CN102273369A - Method for no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobaccos and pastures - Google Patents

Method for no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobaccos and pastures Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102273369A
CN102273369A CN201110123559XA CN201110123559A CN102273369A CN 102273369 A CN102273369 A CN 102273369A CN 201110123559X A CN201110123559X A CN 201110123559XA CN 201110123559 A CN201110123559 A CN 201110123559A CN 102273369 A CN102273369 A CN 102273369A
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flue
tobacco
cured tobacco
ridge
planting
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CN102273369B (en
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邹焱
谢已书
陈伟
卢贤仁
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Guizhou Institute of Tobacco Science
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Guizhou Institute of Tobacco Science
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobaccos and pastures. The method uses excellent gramineous pasture pennisetum hydridum and flue-cured tobacco for no-tillage crop rotation and comprises the detailed steps of: ridging during the first year when planting flue-cured tobaccos, and leaving the tobacco sticks on the tobacco ground to protect the ridge body after harvesting the tobacco leaves; clearing up the tobacco sticks and weeds after spring comes in the second year, then planting the pennisetum hydridum of which the planting density is the same as the planting density of the flue-cured tobacco, and leaving the residues of the pennisetum hydridum in the ridge body after harvesting the pennisetum hydridum completely, and protecting the ridge body; using phytocide to control the growth of the weeds after spring comes and before the tobacco is planted in the third year, digging the ridge when planting tobaccos, fertilizing, and planting tobaccos; clearing up the ridge surface, removing the weeds, covering the ground by a ground membrane when the soil moisture content is enough so as to promote normal growth of the flue-cured tobacco, and repeatedly performing alternant planting of flue-cured tobacco -> pennisetum hydridum -> flue-cured tobacco in this way. The method has the advantages of: increasing the crop rotation efficiency of the flue-cured tobacco, increasing the quality of the tobacco leaves, saving the steps of turning over of the soil, ridging, topdressing, intertillage, weeding and the like, saving six workers every 667 square meters of flue-cured tobacco, reducing the production cost, and being simple to operate and easy to popularize.

