CN103392456B - A kind of method of afforesting on saline land - Google Patents

A kind of method of afforesting on saline land Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103392456B
CN103392456B CN201310090501.9A CN201310090501A CN103392456B CN 103392456 B CN103392456 B CN 103392456B CN 201310090501 A CN201310090501 A CN 201310090501A CN 103392456 B CN103392456 B CN 103392456B
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China
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soil
saline land
inwall
layer
salt
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CN201310090501.9A
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CN103392456A (en
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李素艳
孙向阳
张涛
王琳琳
翟鹏辉
张薇
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北京林业大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method of afforesting on saline land, comprise step: 1) excavate on saline land and deeply plant hole; 2) two-layer isolation curtain is laid respectively in the bottom that plantation is cheated and inwall; 3) filter course is set between the two-layer separation layer of bottom, inwall; 4) prepare mixed-matrix and insert in hole, compacting; 5) nursery stock is planted; 6) maintenance management.The inventive method solves that salt reduction on saline land is improved the soil, a difficult problem for afforestation.By salt discharge, the measure of resistance salt, reduce the salt content in root system of plant distribution, promote that root system of plant is to the absorption of nutrient, moisture and unidirectional salt discharge, creates the soil environment being beneficial to plant growth.This method improves survival rate and the storage rate of nursery stock, than low every saline land tradition improvement method expenses such as salt deposit laying, soil moved in improve the original afforestation merely, is applicable to saline-alkali soil forestation greening and vegetation recovery engineering, also can be used in artificial construction and machinery cooperation artificial construction.

Description

A kind of method of afforesting on saline land
Technical field
The present invention relates to the On Comprehensive Technique that a kind of saline land salt reduction is improved the soil, particularly a kind of coastal saline land salt reduction On Comprehensive Technique of improving the soil.
Background technology
Saline and alkaline be the second largest abiotic stress being only second to arid for plant corpus.The statistics of foundation UNESCO (UNESCO) and food and agricultural organization (FAO), about there are 9.55 hundred million hm in the whole world 2saline and alkaline soil.China's saline-alkali soil gross area is about 0.99 hundred million hm 2, distribution is very extensive.Coastal area is the intermediate zone of continent and ocean, is subject to the impact of storm tide, salt dirt, salt fog, and general physical features is lower, soil salt content and subterranean water level high, the soil texture is glutinous heavy, and natural salt rejection rate is low, easily buds into saline-alkali soil.The large-area saline-alkali soil in coastal area seriously governs the construction of afforestation and ecotope.
The main coastal state in the world just started to use shelter forest theory with principle to defend coastal natural calamity as far back as the thirties in 20th century.China in an organized way carries out Saline-alkali Field Control and coast protection forest construction starts from the early days of foundation, and the research in beach saline land shelter forest choice of tree species, afforestation technology, structure function and forest against wave wash etc. obtains certain achievement.
Saline-alkali Field Control and ecosystem rehancement are universally acknowledged difficult problems.Through exploration and practice for a long time, repeatedly, sum up water conservancy improvement, method that is physically improved and chemical modifying administers saline land.But although water conservancy, physics and chemical method administer saline land effect better, cost is high, easy repeatedly, is difficult to spread.Along with the development of environment in recent years biotechnology, the effect of phytoremediation technology in Saline-alkali Field Control comes into one's own gradually.Utilizing the biological control measures such as phytoremediation technology to carry out improvement to saline land and have low, effective, the free of contamination advantage of cost, is one of optimal path of saline land greening.
Zeolite is a kind of aluminium silicate mineral, and its space structure is rack shape, has interconnective hole and duct, and hole is connected with each other by the duct of opening, and specific surface area is very big.Containing the cation that can be used in a large number exchanging in the duct of zeolite, therefore there is very high selectivity cation exchange capacity.Duct has accurately fixing diameter under certain physics, electrochemical conditions, and be 0.3nm-1.1nm, diameter is small enough to will be easy to be attracted in duct and hole, center by the molecule in duct, the Na in soil +and Cl -can be adsorbed by this molecular sieve effect.
Haydite is a kind of artificial lightweight aggregate, has loose structure and pore diameter range is extensive, and specific surface area is comparatively large, has good absorption property, is usually used in Performance of Constructed Wetlands Substrates, in order to administer water body slight pollution.It has wide application as the adsorbent of poisonous and harmful substance in environmental protection.
Vermiculite is a kind of shaped minerals, by Mineral Weathering or hydrothermal alterations such as biotite, phlogopite, chlorite.Vermiculite rich reserves, cheap, there is good absorption property and ion-exchange performance, nontoxic to environment.Vermiculite or a kind of common plant culture matrix, can improve soil structure and provide trace element.
