and be replaced with new cultivation matrix;
Four, warm indoor pot ginseng management
(1). illumination management: potted plant ginseng fibrous root is shaded, and gives light scattering, late June, to early August, 30 ~ 40 days, covers light transmittance 30% shade net;
(2). water management: after seedling is unearthed, basin soil overdrying should water on a small quantity, irrigation times and amount can not be many, in order to avoid rotten, water temperature is at 15-20 DEG C, water with standing more than 2 days water, watering time the morning 9 time before, after when afternoon 3, the humidity of soil is agglomerating to hold, and looses one's grip, falls apart for simple criterion;
(3). temperature controls: warm indoor temperature remains on 18-25 DEG C, incremental during temperature adjustment, prevents variations in temperature too large;
(4). disease control: before ginseng is emerged, spray 1 120 times, Bordeaux liquid and carry out basin soil disinfection, after emerging, interval spray in 10 days twice 3% polyoxins, 1000 times of liquid carry out disease control, spray 40% Flusilazole, 2000 times of liquid seedling stage to carry out preventing and treating epidemic disease, spray the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 1 time 0.3% simultaneously and strengthen seedling resistance against diseases, laxative will avoid the greenhouse megathermal period, usually in the afternoon 15-18 time carry out, within 8-10 days, go and buy Chinese medicine once, preferred low residual, high-performance bio sterilization pesticide;
(5) plant is downgraded: suppress nourishing and growing of ginseng with B9, its plant type is downgraded, and B9 spray concentration is 3000-4000ppm, respectively sprays once at leaf stretching period, vegetative period, flowering stage and fruiting period;
(6). overwinter management: greenhouse culture ginseng safe overwintering, only need cover one deck straw or leaf covering on flowerpot; After family potted plant ginseng general late September, leaves of panax ginseng enters resting stage after withering, and now cuts off stem, and move to shady and cool place, remain between 0-5 DEG C, whole winter does not water;
Five, ginseng resting stage regulation and control
To greenhouse culture 3 years raw ginsengs, with 20-30ppm gibberellin leaching 12-14 hour, break ginseng winter dormancy, emerge ahead of time, and normally blossom and bear fruit; According to market demand breaking dormancy listing in batches, non-heat supply greenhouse late October potted plant ginseng start to wither, when temperature is initially located in resting state lower than 10 DEG C, if make potted plant ginseng in the listing of " 11 " period, adopt following measure: the potted plant ginseng being in resting state is moved into refrigerating chamber, it is made to continue to keep resting state, temperature of refrigerating chamber is no more than 2 DEG C, greenhouse culture is moved in mid-May, within the Ginseng Growth phase, warm indoor relative humidity controls at 70-90%, temperature 18-25 DEG C, basin soil humidity 30-40%, enters the haw phase in late September.
CN201410471155.3A 2014-09-17 2014-09-17 Greenhouse industrialized ginseng potting method Pending CN104255247A (en)

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Cited By (5)

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JP2016208858A (en) * 2015-04-30 2016-12-15 貴教 門脇 Cultivation method of panax ginseng
US20180134968A1 (en) * 2015-05-20 2018-05-17 Nankai University Catalyst for preparing biological aviation kerosene with castor oil, preparation method and application thereof
CN108243889A (en) * 2018-01-29 2018-07-06 吉林紫鑫红石种养殖有限公司 A kind of method of protecting field heliogreenhouse plantation ginseng
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016208858A (en) * 2015-04-30 2016-12-15 貴教 門脇 Cultivation method of panax ginseng
US20180134968A1 (en) * 2015-05-20 2018-05-17 Nankai University Catalyst for preparing biological aviation kerosene with castor oil, preparation method and application thereof
US10479944B2 (en) * 2015-05-20 2019-11-19 Nankai University Catalyst for preparing biological aviation kerosene with castor oil, preparation method and application thereof
CN108243889A (en) * 2018-01-29 2018-07-06 吉林紫鑫红石种养殖有限公司 A kind of method of protecting field heliogreenhouse plantation ginseng
CN108496777A (en) * 2018-03-09 2018-09-07 西藏藏药集团股份有限公司 A kind of soilless culture method of Tibetan medicine material convolvulate asiabell root in imminent danger
CN111919691A (en) * 2020-07-29 2020-11-13 福建省中科生物股份有限公司 Method for culturing ginseng seedlings in plant factory

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Application publication date: 20150107