Description

The method of flue-cured tobacco, the no-tillage crop rotation of herbage
Technical field
The invention belongs to the flue-cured tobacco cultivation method.
Background technology
Flue-cured tobacco is important economic crops, and China's year cultivated area is more than 1,000,000 hectares.Flue-cured tobacco crop rotation ratio is little at present, and the continuous cropping phenomenon is general.This causes the vega soil-borne disease to increase the weight of, and plants the cigarette benefit and descends.The main cause that Succession Cropping of Flue _ cured Tobacco is general is not have a kind of economic benefit height and easy crop and its crop rotation of planting technology in the flue-cured tobacco cropping system.Traditional flue-cured tobacco, corn crop rotation are not welcome by the tobacco grower because of the maize planting economic benefit is lower.In addition, flue-cured tobacco cultivation process complex procedures, recruitment is many, labour intensity is big, adds that flue-cured tobacco is mainly relatively low at zone, mountain region production process mechanization degree, at present by livestock operation plantation 667m 2The flue-cured tobacco recruitment is about 40, far above cereal crops production labors such as paddy rice, wheat, corns.
Many cultivation steps and method are arranged in cured tobacco production, as plastic mulching, bi-layered fertilizing or the like, the technology of applying for a patent has: No. 200810069035.5 " fire-cured tobacco cultivation technique mode by concave double-ridge plastic membrane mulching during whole breeding season ", the raising soil moisture and the plant recovery of nutrient that are primarily aimed at, thus the tobacco production and value amount improved; Also have No. 2009101092852.0 " method of one-ridge double-row flue-cured tobacco dislocation cultivation ", what be primarily aimed at is to improve quality of tobacco, outstanding tobacco leaf zoning characteristic makes full use of cigarette district land resources, and the effect of these technology aspect flue-cured tobacco crop rotation effect and saving of labor is not obvious; 201010233987.3 number cultivation method of interplanting stevia rebaudiana " one grow tobacco " disclosed method is at the tobacco beginning initial stage interplanting stevia rebaudiana of gathering, interplanting not only improves the unit are output value but also improves crop quality while gathering; Make full use of time and space that previous crops is gathered, raise the multiple-cropping index.But the used stevia of this method also has the requirement of its growing environment, and its main application is as medicinal material, and consumption is limited.Also have report to point out, the direct nest of beating is planted cigarette and can be saved the soil operation of turning on planting the former ridge, cigarette ground of flue-cured tobacco last year, but this relates to Succession Cropping of Flue _ cured Tobacco, and the continuous cropping of flue-cured tobacco will cause the flue-cured tobacco disease to increase the weight of, and influence yield of tobacco and quality.
Summary of the invention
The method that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of flue-cured tobacco, the no-tillage crop rotation of herbage, adopt this method plantation flue-cured tobacco, can effectively avoid continuous cropping obstacle of cured tobacco, improve the vega soil environment, improve the tobacco production and value amount, can significantly reduce simultaneously the amount of labour used of links such as turn in soil in the cured tobacco production process, ridging, fertilising, field management, thereby reach the purpose of saving of labor's cost efficiency and sustainable development of leaf tobacco production.
The inventor is through studying discovery for a long period of time: flue-cured tobacco is to avoid succession crop, long-term continuous cropping will cause vega soil to be degenerated, soil-borne disease increases the weight of, thereby strengthen the tobacco planting risk, and the gramineous forage grass of the selection no-tillage crop rotation of suitable flue-cured tobacco that planting technology is simple and economic benefit is higher is the technological break-through in the tobacco planting system.Flue-cured tobacco is a kind of crop of intensive cultivation simultaneously, if come the saving of labor by low level management, will reduce the tobacco production and value amount, does not reach the purpose of cost efficiency.Hybrid giant napier is nutritious, the many mouthfeels of juice are good, are the good feeds of various food grass livestocks, poultry and fish, and hybrid giant napier still is the paper making raw material of high-quality, its papermaking quality is better than grass raw materials such as living poplar of speed and reed, adopts hybrid giant napier and the no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobacco that huge market and economic benefit are arranged.
The technical scheme that the inventor adopted is: adopt grass family high quality forage hybrid giant napier and the no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobacco, specific practice is: carry out ridging during 1 year cultivation flue-cured tobacco, after the tobacco leaf results, tobacco rod is stayed in protection ridge, cigarette ground body; After 1 year beginning of spring, tobacco rod and weeds cleaning smoke ground, plant hybrid giant napier then, the hybrid giant napier planting density is consistent with flue-cured tobacco, and hybrid giant napier has gathered in the back stubble and stayed in the body of ridge, and protects the ridge body; Before planting cigarette, use a weed killer herbicide after the 3rd year beginning of spring, on the ridge, beat nest when planting cigarette, apply fertilizer, plant cigarette with the control weed growth; Put the ridge face then in order, weed a garden, when soil moisture content is sufficient, cover mulch film, to promote the normal growth of flue-cured tobacco; Carry out flue-cured tobacco → hybrid giant napier → flue-cured tobacco shifting cultivation so repeatedly.
The high 0.25m in ridge of above-mentioned 1 year ridging, row spacing 1.0m, the flue-cured tobacco spacing in the rows of cultivation is 0.55m.
