CN101678774A - Power aggregation system for distributed electric resources - Google Patents

Power aggregation system for distributed electric resources Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101678774A
CN101678774A CN200780050055A CN200780050055A CN101678774A CN 101678774 A CN101678774 A CN 101678774A CN 200780050055 A CN200780050055 A CN 200780050055A CN 200780050055 A CN200780050055 A CN 200780050055A CN 101678774 A CN101678774 A CN 101678774A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
power
grid
resources
resource
electrical
Prior art date
Application number
CN200780050055A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
D·L·卡普兰
S·B·伯拉克
S·W·布里奇斯
Original Assignee
威图格林股份有限公司
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Publication date
Priority to US86943906P priority Critical
Priority to US60/869,439 priority
Application filed by 威图格林股份有限公司 filed Critical 威图格林股份有限公司
Priority to PCT/US2007/025393 priority patent/WO2008073453A1/en
Publication of CN101678774A publication Critical patent/CN101678774A/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
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    • H04L67/12Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications adapted for proprietary or special purpose networking environments, e.g. medical networks, sensor networks, networks in a car or remote metering networks
    • H04L67/125Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications adapted for proprietary or special purpose networking environments, e.g. medical networks, sensor networks, networks in a car or remote metering networks involving the control of end-device applications over a network
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
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    • B60L3/00Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or energy consumption
    • B60L3/12Recording operating variables ; Monitoring of operating variables
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
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    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/14Conductive energy transfer
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    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/50Charging stations characterised by energy-storage or power-generation means
    • B60L53/57Charging stations without connection to power networks
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    • H02J13/0013Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks characterised by transmission structure between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit
    • H02J13/0079Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks characterised by transmission structure between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit with transmission using an intermediate treatment level between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
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    • H02J13/0006Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks
    • H02J13/0013Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks characterised by transmission structure between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit
    • H02J13/0086Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network for single frequency AC networks characterised by transmission structure between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit with transmission using plurality of intermediate treatment level between the control or monitoring unit and the controlled or monitored unit
    • HELECTRICITY
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/10Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment
    • Y04S10/12Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment the elements or equipment being or involving energy generation units, including distributed generation [DER] or load-side generation
    • Y04S10/126Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment the elements or equipment being or involving energy generation units, including distributed generation [DER] or load-side generation the energy generation units being or involving electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV], i.e. power aggregation of EV or HEV, vehicle to grid arrangements [V2G]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/10Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment
    • Y04S10/14Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment the elements or equipments being or involving energy storage units
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/50Systems or methods supporting the power network operation or management, involving a certain degree of interaction with the load-side end user applications
    • Y04S10/54Management of operational aspects
    • Y04S10/545Computing methods or systems for efficient or low carbon management or operation of electric power systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S30/00Systems supporting specific end-user applications in the sector of transportation
    • Y04S30/10Systems supporting the interoperability of electric or hybrid vehicles
    • Y04S30/14Details associated with the interoperability, e.g. vehicle recognition, authentication, identification or billing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/10Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by communication technology
    • Y04S40/12Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by communication technology characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment
    • Y04S40/128Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them characterised by communication technology characterised by data transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated electrical equipment involving the use of Internet protocol

Abstract

Systems and methods are described for a power aggregation system. In one implementation, a service establishes individual Internet connections to numerous electric resources intermittently connected to the power grid, such as electric vehicles. The Internet connection may be made over the same wire that connects the resource to the power grid. The service optimizes power flows to suit the needs ofeach resource and each resource owner, while aggregating flows across numerous resources to suit the needs of the power grid. The service can bring vast numbers of electric vehicle batteries online as a new, dynamically aggregated power resource for the power grid. Electric vehicle owners can participate in an electricity trading economy regardless of where they plug into the power grid.