The organic substances such as afforestation discarded object to refer in urban afforestation spontaneous deadwood, fallen leaves, grass bits, flower lose, greening pruner thing.These organic matters pass through the Humus material that the Substance Transformation that part is easily decomposed by the microorganisms can be stable in properties by fermentation of becoming thoroughly decomposed, and the remaining lignocellulose material be not easily decomposed, improve the permeability of soil.This material can also reduce alkali-affected soil pH, improves soil organic matter content and rapid available phosphorus, quick-acting potassium content, can also improve soil microbial activities.
There is following problem in current alkaline land improving:
1, Saline-alkali Field Control difficulty is large, and lack engineering measure and coordinate with the integrated of biological control measure, domestic and international Saline-alkali Field Control does not obtain larger achievement, is difficult to form scale effect.
2, Saline-alkali Field Control cost of investment is higher, and freshwater resources consumption is large.
3, the saline land seeds single landscape administered, lacks bio-diversity, and the ecosystem is fragile, and damage by disease and insect, natural calamity defensive ability/resistance ability are poor.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is, for above-mentioned prior art Problems existing, to provide a kind of method afforested in saline land.The inventive method be microcell is improved the soil technology with filter course technology be set combine, reduce the salt content of root system of plant distribution, promote that root system is to the absorption of soil moisture, nutrient and unidirectional salt discharge, promotes root system development, reduce soil salt content, create the soil environment being beneficial to plant growth.
For realizing the object of the invention, one aspect of the present invention provides a kind of method of afforesting on saline land, comprises the steps:
1) on saline land, plantation hole is excavated;
2) two-layer separation layer is laid respectively in the bottom that plantation is cheated and inwall;
3) between the two-layer separation layer of bottom, inwall, filter course is set respectively;
4) prepare mixed-matrix and insert in hole, compacting;
5) nursery stock is planted.
Wherein, the hole of plantation described in step 1) is for cylindric.
Particularly, the diameter in described plantation hole is 80-120cm, is preferably 100-120cm, more preferably 100cm; The degree of depth in described plantation hole is 70-110cm, is preferably 100-110cm, more preferably 100cm.
Wherein, step 2) described in separation layer be made up of curtain shape plant fiber curtain.
Particularly, the thickness of described plant fiber curtain is 1-1.5cm, is preferably 1cm.
Especially, described plant fiber curtain or/and straw forms, is preferably reed by plant fiber material reed.
The material of separation layer is made up of natural organic substance (as reed), is free from side effects to soil, and has water-permeable and air permeable, isolates saline and alkaline, not perishable feature; Reed is made the curtain shape of thick about 1-1.5cm, be the isolation curtain in the present invention, for ion filter layer and mixed-matrix are isolated.
Wherein, step 2) described in bottom two-layer separation layer between spacing be 20-30cm, be preferably 20cm; Spacing between the two-layer separation layer of described inwall is 10-20cm, is preferably 10cm.
Particularly, the two-layer separation layer of described inwall is cylindric, and its central shaft is overlapping with planting the central shaft of cheating.
Especially, the spacing between the two-layer separation layer of described inwall is 10-20cm, namely to plant the difference of the radius of the two-layer cylindric separation layer that the central shaft in hole is axis for 10-20cm, is preferably 10cm.That is, described two-layer separation layer is 10-20cm near the distance of the separation layer distance plantation hole inwall of central shaft, is preferably 10cm.
Particularly, the two-layer separation layer of described bottom is circular, and its center is overlapping with the center at the bottom of the hole that plantation is cheated.
Wherein, filter course described in step 3) is made up of one or more in zeolite, haydite, vermiculite, is preferably zeolite, haydite, more preferably zeolite.
Particularly, the zeolite that described filter course is 3-5mm by granularity forms; The haydite that described filter course is 3-5mm by granularity forms.
Zeolite is a kind of aluminium silicate mineral, and its space structure is rack shape, has interconnective hole and duct, and hole is connected with each other by the duct of opening, and specific surface area is very big.Containing the cation that can be used in a large number exchanging in the duct of zeolite, therefore there is very high selectivity cation exchange capacity.Duct has accurately fixing diameter under certain physics, electrochemical conditions, and be 0.3nm-1.1nm, diameter is small enough to will be easy to be attracted in duct and hole, center by the molecule in duct, the Na in soil +and Cl -can be adsorbed by this molecular sieve effect.
Wherein, the thickness of bottom filter layers described in step 3) is 20-30cm, is preferably 20cm; The thickness of the separation layer of described inwall is 10-20cm, is preferably 10cm.
Wherein, mixed-matrix described in step 4) is that the organic compost material of 1:3-7 and saline land original soil form by volume ratio, is preferably organic compost and saline land original soil composition that volume ratio is 1:5.
Particularly, described organic compost material is prepared from accordance with the following steps:
A) pulverize after collecting agriculture and forestry organic waste material, obtained agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle;
B) in agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle, add feces of livestock and poultry regulates the C/N ratio of agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle to 20:1 ~ 40:1, obtained agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost mixture;
C), after regulating water content to 50% ~ 65% of agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost mixture, by heaps for agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost mixture heap, carry out compost fermentation process, to obtain final product.
