CN103548630B - A kind of method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced - Google Patents

A kind of method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced Download PDF

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CN103548630B
CN103548630B CN201310497173.4A CN201310497173A CN103548630B CN 103548630 B CN103548630 B CN 103548630B CN 201310497173 A CN201310497173 A CN 201310497173A CN 103548630 B CN103548630 B CN 103548630B
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seed
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breeding
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CN103548630A (en
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杨勋毅
李祖清
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杨勋毅
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced, the method is: the making of nursery; Mechanical planting; Machine is planted maternal; Honda mechanization management; Machine sowing; The dehydration of seed mechanical drying, processing, packaging and shipment. The present invention, by the mechanization of production process, has reduced labour costs, has alleviated labour intensity, has effectively overcome the restriction of labour's factor, has promoted the scale production of hybrid seeds to produce, and guarantees the supply of breeding; The present invention is the combination of Agricultural Machinery Technology and outcrossing biotechnology, can broadcast the poor phase by active adjustment Parent, realizes flower synchronization; And the machine transplanting of rice increases Basic Seedling, accelerate to plant progress, reach increasing ears and grains, set up the object of good yielding Populations structure, thereby realized increasing both production and income, reduce production costs, create good economic and social benefit.

Description

A kind of method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced
Technical field
The invention belongs to Rice Cropping technical field, relate in particular to the omnidistance machine that a kind of breeding of hybrid rice is producedThe method that toolization is produced.
Background technology
Succeeding in developing of hybrid rice, has not only solved populous Chinese's food problem, andFor developing country provides an advanced agricultural technology, solve its problem of food and clothing. But, hybrid riceSeed is produced---the complexity of breeding of hybrid rice, and the limitation of current equipment and technology, both at home and abroadAll there is technological deficiency in Mechanicalized seeding method of hybrid rice, in the experimental study stage, as the Parent whilePlant and need its breeding time basically identical, but at present application of China three be, the Parent of two-line hybrid rice combinationBreeding time is substantially asynchronous, and differs larger, therefore fail China's area practice and application that has high input, fatherMaternal resist/sense herbicide the gene that imports, utilizes herbicide to remove male parent, in production practices, exists and removes notClean problem; For another example utilize male parent grain look, grain weight and particle shape and hybrid paddy rice F. seed to there is notable difference,Adopt special optics or mechanical device by the method for male parent and the differentiation of hybrid paddy rice F. seed, also exist and removeUnclean problem; Male parent is manually planted. and maternal mechanical direct-seeding, direct planting female parent easily lodges, as for selectingDiffer the parent about 2~15 days by 2~3 sowings to the first phase that begins fringe or bloom, or poor phase homotype is groupThe combined parent strain becoming, plants or sows with the single parent of the opposing party the same period, and attempt solves flower synchronization problem,But can not regulate on one's own initiative the florescence, even in flower synchronization effective coverage range, also can only be used in partParent, reduces effective pollen amount, restriction hybrid seed yield level; If female parent is combined parent strain, phaseWhen the female parent of part can not be pollinated solid, the hybrid rice seeds that simultaneously different heading are made to the parent of the fringe that begins,May occur that hybrid paddy rice differs sooner or later, affects output Canopy structure and bring managerial difficulty breeding time. AsMechanization Technique is simply applied to breeding of hybrid rice by fruit, directly causes many, the flowering asynchronism of being short of seedling, fieldBetween management effect poor, setting percentage is low, seed purity and bud rate reduce, a little less than resisting the ability of bad results weather.Output reduces, and quality reduces, and cost increases benefit loss. Only have through rigorous research and production experiment and demonstration,Agricultural Machinery Technology and outcrossing biotechnology and agronomy are organically combined to formation science, practical completeThe method that the entire mechanization that technology---breeding of hybrid rice is produced is produced, could reduce labour intensity, subtractFew production cost, improves output and quality, obtains good economic benefits, and then promotion breeding of hybrid riceIntensive degree, guarantees the supply of hybrid rice breeding.
Summary of the invention
A kind of method that provides breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization to produce is provided the object of the embodiment of the present invention,Be intended to solve that existing breeding of hybrid rice productive labor intensity is large, production cost is high, intensive degree is low,Agriculture, rural areas and farmers change the problem of bringing, and improve output and quality, obtain good economic benefits, promote hybridization waterThe development that the rice production of hybrid seeds is produced.