Description

用于分布式电资源的电力聚集系统 Power aggregation system for distributed electric resources

相关申请 RELATED APPLICATIONS

此申请要求Bridges等人于2006年12月11日提交的题为"分布式储能管理系统(A Distributed Energy Storage Management System)"的美国临时专利申请No. 60/869,439、 Bridges等人于2007年5月1日提交的题为"电动汽车的管理系统(Plug-In-Vehicle Management System)"的美国临时专利申请No. 60/915,347、以及Kaplan等人于2007年8月9日提交的题为"用于分布式电资源的电力聚集系统(Power Aggregation System for Distributed Electric Resources),,的美国专利申请No. 11/836,741的优先权,以上申请均通过引用结合于此。 This application claims priority to US provisional patent, entitled Bridges et al., 2006 December 11 filed a "distributed storage management system (A Distributed Energy Storage Management System)" Application No. 60 / 869,439, Bridges et al., 2007 US provisional Patent filed May 1, entitled "electric car management system (Plug-in-Vehicle management system)" is entitled application No. 60 / 915,347, and Kaplan et al., 2007, filed August 9 "resources for distributed electrical power aggregation system (power aggregation system for distributed electric resources) ,, U.S. Patent application No. 11 / 836,741, the above applications are incorporated herein by reference.

背景 background

对化石燃料有高依赖性的运输系统是特别碳密集的。 Dependence on fossil fuels with a high carbon transport systems are especially dense. B卩,在运输系统中所做的物理单位的功通常比通过电做相同单位的功向大气中排放显著更 B Jie, physical units made in the transport system to do the same function than the work units typically by electrical discharge into the atmosphere, significantly more

多的C。 C. and more 2量。 2 amount.

电网包含有限的用于存储电能的固有设施。 Grid contains a limited inherent facility for storing electrical energy. 必须稳定地发电以满足不确定的需求,这常常导致过量发电(over-generation)(从而浪费能源),且有时候导致发电不足(从而引起电力故障)。 We must be stable power generation to meet uncertain demand, which often lead to excessive power (over-generation) (wasting energy), and sometimes lead to inadequate power generation (which led to power failure). . .

分布式电资源原则上能一起提供用于解决以上问题的重要资源。 On the principle of distributed power resources can provide an important resource for solving the above problems together. 然而, 当前的供电业务基础设施缺乏聚集大量小型资源(例如电动汽车电池)以满足中型和大型供电业务需求的物资供应和灵活性。 However, the current lack of infrastructure supply business gathered a large number of small resources (such as electric car batteries) to meet the material supply medium and large power and flexibility of business needs. 单个汽车电池与电网的需求相比是微不足道的。 Needs of individual car batteries and the grid is negligible in comparison. 随着电动汽车变得越来越受欢迎和流行,所需要的是协调大量电动汽车电池的方法。 As electric cars become more and more popular and prevalent, what is needed is a method of coordinating large number of electric vehicle batteries.

在Green等人的题为"电池供电的电动汽车和供电系统(powered electric vehicle and electrical supply system)"的美国专利No. 5,642,270中描述了使电动汽车能相对于电网充电和放电的低级电气和通信接口,该专利通过引用结合于此。 In U.S. Patent No. 5,642,270 Green, et al., Entitled "battery-powered electric vehicles and power supply system (powered electric vehicle and electrical supply system)" is described with respect to the electric car charging and discharging power and lower electrical communication Interface, which is incorporated by reference herein. 该Green参考文献描述了用于连接到电网的电动汽车的双向充电和通信系统,但既未解决处理大量的移动电动汽车的信息处理需求和向所有者收费(或补贴)的复杂性,也未解决将电动汽车的移动电池组合成足够稳固以支持与电网运营商的供电业务合约的聚集电力资源的复杂性。 Green This reference describes a two-way communication system for charging and connected to the grid of an electric vehicle, but neither solve the information processing needs a large number of mobile processing and the complexity of the electric vehicle to charge the owner (or subsidized), nor solve the combination of electric vehicles into mobile battery strong enough to support the aggregation of power resources and the complexity of the business of supply contracts grid operator.