Wherein, steps A) described in agriculture and forestry organic waste material be agriculture, woods, herd, each industry of fishing, the discarded object produced, produce in processing and daily life process.
Particularly, described agriculture and forestry organic waste material selects wheat straw, reed, Sunflower Stalk, cogongrass stem, grass bits, flower lose, fall leaves, rice straw, corncob, maize straw, peach-pit, almond, plum pit, peanut shell, sunflower seed shell, cotton seed hulls, oil-tea camellia husks, one or more in coconut palm chaff, coconut husk, branch, bark.
Particularly, described agriculture and forestry organic waste material also comprises grain processing plant, brewery, the offcuts of agricultural byproducts processing factory, process residues, as chaff skin, wheat bran, poor slag, corncob, beanpod, peanut shell, cotton seed hulls etc.
Especially, the plant residue such as limb, fallen leaves, grass bits of described forestry waste for producing in afforestation management process.
Particularly, the particle diameter of described agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle is less than 2mm.
Wherein, step C) described in compost fermentation processing procedure in, fermentation temperature finally remains on 45-55 DEG C; Fermentation time is 6-8 days.
Particularly, in fermentation process, when fermentation temperature is more than 70 DEG C, carry out turning process, reduce the temperature of heap body.
Particularly, in compost fermentation processing procedure, pile body width and be highly 1m.
Wherein, the arbor sapling of selection of seedling described in step 5) or shrub sapling.
Particularly, described arbor select in locust tree, Chinese scholar tree, willow, willow, silk tree, Ailanthus altissima, juniper, mulberry tree, arbor-vitae, Chinese pine, midget crabapple one or more; Described shrub select in the rose of Sharon, cloves, shrubby flase indigo, feed mulberry, torch, Atyiplex canescen, glossy privet one or more.
Particularly, described arbor selects more than life in 2 years, the strong sprout that leading thread is greater than 1cm, root length is greater than 30cm; Described shrub selects more than life in 2 years, the strong sprout that leading thread is greater than 0.5cm, root length is greater than 15cm.
Particularly, also comprise step 6): after planting tree seedlings, the upper surface of the sidewall filter course corresponding in plantation hole lays saline land original soil, increase 20-30cm, form the low bank of earth between fields, and make real the low bank of earth between fields, the low bank of earth between fields is used for preventing filtering material zeolite from exposing earth's surface, stop air in filtering material zeolite gap to circulate with extraneous, promote plant root growth.
Especially, the height of the described low bank of earth between fields is preferably 20cm.
Particularly, also comprise step 7): carry out maintenance management to the nursery stock after plantation: water normal root water after planting in time and spring drought supplementary irrigation in season is watered 2 times, water 50-60L at every turn in every cave.
Particularly, the First Year of nursery stock of planting ensures that soil moisture content is not less than 15%.
The invention has the advantages that:
1, the present invention is that the chemical measure of alkaline land improving coordinates with the integrated of engineering measure, technology that microcell is improved the soil with filter course technology be set combine, be a kind ofly be applicable to alkaline land improving, novel effective salt reduction improves the soil comprehensive.
2, adopt the method for improving the soil by organic compost material and the mixing of saline land original soil, eliminate the cost changing soil moved in improve the original; And for the preparation of the zeolite rich reserves of filter course material, wide material sources, it is respond well that salt is inhaled in water suction.Therefore, this salt reduction is improved the soil comprehensive, can significantly reduce alkaline land improving cost.
3, the Chinese scholar tree adopting the present invention to plant 7 months, its height of tree net growth on average reaches 0.54m; Diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground net growth on average reaches more than 0.14cm; In separation layer, soil total salt amount is reduced to below 1.845mg/g, and total salt content decline degree reaches more than 52.9%.And the net growth of reference examples (namely not adopting the Chinese scholar tree that the inventive method is planted) is lower than 0.05m, mean DBH increment net growth is lower than 0.08cm.
4, this method utilizes separation layer stop salinity to enter around root system, afforests, can reduce the salt content around root system of plant, alleviate the persecution of salt to root system in conjunction with saline and alkaline improving technology in tree well during afforestation on saline land.Especially at the afforestation initial stage, can root system development be promoted, promote that root system is to the absorption of nutrient, moisture, creates and is beneficial to the soil environment of plant growth, and the salt resistance of progressively training plant.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram in single plantation hole;
Fig. 2 is the cross-sectional schematic along A-A line in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram after plant has been planted in single plantation hole;
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram in multiple plantation hole after saline land having been planted plant;
Fig. 5 is Chinese scholar tree height measurement result figure;
Fig. 6 is Chinese scholar tree mean DBH increment mensuration figure;
Fig. 7 be in the inventive method afforestation matrix packed layer soil salt content with seasonal variation figure.