Grow seedlings earlier during above-mentioned hybrid giant napier no-tillage cultivation, transplant then, be planted in during transplant planting in the middle of the cigarette root and stem of certain plants stubble.
Beat nest during above-mentioned flue-cured tobacco no-tillage cultivation and should beat in the middle of the hybrid giant napier stubble, it is consistent with ridge height degree to beat the nest degree of depth.
The above-mentioned weed killer herbicide of using is 50% napropamide wetting powder (a trade name drought gram), and consumption is every 667m 2(being commonly called as 1 mu) uses 150g.
The used fertilizer of above-mentioned fertilising is N: P 2O 5: K 2The O mass ratio is 1: (1~1.5): the tobacco composite fertilizer special of (2~2.5), consumption is counted every 667m according to the soil fertility situation by purity nitrogen (N) 2Use 3.0~6.0kg; Fertilizer once applies.
Above-mentioned soil moisture content abundance is meant that soil moisture content reaches more than 70% of water-retaining quantity among field of soil.
The inventor points out: should accomplish when planting cigarette to plant deeply strong sprout, the degree of depth of cultivation is the height that reaches cigarette seedling cane, plants back cigarette seedling cane and is embedded in the soil, only exposes the cigarette seedling top and the leaf heart.
The method that the inventor provides is given full play to three's usefulness in conjunction with the principle of shift of crops, no-tillage cultivation and plastic film mulching cultivation, for cigarette strain growth provides a good environment, reaches flue-cured tobacco cultivation and has not only improved tobacco production and value amount but also saving of labor and fall this effect.
The present invention has the following advantages: (1) improves flue-cured tobacco crop rotation benefit, improves the tobacco production and value amount; (2) this falls in the saving of labor.Can save to turn in the soil, ridging, topdress, link such as intertill and clean tillage, compare every 667m with present traditional livestock operation 2But 6 of flue-cured tobacco savings of labor reduce production costs 240~300 yuan; (3) simple to operate, be easy to promote.The present invention is applicable to flue-cured tobacco cultivation.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing is the method schematic diagram of flue-cured tobacco of the present invention, the no-tillage crop rotation of herbage.
Among the figure: 1. cigarette ground, 2. ridge body, 3. cigarette root and stem of certain plants stubble, 4. hybrid giant napier stubble.
Embodiment
Following examples can further specify method of the present invention:
Embodiment
In certain flue-cured tobacco cultivation place, carry out the no-tillage crop rotation of grass family high quality forage hybrid giant napier and flue-cured tobacco.
Carry out ridging during 1 year cultivation flue-cured tobacco, the high 0.25m in ridge, row spacing 1.0m, the flue-cured tobacco spacing in the rows of cultivation is 0.55m, as shown in drawings; Crop rotation cigarette ground after results stays tobacco rod in the body of ridge, to protect the ridge body; After the beginning of spring in next year, tobacco rod and weeds cleaning smoke ground, plant hybrid giant napier then, the hybrid giant napier planting density is consistent with flue-cured tobacco, and hybrid giant napier is planted in the middle of the cigarette root and stem of certain plants stubble, and hybrid giant napier has gathered in the back stubble and has stayed in the body of ridge, and protects the ridge body; To execute mass fraction before the cigarette be 50% napropamide wetting powder weed killer herbicide to planting after the 3rd year beginning of spring, every 667m 2Use 150g, the control weed growth is beaten big nest in the middle of the hybrid giant napier stubble when planting cigarette in the body of ridge, uses N: P 2O 5: K 2The O mass ratio is 1: 1.5: 2.5 tobacco composite fertilizer special, and amount of application is counted every 667m according to the soil fertility situation by purity nitrogen (N) 2Use 3.0~6.0kg, fertilizer is disposable to apply big nest; Select for use in the cigarette seedling cane height consistent degree of depth deeply plant strong sprout then, water normal root water after the transplanting, the attention control soil insect, and in time look into seedling and fill the gaps with seedlings, guarantee that the cigarette seedling survives; Putting the ridge face then in order, weed a garden, is that soil moisture content reaches 70% when above of water-retaining quantity among field of soil at soil moisture content, covers mulch film and gets final product.Carry out flue-cured tobacco → hybrid giant napier → flue-cured tobacco shifting cultivation so repeatedly.
Hybrid giant napier is to be formed by napier grass and pearl millet selection cross, is herbaceos perennial in the torrid areas, and in China southwest and northern cigarette district be difficult to nature and survive the winter.The hybrid giant napier well developed root system, the long 3~4m of average root, and root system is intensive stays root system in the soil body to can be the flue-cured tobacco growth good aeration environment is provided, and root system is fabulous organic manure after rotting simultaneously, can be flue-cured tobacco nutrition is provided.Hybrid giant napier plantation line-spacing 90~100cm, spacing in the rows 50~60cm, every 667m 2Can plant 1100~1400 strains; And the every 667m of flue-cured tobacco 2Can plant 1000~1300 strains, thereby both basically identicals of planting density.Hybrid giant napier is a gramineous crop, can give full play to the crop rotation benefit with the flue-cured tobacco crop rotation, reduces the vega damage by disease and insect and propagates.Therefore hybrid giant napier is the desirable rotation crop of flue-cured tobacco.The inventor adopts seedling raising and transplanting through discovering, the bright careless output of annual hybrid giant napier can be mowed every 667m every year 5~8 times more than 8t 2But 1~2 of hybrid giant napier cattle feeding, about 10 of sheep, economic benefit is obvious.