附图简述 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是示例性电力聚集系统的示图。 FIG 1 is a diagram of an exemplary power aggregation system.

图2是电动汽车、电网以及互联网之间的示例性连接的示图。 FIG 2 is a diagram of an exemplary connection between the electric vehicle, power grids, and the Internet. 图3是电资源与电力聚集系统的流控制服务器之间的示例性连接的框图。 FIG 3 is a block diagram of an exemplary flow control between the connection servers electric power accumulation system resources. 图4是电力聚集系统的示例性布局的示图。 FIG 4 is an exemplary layout diagram of the electric power accumulation system.

图5是电力聚集系统中的示例性控制区域的示图。 FIG 5 is a diagram of an exemplary power control region of the aggregation system. 图6是电力聚集系统中的多个流控制中心的示图。 FIG 6 is a flow diagram of a control center a plurality of power accumulation system. 图7是示例性流控制服务器的框图。 FIG 7 is a block diagram of an exemplary flow control server. 图8是示例性远程智能功率流模块的框图。 FIG 8 is a block diagram of an exemplary flow of remote intelligent power module.

图9是用于在电网上定位电资源的连接位置的第一示例性技术的示图。 FIG. 9 is a first diagram of exemplary techniques for electrical connection position of the electrical positioning online resources.

图10是用于在电网上定位电资源的连接位置的第二示例性技术的示图。 FIG 10 is a diagram for a second exemplary technique for internet connection position of the positioning electric power resources.

图11是用于在电网上定位电资源的连接位置的第三示例性技术的示图。 FIG 11 is a diagram for a third exemplary technology for internet connection position of the positioning electric power resources.

图12是用于在电网上定位电资源的连接位置的第四示例性技术的示图。 FIG 12 is a fourth diagram of exemplary techniques for electrical connection position of the electrical positioning online resources.

图13是电力聚集系统的车辆到家庭实现中的示例性安全手段的示图。 FIG 13 is a diagram of an exemplary security means of the vehicle to the home power aggregation system implementation. 图14是当电力聚集系统中多个电资源向家庭输入功率时的示例性安全手段的示图。 FIG 14 is a diagram when a plurality of the electric power accumulation system, the input resources of an exemplary security measures when power to the home.

图15是电力聚集系统的示例性智能断开的框图。 FIG 15 is a block diagram of an exemplary intelligent power aggregation system disconnected. 图16是示例性的电力聚集方法的流程图。 FIG 16 is a flowchart of an exemplary method of gathering power.

图17是通信地控制用于电力聚集的电资源的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 17 is a flowchart of an exemplary method for electric power accumulated communication resource control. 图18是计量电资源的双向功率的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 18 is a flowchart of an exemplary method for measurement of a bidirectional electric power resources. 图19是确定电资源的电网位置的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 19 is a flowchart of an exemplary method of power resources of the grid position determined. 图20是调度电力聚集的示例性方法的流程图。 20 is a flowchart of an exemplary scheduling method of a power aggregate.

图21是智能孤岛效应(smart islanding)的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 21 is a flowchart of an exemplary method of islanding intelligent (smart islanding) a. 图22是扩展用户接口以便电力聚集的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 22 is a flowchart of an exemplary method for a user interface in order to extend the power aggregate. 图23是获得和保持电力聚集系统中的电动汽车所有者的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 23 is a flowchart of an exemplary method of obtaining and the owner of the electric vehicle power system holding aggregate.