Description of reference numerals:
1, plantation hole; 2, bottom surface; 3, inwall; 4, near coal-mine; 5, separation layer in first; 6, the second inwall separation layer; 7, separation layer bottom first; 8, separation layer bottom second; 9, inwall filter course, 10, bottom filter layers; 11, mixed-matrix layer; 12, the low bank of earth between fields; 13, original soil; 14, plant, 15, earth's surface.
Embodiment
Be described in detail in the step of the method for forestation of arbor (Chinese scholar tree) that saline land plants with reference to the accompanying drawings.The embodiment of the present invention is to plant arbor Chinese scholar tree, and other green tree species such as Chinese wax, tree-of-heaven, locust tree, willow, willow, silk tree, Ailanthus altissima, juniper, mulberry tree, arbor-vitae, Chinese pine, midget crabapple etc. are all applicable to the present invention.
Afforest on saline land except arbor of planting in the present invention, shrub is also applicable to the present invention, and such as the rose of Sharon, cloves, shrubby flase indigo, feed mulberry, torch, Atyiplex canescen, glossy privet etc. are also applicable to the present invention.
Embodiment 1
1, organic compost material is prepared
One or more in afforestation discarded object (comprise the deadwood in urban afforestation, fallen leaves, grass bits, flower lose, the organic substance such as greening pruner thing) are carried out fermented manure, obtained organic compost material, for subsequent use.
The waste of organic matter such as afforestation discarded object are in composting fermentation process, and the Substance Transformation that part wherein is easily decomposed by the microorganisms is the Humus material of stable in properties, the remaining lignocellulose material be not easily decomposed, and improves the permeability of soil; The organic compost material prepared through compost fermentation process can reduce alkali-affected soil pH, improves soil organic matter content and rapid available phosphorus, quick-acting potassium content, can also improve soil microbial activities.
Described organic compost material is prepared from accordance with the following steps:
A) collection afforestation discarded object is carried out pulverization process, crusher sifting bore dia is 2cm, and obtained particle diameter is less than the discarded object particle of 2mm;
B) in discarded object particle, add feces of livestock and poultry, regulate the C/N ratio of discarded object particle to 20:1 ~ 40:1;
C) spray water in the particle that have adjusted C/N ratio, the discarded object piling width after water content to 50% ~ 65% and be highly 1m is regulated to pile, carry out compost fermentation process, fermentation temperature remains on 45-55 DEG C, and ferment after 7 days (in the present invention, compost fermentation number of days is 6-8 days), composting fermentation process terminates, wherein when fermentation temperature is more than 70 DEG C, carry out turning process, reduce the temperature of heap body, obtained organic compost material.
In the present invention, the C/N ratio of discarded object particle is adjusted to 30:1; Moisture content is 60%; Fermentation temperature remains 45-55 DEG C, ferments for 6-8 days.
2, isolated material is prepared
Reed is woven into thickness is 1cm, width is the reed screen of 100cm, obtained isolated material, for subsequent use.
In the present invention except using reed, straw or reed and straw can also be used to weave, be used as the blind-like article of isolation.
3, plantation hole is excavated
Intending saline alkali tolerant plant scientific and technological park, Dagang District strand, Tianjin (north latitude: 38 degree 46 points, the east longitude: 117 degree 13 points of afforestation; Height above sea level: 1.3 meters; Belong to moistening, the continental monsoon climate in warm temperate zone, the Northern Hemisphere half; Annual mean temperature: 12.3 DEG C; The annual maximum air temperature is in July, and the minimum air temperature is in January; Average annual rainfall is 593.6mm; Rainwater concentrates on the 6-9 month, at 84% of full total rainfall per year; Annual mean ground temperature: 1979mm) saline land on measure, the plantation hole 1 of excavating plantation nursery stock is required according to the seeding row spacing of Forestation Design, plantation hole 1 is in cylindric, as shown in Figure 1, 2, the bottom surface 2 in plantation hole is circular, and inwall 3 is perpendicular to the bottom surface 2 in plantation hole, and the diameter of the bottom surface in plantation hole is 100cm, the degree of depth in hole is 100cm, and the diameter of planting near coal-mine 4 of hole is 100cm.
The line-spacing of afforesting in the embodiment of the present invention, spacing in the rows are 2m × 2m, and due to plantation is arbor, and the line-spacing of therefore afforesting, spacing in the rows are not less than 2m × 2m.In the embodiment of the present invention except selecting Tianjin Dagang District beach saline land, other saline lands are also applicable to the inventive method and afforest.The embodiment of the present invention was afforested on saline land with annual mid-September, plantation Chinese scholar tree.Start May in the coming year to measure corresponding plant growth condition.
The shape in plantation hole of the present invention is except in except cylindric, and other shapes are all applicable to the present invention as round table-like, rectangular-shaped, cube-shaped.