The present invention is a kind of method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced, this breeding of hybrid rice whole processThe method of mechanization production is that the combination of Agricultural Machinery Technology and outcrossing biotechnology and agronomy existsThe utilization that breeding of hybrid rice is produced, step is as follows:
Step 1, the making of nursery retains the shallow water of 2 centimetres~3 centimetres in field, and every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields people and animals1000 kilograms, excrement, 25 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer, merge, even up full field, fertile mud precipitation with the whole ground of rotary cultivator, fertile mudAfter one day, open railway carriage or compartment with 1.6 meters~1.7 meters, on mud, every mu is spread 3 kilograms~4 kilograms strong seedling spirits, and sludge is mixedMelt, the consumption yaw soft seedling culture disc by every mu of production land for growing field crops with 20 floppy disks, then by the mud perfusion in mud districtSoft seedling culture disc, mud is opened into 30 centimetres wide after taking away, 10 centimetres of dark railway carriage or compartment ditches;
Step 2, mechanical planting, sowing in maternal 7 days~8 days in advance, male parent and maternal sowing adopt easyFormula seeder, seeder yaw is being grown seedlings on railway carriage or compartment, by the need kind amount of every mu of Production of Large Fields, broadcasts 20 floppy disks and entersThe sowing of row machine, female parent after planting sprays strengthening agent or fenaminosulf and returns mud capping kind;
Step 3, machine is planted maternal, and first 4 days~5 days dry fields that discharge water of the maternal machine transplanting of rice, transplant after Parent pesticide,Production of hybrid seeds land for growing field crops dose and using sufficient after base fertilizer, with rotary cultivator or the whole ground of cultivator, field retains 3 centimetres of shallow watersStay cord is opened railway carriage or compartment, and breeding time, long combination was opened railway carriage or compartment with 2.4 meters~2.5 meters, plants two strain male parents, Parent spacing 9Very little, male parent is moved back 7 cun~8 cun, nest, and four lines machine operation machine is planted maternal;
Step 4, Honda mechanization management, with power driven sprayer spraying anti-control the inferior waterlogging sit the root and stem of certain plants, thrips, snout moth's larva,Mythimna separata, plant hopper, leaf folder, banded sclerotial blight and rice blast and smut, spray 920 with power driven sprayer heading stage,When spray, need add water;
Step 5, machine sowing, before kind of handset is received, cuts off field male parent, and removes male parent Disabled strain, carriesHigh seed purity, after 9 one-tenth, seed is half-mature, sunny weather is got the harvest in quickly seed with harvester;
Step 6, the dehydration of seed mechanical drying, processing, packaging and shipment.
Further, in step 1, before tractor-ploughing seedling ground, to seedling foster and apply fertilizer, smooth processing, with 1 meterFor seedbed, all the other are for getting mud district, and regulate soil ph with spraying strengthening agent.
Further, in step 2, maternal machine transplanting of rice seedling is seeded into beginning fringe compared with water-raised seedling Planting seedlings plugging and postpones5 days~7 days, mechanical production of hybrid seeds Parent was broadcast the poor phase and is shortened 7 days~9 days than artificial the planting of water-raised seedling, comes reallyDetermine hybrid rice machinery and plant the poor phase of broadcasting of production of hybrid seeds Parent; And male parent early sowing, light seeding water-raised seedling; FemaleOriginally carry out mechanical planting.
Further, in step 3, breeding of hybrid rice Tanaka first transplants male parent, then according to the row of ParentTransplant female parent than 1:8, and the female parent that machinery is planted is 3 leaf~3.5 leaf seedlings.
Further, in step 4, adopt machine diseases prevention worm and spray 920.
Further, the concrete steps of step 6 are: the seed to the large-scale harvesting of machinery in the afternoon, first entersRow airing, reduces seed moisture content, then drying mechanization technology dehydration reduction moisture content, after drying mechanization technology is dewateredSeed is cool puts just pack after cooling, and seeds mechanization is selected, the Mechanized Processing of dressing, packaging, last machineTool shipment.