详细描述概览 DETAILED DESCRIPTION Overview

在本文中公开了一种用于分布式电资源的电力聚集系统以及相关方法。 It discloses a distributed electric power accumulation system resources and associated methods herein. 在一个实现中,示例性系统通过互联网和/或某些其它公共或私有网络与连接至电网的多个单独的电资源通信。 In one implementation, the exemplary system via the Internet and / or some other public or private network connected to a plurality of separate electrical grid resources for communication. 通过通信,示例性系统可动态地聚集这些电资源,以向电网运营商(例如电力公司、独立系统运营商(ISO) 等)提供供电业务。 By communication, the exemplary system may aggregate these electrical resources dynamically, to (e.g. power company, an independent system operator (ISO), etc.) to provide services to the power grid operator. 本文所使用的"供电业务"指的是输电以及其它辅助服务,包括需求响应、调节、热备用(spinningreserve)、非热备用、能量不均衡、以及类似的产品。 As used herein, "powered service" refers to the transmission and other auxiliary services, including demand response, adjust, hot spare (spinningreserve), non-hot spare energy imbalance, and similar products. 本文所使用的"聚集"指的是为了提供更大量的供电业务而控制进入和流出一组空间分布的电资源的功率流的能力。 "Aggregate" as used herein refers to the power supply in order to provide a greater amount of traffic and control proceeds to a set of capabilities and resources of the spatial distribution of the electrical power flow flowing. 本文所使用的"电网运营商"指的是负责维护电控制区内或横跨该区的电网的运营和稳定性的实体。 As used herein, "network operators" refers to the area responsible for maintaining the electrical control or operational entity and stability across the grid area. 电网运营商可构建手动/人工的动作/干涉与自动化过程的某些组合,用来响应于系统传感器控制信号产生。 Manually grid operator can be constructed / artificial operation / interference in combination with some automated process, for the sensor response to the control signal generating system. "控制区运营商"是电网运营商的一个示例。 "Control area operators" is one example of the grid operator. 本文所使用的"控制区"指的是电网的具有限定的输入和输出端口的包含部分。 As used herein, "control region" refers to a defined input and output ports comprising part of the grid. 流入此区域的净功率流必须等于(在某些误差范围内)该区域内的功耗和从该区域流出的功率流之和。 The net power flows flowing into this area must equal (within a certain error range) and the power consumption of the region from the area of ​​power flow and effluent.

本文所使用的"电网"表示连接发电厂与电力消费者的配电系统/网络。 As used herein, "grid" means power plants and electricity consumers connected distribution system / network. 该网络可包括作为输电系统(即大容量电力)或/和配电系统(例如零售电力)的一部分的发电机、变压器、互连、开关站、变电站、馈电线、以及安全设备。 The network may comprise a transmission system (i.e., a large-capacity electric power) of the generator part and / or distribution systems (e.g. retail electricity), the transformer, interconnection, switching station, substation, feeder, and the security device. 示例性电力聚集系统可垂直縮放,以便用于街道、城市、地区、 控制区、或(例如)北美电力可靠性委员会(NERC)中的八个大型互联中 An exemplary power aggregation system can be scaled vertically, so for streets, cities, regions, control areas, or (for example) the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) in eight large-scale interconnection

7的一个。 A 7. 而且,该示例性系统在同时向多个电网区域提供供电业务时是可水平縮放的。 Further, when the exemplary system power while providing services to a plurality of grid regions are the horizontal scale.

本文所使用的"电网状况"表示响应于多种状况中的一种对流入或流出电网的一部分的更多或更少功率的需求,所述多种状况例如供给变化、需 As used herein, "grid conditions" indicates condition in response to a variety of a need for more or less into or out of a portion of the power grid, said plurality of conditions such as changes in the supply, the need

求变化、意外事件和故障、缓变事件(rampingevent)等。 Seeking change, accidents and failures, graded events (rampingevent) and so on. 这些电网状况通常表现为诸如欠压或过压事件以及频率过低或频率过高(over-frequency)事件之类的电力质量事件。 These grid condition manifests itself as undervoltage or overvoltage event and power quality events of low frequency or high frequency (over-frequency) or the like of the event.