4, bottom filter layers is set
One deck reed screen is laid, separation layer 7 bottom forming first in the bottom in plantation hole 1; Then on reed screen, lay zeolite granular, form bottom filter layers 10; Then re-lay reed screen on zeolite granular surface, separation layer 8 bottom forming second, wherein, the thickness of reed screen (i.e. separation layer bottom first, second) is 1cm, and the thickness H of bottom filter layers 10 is 20cm, and the particle diameter of zeolite granular is 3-5mm; Zeolite is cheated the salinity in the alkaline land soil of bottom as filtering material absorption plantation and blocks soil capillary, prevents salinity to be accumulated to bottom and the top layer in plantation hole with soil water evaporation; The effect of reed screen is kept apart at filtering material and saline land original soil, is mixed in filtering material affects its suction-operated to salt ion to avoid original soil.
Bottom first, second, separation layer is circular, its center and the center superposition of planting hole 1.
5, inwall filter course is laid
First reed screen is cut into the reed screen block that length is 315-320cm length, the inwall 3 being close to plantation hole is laid, and forms cylindrical first inwall separation layer 5; To cut into length by other one piece be again 255-260cm width is the reed screen of 80cm, be rolled into the cylindric reed screen cylinder that diameter is 80cm, be placed on middle part, plantation hole, form the second inwall separation layer 6, the central shaft of first, second inwall separation layer is overlapping with the central shaft in plantation hole 1, second inwall separation layer 6 is 10cm apart from the distance of plantation hole inwall 3, and the spacing namely between first, second inwall separation layer is 10cm, and the height of the second inwall separation layer is 80cm; Then filled up in the gap between the first inwall separation layer 5 and the second inwall separation layer 6 with zeolite, form inwall filter course 9, wherein the thickness h of inwall filter course 9 is 10cm, and the particle diameter of zeolite granular is 3-5mm.
Plantation hole is divided into two parts by the reed screen cylinder of the second inwall separation layer 6, a part is the space between the first inwall separation layer 5 and the second inwall separation layer 6, for filling zeolite, form inwall filter course 9, the inner space of the cylindrical shape that another part i.e. the second inwall separation layer 6 surrounds is for plant 14 and the filling cultivation matrix of planting, form mixed-matrix layer 11, the diameter of mixed-matrix layer 11 is identical with the diameter of the second inwall separation layer, and namely the diameter of mixed-matrix layer 11 is 80cm.
6, to plant nursery stock and maintenance
Organic compost material is mixed according to the ratio that volume ratio is 1:5 with saline land original soil, obtained mixed-matrix, for subsequent use;
Select life in 3 years, leading thread is greater than 1cm, Chinese scholar tree strong sprout that root length is greater than 30 centimetres plants in plantation hole in time autumn Mo, mixed-matrix is inserted matrix packed layer until tamp in plantation hole 1 simultaneously, concordant with earth's surface 15;
The upper surface corresponding at inwall filter course 9 lays saline land original soil 13, and is trimmed to the circular low bank of earth between fields 12 exceeding surface, saline land 20cm, prevents zeolite from exposing earth's surface, stops air in zeolite gap to circulate with extraneous, promotes plant root growth.
7, maintenance management
Water normal root water in time after planting, be beneficial to Survival rate of nursery stock; Also fixing to the timely righting of inclination plant; Prevention and elimination of disease and pests; Regular pruning excessive growth, overstocked, catch an illness, withered branch.
The plant survival rate of Chinese scholar tree (arbor) of the present embodiment is 94%, and storage rate reaches 92%, and seedling growth speed is fast, growth rate average out to 1.2m/.
The present embodiment afforestation expenses is 200 yuan/cave (containing digging plantation hole and transplanted seedling tree etc.), and calculate with every mu of 111 strains, every mu of expense is 2.2 ten thousand yuan; And common saline land greening afforestation expenses is more than 4.0 ten thousand yuan.This method is 45.0% of common comprehensive soil moved in improve the original afforestation expenses, has saved the cost of alkaline land improving.
Embodiment 2
Thickness except reed screen is 1.5cm, and width is 100cm; The diameter of the bottom surface 2 in plantation hole is 120cm, and the degree of depth in plantation hole is 100cm; The thickness H of the bottom filter layers 10 arranged is 30cm; Reed screen being cut into width is be rolled into the cylindric reed screen cylinder that diameter is 100cm after the reed screen block of 70cm, is placed on middle part, plantation hole, and forming the second inwall separation layer 6, second inwall separation layer 6 apart from the distance of plantation hole inwall 3 is 10cm; The thickness h of the inwall filter course 9 laid is 10cm; The diameter of matrix packed layer 11 is 100cm; Bottom second, the diameter of separation layer 8 is 100cm, and thickness is 1.5cm; The volume ratio of organic compost material and saline land original soil is outside 1:7, and all the other are identical with embodiment 1.
The plant survival rate of Chinese scholar tree (arbor) of the present embodiment is 96%, and storage rate reaches 91%, and seedling growth speed is fast.