The method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization provided by the invention is produced is to adjust by effective methodPoor guarantee Parent florescence phase of joint Parent sowing meets safely; Suitable seedling-raising technique plants machinery to plantFoot Basic Seedling, and early plant and be conducive to normal growth and grow, form many and big spike, promote yielding Populations knotThe foundation of structure; Entire mechanization is produced, and is not subject to the restriction of labour's factor, effectively promotes scale, intensiveThe production of hybrid seeds produce, and then create good social benefit.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow process of the breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization that provides of the embodiment of the present invention method of producingFigure.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with embodiment,The present invention is further elaborated. Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein only in order toExplain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.
Below in conjunction with drawings and the specific embodiments, application principle of the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 1, the breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization of the embodiment of the present invention produce method comprise withLower step:
S101: the making of nursery, in field, retain the shallow water of 2 centimetres~3 centimetres, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields dung polluted water25 kilograms of 1000 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer, merge, even up full field, fertile mud precipitation one with the whole ground of rotary cultivator, fertile mudAfter it, open railway carriage or compartment with 1.6 meters~1.7 meters, on mud, every mu is spread 3 kilograms~4 kilograms strong seedling spirits, by sludge mixing,Consumption yaw soft seedling culture disc by every mu of production land for growing field crops with 20 floppy disks, then the mud perfusion in mud district is grown seedlingsFloppy disk, mud is opened into 30 centimetres wide after taking away, 10 centimetres of dark railway carriage or compartment ditches;
S102: mechanical planting, sowing in maternal 7 days~8 days in advance, male parent and maternal sowing adopt convenient typeSeeder, seeder yaw is being grown seedlings on railway carriage or compartment, by the need kind amount of every mu of Production of Large Fields, broadcasts 20 floppy disks and carries outMachine sowing, female parent is after planting disputed and is executed strengthening agent or fenaminosulf and return mud capping kind;
S103: machine is planted maternal, and first 4 days~5 days dry fields that discharge water of the maternal machine transplanting of rice, transplant after Parent pesticide,Production of hybrid seeds land for growing field crops dose and using sufficient after base fertilizer, with rotary cultivator or the whole ground of cultivator, field retains 3 centimetres of shallow watersStay cord is opened railway carriage or compartment, and breeding time, long combination was opened railway carriage or compartment with 2.4 meters~2.5 meters, plants two strain male parents, Parent spacing 9Very little, male parent is moved back 7 cun~8 cun, nest, and four lines machine operation machine is planted maternal;
S104: Honda mechanization management, with power driven sprayer spraying anti-control the inferior waterlogging sit the root and stem of certain plants, thrips, snout moth's larva,Mythimna separata, plant hopper, leaf folder, banded sclerotial blight and rice blast and smut, spray 920 with power driven sprayer heading stage,When spray, need add water;
S105: machine sowing, before kind of handset is received, cut off field male parent, and remove male parent Disabled strain, improveSeed purity, after 9 one-tenth, seed is half-mature, sunny weather is got the harvest in quickly seed with harvester;
S106: the dehydration of seed mechanical drying, processing, packaging and shipment.