本文所使用的"电力质量事件"通常指的是电网不稳定性的表现,包括电压偏差和频率偏差;此外,本文所使用的电力质量事件还包括诸如子循环电压尖峰和谐波之类的电网传输的电力质量中的其它扰动。 As used herein, "power quality event" generally refers to the performance of grid instability, including voltage deviation and frequency deviation; Furthermore, the power quality event as used herein, further includes a grid, such as a sub-cycle voltage spikes and harmonics or the like other power quality disturbances in the transmission.

本文所使用的"电资源"通常指的可被命令执行以下三类事情中的部分或全部的电实体:取电(担当负荷)、供电(担当发电或电源)、以及储能。 "Power resources" as used herein refers generally to command execution section may be the following three things or all of the electrical entities: take power (acting load), power (or supply power to play), and an energy storage. 示例可包括用于电动或混合动力汽车的电池/充电器/逆变器系统、旧的但仍可使用的电动汽车电池的储藏库、固定储能、燃料电池发电机、应急发电机、可控负荷等。 Examples may include an electric or a hybrid vehicle battery / charger / inverter system, electric vehicle batteries but still using the old reservoir, stationary energy storage, fuel cell generator, emergency generator, controllable loads.

本文所使用的"电动汽车"泛指纯电动汽车和诸如充电式混合动力电动汽车(PHEV)之类的混合动力电动汽车,尤其是那些具有相当大的电池存储容量而且连接至电网以对电池再充电的电动汽车。 As used herein, "electric vehicle" refers to pure electric automobiles such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and the like, particularly those having a relatively large storage capacity of the battery and a battery connected to the grid again to charging electric vehicles. 更具体地,电动汽车指的是从电网获得其能源的部分或全部以供行驶和其它目的的汽车。 More specifically, the electric vehicle refers to a part or all of automobiles and for other purposes with which the energy obtained from the grid. 而且, 电动汽车具有由电池、电容器等或它们的某些组合构成的储能系统。 Further, like an electric vehicle having a battery, a capacitor or some combination thereof constituting the energy storage system. 电动汽车可以具有或可以不具有向电网返回电力的能力。 Electric cars may or may not have the ability to return power to the grid.

本文所使用的电动汽车"储能系统"(电池、超级电容器、和/或其它储能装置)是作为间歇地或永久地连接至可具有动态输入和输出功率的电网的电资源的代表性示例。 As used herein, an electric vehicle "energy storage system" (batteries, super capacitors and / or other storage device) as intermittently or permanently connected to electric resource may have a representative example of dynamic input power and output power . 这些电池可以起到电源或电力负荷的作用。 These cells can serve as power supply or power load. 尽管有可认识到的定时涨落的连接倾向(例如在晚上连接至电网的汽车总数量增加;当早晨上班开始时连接的电池总数量的下降等),聚集的电动汽车电池的集合仍可以成为横跨多个电池的统计上稳定的资源。 Although there may be a tendency to recognize the connection timing fluctuations (for example to increase the number of cars in at night and the grid; the total number of cells fall in the morning to go to work when the start of connection), gather a collection of electric vehicle batteries can still become statistically stable across multiple battery resources. 横跨大量电动汽车电池的连接倾向是可预测的,而且当电网或电网的一部分(诸如某人家中停电)需要提高或降低电力时,这些电池变成稳定和可靠的可访问的资源。 Connected across a large number of electric vehicle batteries tend to be predictable, and when the grid or part of the grid (such as a power outage someone's home) need to increase or decrease the power of these cells into a stable and reliable resource accessible. 数据收集和存储也使电力聚集系统能基于每个用户预测连接行为。 Data collection and aggregation of the power storage system can also predict the behavior on a per-user connection. 示例性系统 Exemplary System

图1示出示例性电力聚集系统100。 FIG 1 illustrates an exemplary power aggregation system 100. 流控制中心102与诸如包括互联网104的公共/私有混合体之类的网络通信地耦合,而且包括提供中央电力 Such as a flow control center 102 comprises the Internet network 104 is communicatively coupled public / private hybrid and the like, but also providing a central power