The present embodiment afforestation expenses is that 214 yuan/cave (containing digging plantation hole and transplanted seedling tree etc.) calculates with every mu of 111 strains, and every mu of cost is 2.400 ten thousand yuan, is 60.0% of simple soil moved in improve the original afforestation expenses, has saved the cost of shale reclamation of saline soil to a certain extent.
Embodiment 3
Width except reed screen is 110cm; The thickness H of bottom filter layers 10 is 30cm; Reed screen is cut into length is 190-195cm, width is be rolled into the cylindric reed screen cylinder that diameter is 60cm after 80cm reed screen block, be placed on middle part, plantation hole, form the second inwall separation layer 6; Second inwall separation layer 6 is 20cm apart from the distance of plantation hole inwall 3; The diameter of the second inwall separation layer 6 is 60cm, and width is 80cm; The degree of depth in plantation hole is 110cm, and the thickness h of inwall filter course 9 is 20cm; The volume ratio of organic compost material and saline land original soil is outside 1:3, and all the other are identical with embodiment 1.
The plant survival rate of Chinese scholar tree (arbor) of the present embodiment is 94%, and storage rate reaches 91%, and seedling growth speed is fast.
The present embodiment afforestation expenses is 230 yuan/cave (containing digging plantation hole and transplanted seedling tree etc.), and calculate with every mu of 111 strains, every mu of cost is 2.600 ten thousand yuan, is 65.0% of simple soil moved in improve the original afforestation expenses.
Reference examples 1
Saline land is excavated the plantation identical with embodiment 1 cheat, do not lay separation layer, filter course, except insert the original soil in saline land in plantation hole except, all the other are identical with embodiment 1.
Reference examples 2
After the excavation plantation identical with embodiment 1 is cheated on saline land, except not laying separation layer, filter course, directly fill mixed-matrix, plant the Chinese scholar tree identical with embodiment 1.
Reference examples 3
After on saline land, the excavation plantation identical with embodiment 1 is cheated, do not lay bottom filter layers 10, inwall filter course 9 except in plantation hole, namely also fill outside mixed-matrix in bottom and inwall filter course place, all the other are identical with embodiment 1.
Test example 1 Chinese scholar tree growth indexes measures
By the Chinese scholar tree of embodiment 1, reference examples 1-3 plantation in plantation random selecting 30 strain respectively after 7 months, Bo Lulai altitude meter is adopted to measure the Chinese scholar tree height of tree; Adopt diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground chi to measure the diameter of Chinese scholar tree trunk apart from ground 1.3m height, calculate Chinese scholar tree net growth.
The measurement result of the height of tree, the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground respectively as shown in Figure 5,6.
The embodiment of the present invention was afforested on saline land with annual mid-September, and plantation Chinese scholar tree, after planting 7 months, starts to measure corresponding plant growth condition May in the coming year.Difference random selecting 30 strain mid-May to mid-October in the coming year measures the height of tree, the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground of Chinese scholar tree.Measurement result as shown in Figure 5,6.
As shown in Figure 5, the time dependent fit equation of Chinese scholar tree height growth in embodiment 1 is y=1.381ln (x)+0.319 (R 2=0.982); And the time dependent fit equation of Chinese scholar tree height growth of reference examples 1 is y=0.647ln (x)+1.420 (R 2=0.9956), the time dependent fit equation of Chinese scholar tree height growth of reference examples 2 is y=0.8457ln (x)+1.1224 (R 2=0.9875), the time dependent fit equation of Chinese scholar tree height growth of reference examples 3 is y=1.2469ln (x)+0.4037 (R 2=0.9887).Show that the growth of Chinese scholar tree plant height also exists very significant logarithm dependency relation over time.In above-mentioned equation, the size of slope reflects the size of the growth rate of Chinese scholar tree, and as can be seen from Fig. 5 and fit equation, the growth rate of the Chinese scholar tree plant height of embodiment 1 is obviously faster than reference examples 1-3.
Fig. 6 represents the Chinese scholar tree monthly average diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground in May-10 increment in embodiment 1, reference examples 1-3, and the increment of the Chinese scholar tree mean DBH increment of measurement result display embodiment 1 is greater than the increment of Chinese scholar tree mean DBH increment in reference examples 1-3.
The growth speed of the height of tree and the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground directly can embody the growth rate of trees.Testing result shows: after Chinese scholar tree plants 7 months, the height of tree of the Chinese scholar tree in embodiment, diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground increment are all significantly greater than the height of tree, the breast diameter growth amount of the Chinese scholar tree in reference examples, the upgrowth situation of this Chinese scholar tree illustrated in the embodiment of process of the present invention is significantly better than undressed reference examples, this is because the filtering material in the present invention---zeolites is like a kind of loose porous cavernous body, play a part liquid manure warehouse, soil moisture in layer can be improved, be conducive to retaining and conserveing soil moisture, and zeolite can improve soil permeability, improve draining infiltration capacity.Therefore be conducive to most improving Chinese scholar tree growing environment as filtering material using zeolite, promote Chinese scholar tree growth.