Concrete steps of the present invention are:
Step 1, the making of nursery; In field, retain the shallow water of 2 centimetres~3 centimetres, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields dung polluted water25 kilograms of 1000 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer, with the whole ground of rotary cultivator, merge fertile mud, evens up full field, precipitates one dayAfter, open railway carriage or compartment with 1.6 meters~1.7 meters, retain 1 meter, railway carriage or compartment face, 0.6 meter~0.7 meter for getting mud district, in mud districtUpper mu spreads 3 kilograms~4 kilograms " strong seedling spirits ", regulates soil acidity or alkalinity, with by sludge mixing, by every mu of lifeProduce the consumption yaw soft seedling culture disc of 20 floppy disks in land for growing field crops, then by the mud perfusion soft seedling culture disc in mud district,Ask each acupuncture point all to fill up mud, mud is opened into 30 centimetres wide after taking away, and 10 centimetres of dark railway carriage or compartment ditches are protectedHold railway carriage or compartment face anhydrous, railway carriage or compartment ditch has water, accomplishes to use sufficient base fertilizer, and railway carriage or compartment face is smooth, and seedling ditch communicates;
Step 2, mechanical planting; Vernalization robs that fine light seeding is even to be broadcast, the maternal conventional seed planting phase according to this combination,Sowing in 7 days~8 days ahead of time, regulates the poor phase of sowing to guarantee that Parent meets florescence, and convenient type seeder is flatPendulum is being grown seedlings on railway carriage or compartment, and only broadcast the specification of 20 floppy disks by the need kind amount of every mu of Production of Large Fields and carry out machine sowing,Female parent after planting sprays strengthening agent (or fenaminosulf) and returns mud capping kind, and the field management between nursery stage is with otherWater-raised seedling technology;
Step 3, machine is planted maternal; First 4 days~5 days dry fields that discharge water of the maternal machine transplanting of rice, are convenient to get seedling, and Parent is equalAfter pesticide, transplant, accomplish to be with medicine to go to the field, production of hybrid seeds land for growing field crops routinely dose and mode uses sufficient after base fertilizer, usesThe whole ground of rotary cultivator or cultivator, field retains 3 centimetres of shallow water stay cords and opens railway carriage or compartment, and the combination that grow breeding time is with 2.4Rice~2.5 meters is opened railway carriage or compartment, plants 9 cun of two strain male parents, Parent spacing, and male parent is moved back 7 cun~8 cun, nest, and row is than 1:8, (four lines machine operation) machine is planted maternal, sets up the effective fringe 5-6 ten thousand of male parent, female parent 160,000~170,000, mother70~80 of the plain grains of this fringe, 23 grams of mass of 1000 kernel, the yielding Populations knot that per mu yield is 250 kilograms~300 kilogramsStructure;
Step 4, Honda mechanization management; With power driven sprayer spraying anti-control the inferior waterlogging sit the root and stem of certain plants, thrips, snout moth's larva,Mythimna separata, plant hopper, leaf folder, banded sclerotial blight and rice blast and smut; Spray 920 with power driven sprayer heading stage,When spray, need add water, thereby increase pollination probability, improve per unit area yield;
Step 5, machine sowing; Before kind of handset is received, cut off field male parent, and remove male parent Disabled strain, carryHigh seed purity, after 9 one-tenth, seed is half-mature, sunny weather is got the harvest in quickly seed with harvester;
Step 6, the dehydration of seed mechanical drying, processing, packaging and shipment, after seed harvesting threshing, the morningThe timely airing of harvesting seed, forbids wet grain mass film playback to ring percentage of seedgermination, the timely airing of seed that afternoon machine is received,Reduction seed moisture content, and prepare to dry and reduce moisture content, the front seed of baking is spread (20 centimetres of thickness are following) out and is dried in the air and put,And half an hour stir once, according to seed moisture content number and mechanical performance, control baking temperature and enter kind of a speedDegree carries out mechanical drying, and after baked seed, airing fills package pile half an hour, then enters mechanical selected, bagThe Product Line of Seed Process such as clothing, metering, inner wrapping, machinery shipment;
Operation principle of the present invention is:
The operation principle of the method for breeding of hybrid rice mechanization production of the present invention is exactly by Agricultural Machinery TechnologyOrganically combine formation science, practical complete set technology with outcrossing biotechnology and agronomy.
2013 are close on thousand mu of demonstration areas, and expert group on the spot excavation surveys product. Under equal conditions, breeding of hybrid riceThe method that entire mechanization is produced, than conventional volume increase 6%~10%, is saved human cost 500 yuan/mu~600Unit/mu, increases the benefit 25%~30% for every mu.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, in order to limit the present invention, not all at thisAny amendment of doing within bright spirit and principle, be equal to and replace and improvement etc., all should be included in the present inventionProtection domain within.