Claims (7)

1. the method for a flue-cured tobacco, the no-tillage crop rotation of herbage, it is characterized in that this method is to adopt grass family high quality forage hybrid giant napier and the no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobacco, specific practice is: carry out ridging during 1 year cultivation flue-cured tobacco, after the tobacco leaf results, tobacco rod is stayed in protection ridge, cigarette ground body; After 1 year beginning of spring, tobacco rod and weeds cleaning smoke ground, plant hybrid giant napier then, the hybrid giant napier planting density is consistent with flue-cured tobacco, and hybrid giant napier has gathered in the back stubble and stayed in the body of ridge, and protects the ridge body; Before planting cigarette, use a weed killer herbicide after the 3rd year beginning of spring, on the ridge, beat nest when planting cigarette, apply fertilizer, plant cigarette with the control weed growth; Put the ridge face then in order, weed a garden, when soil moisture content is sufficient, cover mulch film, to promote the normal growth of flue-cured tobacco; Carry out flue-cured tobacco → hybrid giant napier → flue-cured tobacco shifting cultivation so repeatedly.
2. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that the high 0.25m in ridge of described 1 year ridging, row spacing 1.0m, and the flue-cured tobacco spacing in the rows of cultivation is 0.55m.
3. the method for claim 1 is grown seedlings earlier when it is characterized in that described hybrid giant napier no-tillage cultivation, transplants then, is planted in during transplant planting in the middle of the cigarette root and stem of certain plants stubble.
4. the method for claim 1 is beaten nest when it is characterized in that described flue-cured tobacco no-tillage cultivation and should be beaten in the middle of the hybrid giant napier stubble, and it is consistent with ridge height degree to beat the nest degree of depth.
5. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that the described weed killer herbicide of using is 50% napropamide wetting powder, and consumption is every 667m 2Use 150g.
6. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that the used fertilizer of described fertilising is N: P 2O 5: K 2The O mass ratio is 1: (1~1.5): the tobacco composite fertilizer special of (2~2.5), consumption is counted every 667m by purity nitrogen 2Use 3.0~6.0kg; Fertilizer once applies.
7. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that described soil moisture content abundance is meant that soil moisture content reaches more than 70% of water-retaining quantity among field of soil.
CN201110123559XA 2011-05-13 2011-05-13 Method for no-tillage crop rotation of flue-cured tobaccos and pastures Expired - Fee Related CN102273369B (en)