Test example 2 matrix packed layer topsoil eight-ions and total salt content measure
The soil on the top layer (0-10cm) of the matrix packed layer 11 in random acquisition embodiment 1-3 and reference examples 1-3 in plantation hole, each process repeated sampling 6 times, take back laboratory, air-dry at ambient temperature, soil after air-dry is ground, and aperture is the soil sieve of 1mm excessively, by the soil after sieving according to Tu Shui than 1:5 lixiviate, filter after leaching liquor is vibrated 3 minutes on vibrating machine, filtrate is the liquid to be measured containing soluble-salt segregant, and the refrigerator putting into 4 DEG C after making is preserved to be measured.
Wherein, double-tracer technique is adopted to measure CO 3 2-and HCO 3 -; Adopt AgNO 3titration measuring Cl -; EDTA indirect titration is adopted to measure SO 4 2-; Adopt EDTA complexometric titration Ca 2+and Mg 2+; Adopt flame spectrophotometric determination K +and Na +, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
Table 1 soil eight ions content measurement result
Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Reference examples 1 Reference examples 2 Reference examples 3
CO 3 2-(mg/g) 0 0 0 0 0 0
HCO 3 -(mg/g) 0.031 0.034 0.028 0.022 0.018 0.015
Cl -(mg/g) 0.165 0.251 0.226 0.520 0.361 0.322
SO 4 2-(mg/g) 0.084 0.102 0.096 0.116 0.100 0.093
Ca 2+(mg/g) 0.200 0.215 0.210 1.153 1.112 1.103
Mg 2+(mg/g) 0.053 0.087 0.064 0.582 0.432 0.396
K ++Na +(mg/g) 1.088 1.156 1.132 1.520 1.431 1.398
Total salt total amount (mg/g) 1.622 1.845 1.756 3.914 3.454 3.327
Testing result shows: the present invention, in the method for saline-alkali soil forestation, significantly can reduce the content of soluble-salt segregant in saline land.Reduce the osmotic pressure of alkaline land soil, make root system of plant keep normal vital movement state, promote that plant normal growth is grown.
Test example 3 matrix packed layer topsoil Cl -, K ++ Na +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, SO 4 2-ion and total salt content are with the test of seasonal variation
For embodiment 1, reference examples 1, be determined at the test of salt content with seasonal dynamic of the 5-10 month in 2011.
On May 25th, 2011, June 29, July 28, August 26, September 28, October 28 random acquisition embodiment 1 and reference examples 1 in the soil on top layer (0-10cm) of matrix packed layer 11 in plantation hole, each process repeated sampling 6 times, take back laboratory, air-dry at ambient temperature, soil after air-dry is ground, and aperture is the soil sieve of 1mm excessively, by the soil after sieving according to Tu Shui than 1:5 lixiviate, filter after leaching liquor is vibrated 3 minutes on vibrating machine, filtrate is the liquid to be measured containing soluble-salt segregant, the refrigerator putting into 4 DEG C after making is preserved to be measured.
Wherein, AgNO is adopted 3titration measuring Cl -; EDTA indirect titration is adopted to measure SO 4 2-; Adopt EDTA complexometric titration Ca 2+and Mg 2+; Adopt flame spectrophotometric determination K +and Na +, measurement result, namely salt content result of variations as shown in Figure 7.
Saline alkali tolerant plant scientific and technological park, Dagang District strand, Tianjin (north latitude 38 degree 46 points, east longitude: 117 degree 13 points; Height above sea level: 1.3 meters) in 1 year, there are 2 significant polysalt peak periods, i.e. spring Mo and late summers.In spring (3-May), because temperature rise, soil thawing, topsoil temperature are lower than temperature, under solar radiation and wind-force effect, produce violent evaporation effect, make the strong salification in earth's surface, form a polysalt peak; And from June 5, Tianjin Dagang District started to enter rainy season, along with the increase of rainfall, the salinity of embodiment upper soll layer is with the downward drip washing of water, and salinity significantly reduces, until August 15, daily rain amount just slowed down to some extent; From August 15, this area's temperature and ground temperature reached again high value in a year, and soil salt presents ascendant trend again, formed the 2nd polysalt peak period; Autumn (9-October) rainfall reduces, and steam and fall than moderate, soil salt content is comparatively stable.