聚集服务的一个或多个服务器106。 Aggregation service of one or more servers 106. 将在本文中使用"互联网"104作为许多不同类型的通信网络和网络混合体的代表。 The use of "the Internet" 104 as a communication network and a network of many representatives of a mixture of different types herein. 通过诸如互联网104之类的网络,流控制中心102保持与电网运营商的通信108,以及与远程资源的通信110,即与连接至电网114的外围电资源112 ("电网的"末端"或"终端"节点/设备")的通信。 102 maintained by the network, the flow control center such as the Internet 104 or the like with the grid operator's communications 108, and the communication 110 remote resources, i.e., 112 (end connected to the peripheral electric resource grid 114 of the "grid" "or" terminal communication "nodes / devices") of the. 在一个实现中,诸如那些包括输电线上的以太网网桥120 或由其组成的输电线通信装置之类的输电线通信装置(PLC)在连接位置处实现,以使与远程资源的互联网通信的"最后一英里"(在此情况下为例如住宅124中的最后一英尺)通过将各个电资源112连接至电网114的同一电线来实现。 , An Ethernet bridge such as those on the transmission line comprises 120 or implemented at the connection position by power line communication apparatus or the like power line communication apparatus (PLC) composed in one implementation, so that a communication with a remote Internet resources, the "last mile" (in this case, for example, the last one foot residence 124) connected to the wire grid 114 by the same respective electric resource 112 to achieve. 因此,可使各个电资源112的各个物理位置与电资源112 的同一位置处或附近的相应输电线上的以太网网桥120相关联。 Thus, the Ethernet bridge can respective physical radio resources in the same position or at positions corresponding to the respective electrical power lines near the resources 112 associated 112 120. 如以下将更详细说明地,各个网桥120通常连接至位置所有者的互联网接入点。 As will be described in detail, each of the bridge 120 is typically connected to the Internet access point location owner. 从流控制中心102到诸如住宅124之类的连接位置的通信介质可采取诸如电缆调制解调器、DSL、卫星、光纤、WiMax等之类的多种形式。 From the position 102 to the communication medium, such as a house connection 124 may take various forms such as a cable modem, DSL, satellite, optical fiber, WiMax and the like flow control center. 在一个变体中,电资源112可通过除将它们连接至电网114的同一输电线之外的不同介质与互联网连接。 In one variant, the resource 112 by electrically connecting them in addition to the same power transmission line 114 other than the different media connected to the Internet. 例如,给定的电资源112自身可具有无线能力,以直接与互联网104连接从而与流控制中心102连接。 For example, a given electric resource 112 itself may have a wireless capability to connect directly to the Internet 104 to be connected to the flow control center 102.

示例性电力聚集系统100的电资源112可包括:在住宅124、停车场126等处连接至电网114的电动汽车电池;容器128中的电池、燃料电池发电机、私有坝、常规发电厂、以及物理地或电学地发电和/或储电的其它资源。 Exemplary electric power accumulation system 100 of the resource 112 may comprise: a battery connected to the electric car 114 in residential grid 124, 126, etc. parking; battery container 128, the fuel cell generator, a private dam, a conventional power plant, and other resources physically or electrically power and / or electricity storage.

在一个实现中,参与的各个电资源112或各组本地资源具有相应的远程智能功率流(IPF)模块134 (下文称为"远程IPF模块"134)。 In one implementation, each participating electric resource or groups of local resources 112 have respective remote intelligent power flow (IPF) module 134 (hereinafter referred to as "remote IPF module" 134). 中央流控制中心102通过与在电资源112之中外围分布的远程IPF模块134通信来管理电力聚集系统IOO。 Central flow control center 102 via the communication peripheral distribution among electrically remote resource 112 and to IPF module 134 managing power aggregation system IOO. 远程IPF模块134执行若干不同功能,包括:向流控制中心102提供远程资源的状态;控制被传入或传出远程电资源112的功率的量、方向以及定时;计量传入或传出远程电资源112的功率;在功率传递和电网114的状况改变期间提供安全手段;记录各种行为;以及当与流控制中心102的通信中断时提供完备的功率传递控制和安全手段。 Remote IPF module 134 performs several different functions, comprising: providing a remote resource status of the flow control center 102; control power is incoming or outgoing remote resource 112 electrically amount, direction, and timing; incoming or outgoing remote electrical metering 112 of power resources; and power transfer conditions in the grid 114 to provide a secure means of changing the period; recording various actions; and providing complete safety and power transfer control means when an interrupt flow communication with the control center 102. 将在下文中更详细地描述远程IPF模块134。 Remote IPF module 134 will be described in more detail below.