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102487715A (en) * 2011-12-19 2012-06-13 云南云蕊生物资源开发有限公司 Method for crop rotation of erigeron breviscapus and tobacco
CN102696381A (en) * 2012-06-21 2012-10-03 贵州省烟草科学研究所 Rotation method for increasing quality of tobacco leaves
CN102742438A (en) * 2012-06-28 2012-10-24 湖南农业大学 Feed crop ridging planting method
CN103907429A (en) * 2014-04-29 2014-07-09 道真仡佬族苗族自治县谷森科技农业开发有限责任公司 No-tillage mulching sowing method of angelica root
CN104041277A (en) * 2014-06-16 2014-09-17 云南省烟草公司曲靖市公司 Crop rotation and no-tillage method for reducing chlorine ion content of tobacco leaves in field tobacco planting area
CN104541876A (en) * 2014-12-31 2015-04-29 贵州省烟草公司遵义市公司 Planting method for relieving continuous cropping obstacle of tobacco plantation soil
CN104770188A (en) * 2015-04-16 2015-07-15 湖南农业大学 Planting, plowing and ridging method for green manure on tobacco stubble
CN105145003A (en) * 2015-09-10 2015-12-16 湖南农业大学 Farming method for returning straw to field locally in corn and flue-cured tobacco rotating system
CN105660103A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-06-15 西南大学 Flue-cured tobacco pinellia ternate interplanting method overcoming allelopathic autotoxicity function
CN106212000A (en) * 2016-07-29 2016-12-14 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of Dryland Tobacco no-tillage cultivation method
CN107853062A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-03-30 贵州省烟草公司贵阳市公司 It is a kind of to comprehensively utilize flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating nutrient solution and greenhouse to plant the method for grape
CN108029540A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-05-15 贵州省烟草公司贵阳市公司 A kind of method using flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating seedling in greenhouse raffinate plantation watermelon
CN109041727A (en) * 2018-10-15 2018-12-21 中国烟草总公司重庆市公司烟草科学研究所 Tobacco field fertilizer management method

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CN101785400A (en) * 2010-04-02 2010-07-28 贵州省烟草科学研究所 Labor-saving flue-cured tobacco cultivation method
CN101897269A (en) * 2010-07-22 2010-12-01 三明华健生物工程有限公司 Cultivation method for interplanting stevia rebaudiana in tobacco

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CN101897269A (en) * 2010-07-22 2010-12-01 三明华健生物工程有限公司 Cultivation method for interplanting stevia rebaudiana in tobacco

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102487715A (en) * 2011-12-19 2012-06-13 云南云蕊生物资源开发有限公司 Method for crop rotation of erigeron breviscapus and tobacco
CN102696381A (en) * 2012-06-21 2012-10-03 贵州省烟草科学研究所 Rotation method for increasing quality of tobacco leaves
CN102742438A (en) * 2012-06-28 2012-10-24 湖南农业大学 Feed crop ridging planting method
CN103907429A (en) * 2014-04-29 2014-07-09 道真仡佬族苗族自治县谷森科技农业开发有限责任公司 No-tillage mulching sowing method of angelica root
CN104041277A (en) * 2014-06-16 2014-09-17 云南省烟草公司曲靖市公司 Crop rotation and no-tillage method for reducing chlorine ion content of tobacco leaves in field tobacco planting area
CN104541876A (en) * 2014-12-31 2015-04-29 贵州省烟草公司遵义市公司 Planting method for relieving continuous cropping obstacle of tobacco plantation soil
CN104770188A (en) * 2015-04-16 2015-07-15 湖南农业大学 Planting, plowing and ridging method for green manure on tobacco stubble
CN105145003A (en) * 2015-09-10 2015-12-16 湖南农业大学 Farming method for returning straw to field locally in corn and flue-cured tobacco rotating system
CN105660103A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-06-15 西南大学 Flue-cured tobacco pinellia ternate interplanting method overcoming allelopathic autotoxicity function
CN106212000A (en) * 2016-07-29 2016-12-14 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of Dryland Tobacco no-tillage cultivation method
CN107853062A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-03-30 贵州省烟草公司贵阳市公司 It is a kind of to comprehensively utilize flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating nutrient solution and greenhouse to plant the method for grape
CN108029540A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-05-15 贵州省烟草公司贵阳市公司 A kind of method using flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating seedling in greenhouse raffinate plantation watermelon
CN109041727A (en) * 2018-10-15 2018-12-21 中国烟草总公司重庆市公司烟草科学研究所 Tobacco field fertilizer management method

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