Claims (1)

1. the method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced, is characterized in that this hybrid rice systemThe method of planting entire mechanization production is the organic of Agricultural Machinery Technology and outcrossing biotechnology and agronomyBe combined in the utilization that breeding of hybrid rice is produced, step is as follows:
Step 1, the making of nursery retains the shallow water of 2 centimetres~3 centimetres in field, removes for every mu and executes1000 kilograms of dung polluted waters, 25 kilograms, phosphate fertilizer, merge, even up full field, fertile mud with the whole ground of rotary cultivator, fertile mudPrecipitate after one day, open railway carriage or compartment with 1.6 meters~1.7 meters, on mud, every mu is spread 3 kilograms~4 kilograms strong seedling spirits,By sludge mixing, the consumption yaw soft seedling culture disc by every mu of production land for growing field crops with 20 floppy disks, then by mud districtMud perfusion soft seedling culture disc, mud is opened into 30 centimetres wide after taking away, 10 centimetres of dark railway carriage or compartment ditches;
Step 2, mechanical planting, sowing in maternal 7 days~8 days in advance, male parent and maternal sowing adoptConvenient type seeder, seeder yaw is being grown seedlings on railway carriage or compartment, by the need kind amount of every mu of Production of Large Fields, broadcasts 20Floppy disk carries out machine sowing, and female parent after planting sprays strengthening agent or fenaminosulf and returns mud capping kind;
Step 3, machine is planted maternal, and first 4 days~5 days dry fields that discharge water of the maternal machine transplanting of rice, after Parent pesticideTransplant, production of hybrid seeds land for growing field crops dose and using sufficient after base fertilizer, with the whole ground of rotary cultivator, field retains 3 centimetres of shallow waters and drawsRope is opened railway carriage or compartment, and breeding time, long combination was opened railway carriage or compartment with 2.4 meters~2.5 meters, plants two strain male parents, Parent spacing 9Very little, male parent is moved back 7 cun~8 cun, nest, and four lines machine operation machine is planted maternal;
Step 4, Honda mechanization management, with power driven sprayer spraying anti-control the inferior waterlogging sit the root and stem of certain plants, thrips, snout moth's larva,Mythimna separata, plant hopper, leaf folder, banded sclerotial blight and rice blast and smut, spray 920 with power driven sprayer heading stage,When spray, need add water;
Step 5, machine sowing, before kind of handset is received, cuts off field male parent, and removes male parent stubble, carriesHigh seed purity, after 9 one-tenth, seed is half-mature, sunny weather is got the harvest in quickly seed with harvester;
Step 6, the dehydration of seed mechanical drying, processing, packaging and shipment;
In step 1, before tractor-ploughing seedling ground, to seedling foster and apply fertilizer, smooth processing, with 1 meter be seedbed,All the other are for getting mud district, and regulate soil ph with spraying strengthening agent;
In step 2, maternal machine transplanting of rice seedling is seeded into beginning fringe compared with water-raised seedling Planting seedlings plugging and postpones 5 days~7My god, mechanical production of hybrid seeds Parent broadcast the poor phase than water-raised seedling artificial plant shorten 7 days~9 days, determine mixHand over paddy machinery to plant the poor phase of broadcasting of production of hybrid seeds Parent; And male parent early sowing, light seeding water-raised seedling; Female parent entersRow mechanical planting;
In step 3, breeding of hybrid rice Tanaka first transplants male parent, then moves than 1: 8 according to the row of ParentPlant female parent, and the female parent that machinery is planted is 3 leaf~3.5 leaf seedlings;
In step 4, adopt machine diseases prevention worm and spray 920;
The concrete steps of step 6 are: the seed to the large-scale harvesting of machinery in the afternoon, first carry out airing,Reduce seed moisture content, then drying mechanization technology dehydration reduces moisture content, cool the putting of seed after drying mechanization technology is dewateredJust pack after cooling, seeds mechanization is selected, the Mechanized Processing of dressing, packaging, last machinery shipment.
CN201310497173.4A 2013-10-18 2013-10-18 A kind of method that breeding of hybrid rice entire mechanization is produced Expired - Fee Related CN103548630B (en)

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CN103875491B (en) * 2014-04-09 2015-08-05 象州县科学技术局 A kind of organic scented rice implantation methods
CN105145218A (en) * 2015-09-22 2015-12-16 江苏农林职业技术学院 Method for raising seedlings by mud on rice mechanical transplanting soft discs
CN107509631B (en) * 2017-09-28 2019-09-03 重庆市农业科学院 A kind of mechanization producing method for seed of New Hybrid Rice Combination
CN107637514B (en) * 2017-10-11 2020-03-17 云南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 Mechanized high-efficiency seed production and sowing method for hybrid wheat
CN108029479A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-05-15 黑龙江省农垦科学院 A kind of paddy rice in cold region entire mechanization cultural method

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