图2示出到电资源112的示例性电气和通信连接的另一视图。 Figure 2 shows another view of the exemplary electrical power and communication connections 112 resources. 在此示例中,电动汽车200包括蓄电池组202和示例性远程IPF模块134。 In this example, the electric vehicle 200 includes a battery pack 202 and an exemplary remote IPF module 134. 电动汽车200可连接至住宅124的常规的墙上插座(墙上输出口) 204,该墙上插座204代表电网114通过住宅输电线206连接的围缘(peripheral edge)。 Conventional electric vehicles wall 200 may be connected to outlet 124 house (wall outlet) 204, the wall outlet 204 represents a peripheral edge (peripheral edge) residential power grid 114 via power line 206 is connected.

在一个实现中,电动汽车200与墙上插座204之间的电线208可仅由常规的电线和绝缘体组成,用于往返电动汽车200传导交变电流(AC)功率。 In one implementation, the electric vehicle 200 and the wall plug between wires 204,208 may consist only of a conventional electrical insulators and composition, and from an electric vehicle 200 for conducting alternating current (AC) power. 在图2中,位置专用的连接位置模块210执行网络接入点——在此情况下为互联网接入点——的功能。 In FIG. 2, the position location module 210 connected to a dedicated access point performs the network - in this case for the Internet access point - function. 网桥120介入插座204与网络接入点之间,以使电线208也能在电动汽车200与插座204之间传送网络通信。 Interventional bridge 120 between outlet 204 and a network access point, so that the wire 208 can be an electric vehicle network 200 to communicate with the socket 204 between the transmission. 利用在连接位置处就位的这种网桥120和连接位置模块210,除提供常规电压的住宅线路电流的常规电线208之外,不再需要其它特别的接线或物理介质来与电动汽车200的远程IPF模块134通信。 Using at the connection position of bridge 120 and place this location module 210 is connected, in addition to providing conventional residential voltage of a conventional wire line current 208, is no longer required special wiring or other physical medium with electric vehicle 200 remote communication module IPF 134. 在连接位置模块210上游, 电动汽车200的电力和通信分别被分离到输电线206和互联网电缆104中。 Connected upstream location module 210, electric vehicle 200 power and communication to the power line 206 are separated from the cable 104 and the Internet.

替代地,电线208可包括常规输电线和延长线中没有的安全部件。 Alternatively, the wire 208 may include a security member is not a conventional power lines and extension lines. 例如,电线208的电插头212可包括电的和/或机械的防护组件,其用来防止当电线208的插入式导体暴露给用户时远程IPF模块134使阳极导体带电或暴露。 For example, the wire 212 of an electrical plug 208 may include electrical and / or mechanical protection element, which is used to prevent the remote IPF module 134 when the charging of the anode conductor wire 208 is inserted into the conductor exposed or exposed to the user.

图3更详细地示出图2的连接位置模块210的另一实现。 FIG 3 illustrates in more detail another implementation, the connection position of the module 210 of FIG. 2. 在图3中, 电资源112具有相关联的远程IPF模块134,包括网桥120。 In Figure 3, the resource 112 has associated electrical remote IPF module 134, 120 comprises a bridge. 电线208将电资源112连接至电网114,而且还连接至连接位置模块210以与流控制服务器106通信。 The wire 208 is electrically connected to the grid resource 112 114, but also to the connection location module 210 to communicate with the flow control server 106.