It can also be seen that from the testing result of Fig. 7, in the whole monitoring phase, the Main Salts ion concentration in embodiment 1 and soil total salt amount are all lower than contrast 1.This is due in Coastal Area in Tianjin, when evaporation discharge is strong (spring), soil moisture mainly with the form of capillary water to ground motion, the salt ion in soil, also along with capillary water is upwards migrated, makes this area's salt submeter poly-strong.After the salinity filter course in the present invention is set, due to the difference of filtering material (zeolite) and soil capillarity porosity, the hydraulic connection between upper and lower soil layer has been blocked every salt deposit, stagnate when making soil moisture run to interface under filter course, thus make along with Moisture Movement salt ion also under filter course interfacial area tire out, surface soil salinity will reduce relatively; In rainy season (summer), when the complete permeatable filter layer of the moisture in soil and when reaching capacity, the salinity of dissolving depends primarily on hollow billet space in soil and non-hollow billet space along with the speed of moisture penetration.
Test example 4 matrix packed layer soil physical properties detection experiment
For embodiment 1, reference examples 1, the soil of the 0-80cm of the mixed-matrix layer 11 in random acquisition embodiment 1 and reference examples 1 in plantation hole, soil collecting gathers according to table 2 soil horizon thickness, each process repeated sampling 6 times, take back laboratory, air-dry at ambient temperature, measure soil property as follows:
Unit weight, total porosity, capillary porosity, noncapillary poropsity adopt core cutter method to measure, and concrete assay method is as follows:
Before with cutting ring sample, first according to soil layer mentioned above, to fetch earth 20g with every layer, aluminium box, in the baking oven of 105 DEG C, dry 8h to soil sample constant weight, weigh the quality of oven-dried soil, calculate soil moisture conversion coefficient K.
At sensibility reciprocal be 0.01g balance on weigh up idle loop cutter (W 0) weight after, with cutting ring sample in different soil, weigh in the balance after getting heavily, be designated as W 1; Throw off upper bottom by weighing up heavy cutting ring, put into flat basin or other containers, inject and keep basin water layer height to edge on cutting ring, making its 12h that absorbs water, cover upper cover, level is taken out, and towels off the water of cutting ring outer, weighs immediately, be designated as W 2; Again cutting ring is placed on and is covered with on dry husky square position after 2h, take off and weigh, be designated as W 3.Calculate the bulk density of soil, capillary porosity, noncapillary poropsity and total porosity according to the following formula:
Moisture conversion coefficient (K)=oven dry quality of soil sample (g)/wet quality of soil sample (g)
The bulk density of soil (g/cm 3)=(W 1-W 0) × K/100
Capillary porosity=(W 3-W 0)/100-the bulk density of soil
Total porosity=noncapillary poropsity+capillary porosity
Measurement result is as described in table 2,3.
Table 2 soil physical properties measurement result
Table 3 soil physical properties measurement result
By table 2,3 measurement result show: the filtering material in the present invention makes the salt ion content in soil reduce, soil structure is improved, make soil capillarity porosity and noncapillary poropsity all be greater than reference examples, the bulk density of soil reduces, and salt rejection rate is also improved.And, there is a certain size window, the Na in soil in the interior of the filtering material-zeolite in the present invention +, Cl -zeolite can be entered by this window inner by zeolite adsorption, therefore, utilize the filtering material-zeolite in the present invention as the filtering material of saline land salt reduction, the salinity in soil can be reduced significantly, reach the object that saline land salt reduction is improved the soil.

Claims (4)

1. a method of afforesting on saline land, comprises the steps:
1) on saline land, plantation hole is excavated;
2) lay two-layer energy water-permeable and air permeable in the bottom that plantation is cheated and inwall respectively, isolate saline and alkaline and not perishable separation layer;
3) filter course for adsorbing salt and alkali component is set respectively between the two-layer separation layer of bottom, inwall;
4) prepare mixed-matrix and insert in hole, compacting;
5) nursery stock is planted;
Wherein, described plantation hole is for cylindric, and the diameter in described plantation hole is 80-120cm, and the degree of depth is 70-110cm;
Wherein, described separation layer is made up of curtain shape plant fiber curtain, and the reed that described plant fiber curtain is 1-1.5cm by thickness forms;
Wherein, the spacing between the two-layer separation layer of described bottom is 20-30cm; Spacing between the two-layer separation layer of described inwall is 10-20cm;
Wherein, described filter course is made up of one or more in zeolite, haydite, vermiculite; Wherein, described mixed-matrix is that the organic compost material of 1:3-7 and saline land original soil form by volume ratio.
2. the method for afforesting on saline land as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that the zeolite that described filter course is 3-5mm by granularity forms.
3. the method for afforesting on saline land as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that described organic compost material is prepared from accordance with the following steps:
A) agriculture and forestry organic waste material collected is pulverized, obtained agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle;
B) in agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle, add feces of livestock and poultry regulates the C/N ratio of agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle to 20:1 ~ 40:1, obtained agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost mixture;
C), after regulating water content to 50% ~ 65% of agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost mixture, by heaps for agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost mixture heap, carry out compost fermentation process, to obtain final product.
4. the method for afforesting on saline land as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that the arbor sapling of selection of seedling described in step 5) or shrub sapling.
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