连接位置模块210包括连接至可包括诸如路由器、交换机和/或调制解调器之类的网络接入点302以与互联网104 (在此情况下)建立硬接线或无线连接的网桥120'的另一实例。 It comprises a connector coupled to the location module 210 may include the Internet 302 to 104 (in this case) to establish a bridge hardwired or wireless connection to another example such as routers, switches, and / or a modem network access point 120 ' . 在一个实现中,两个网桥120和120'之间的电线208被诸如远程IPF模块134中的无线收发器和连接位置模块210中的无线路由器之类的无线互联网连接代替。 In one implementation, the two bridges between the wires 120 and 120 'is connected to 208 instead of the wireless Internet module 134 such as a remote IPF wireless transceiver module 210 and the connection position of a wireless router or the like.

示例性系统布局 Exemplary System Layout

图4示出电力聚集系统100的示例性布局400。 FIG 4 illustrates an exemplary layout 400 of a power aggregation system 100. 流控制中心102可通过例如互联网104连接至多个不同的实体以供传达和接收信息。 Flow control center 102 can communicate and receive information such as the Internet 104 is connected to a plurality of different entities for. 示例性布局400包括诸如充电式电动汽车200之类的物理连接至单个控制区402内的电网的电资源112。 Exemplary physical layout 400 includes a connector 200 rechargeable electric vehicle such as a single control zone 402 to the electrical grid 112 resources. 电资源112成为电网运营商404可利用的能量资源。 Electric resource 112 to become energy grid operator 404 resources available.

示例性布局400还包括被分类成电资源所有者408和电连接位置所有者410 (它们可以是或可以不是同一个用户)的终端用户406。 Exemplary layout 400 further includes electrically resource owners are classified into 408 and 410 are electrically connected location owner (which may or may not be the same user) end user 406. 实际上,示例性电力聚集系统100中的利益相关者包括流控制中心102处的系统操作员、电网运营商404、资源所有者408、以及电资源112连接至电网114的位置410的所有者。 Indeed, the exemplary power aggregation system 100 stakeholders include flow control center 102 of the system operator, the grid operator 404, the resource owner 408, and is electrically connected to the position of grid resources 112 114 410 owner.

电连接位置所有者410可包括: Electrical connecting position owner 410 may comprise:

-出租车停车场—出租车公司通常将它们的车队的大部分停在该停车 - Taxi parking - taxi companies are usually parked most of their fleet in the parking

场中。 Field. 它们可购买电动汽车200的车队并参加电力聚集系统100,从空闲的车队汽车获得收入。 They can be purchased fleet of 200 electric vehicles and participate in the power aggregation system 100, revenue from idle fleet vehicles.

,公共停车场—停车位所有者可参与电力聚集系统100,以从停放的电动汽车200获得收入。 Public parking - parking owners can participate in the power aggregation system 100 to 200 from the electric car parked revenue. 可向所有者提供免费泊车或附加激励来交换提供供电业务。 It offers free parking or additional incentives to the owners in exchange for providing power supply services.

*工作位置泊车——雇主可参与电力聚集系统100,以从停泊的雇员的电动汽车200获得收入。 * Work position Parking - Employers can participate in the power aggregation system 100, in order to obtain revenue from parked electric car 200 employees. 可向雇员提供激励以交换提供供电业务。 Provide incentives to employees to provide switching power supply business.

*住宅——仅需为家庭车库配备连接位置模块210,即可使业主能参与电力聚集系统IOO并从停泊的汽车获得收入。 * Residential - only location module 210 is connected with the family garage, so that the owners can gather to participate in the power system IOO and revenue from parked cars. 而且,汽车内的汽车电池202和相关联的供电电器可在峰值负荷或停电期间提供本地备用电力。 Further, in the automobile car battery and associated power supply 202 may provide a local electrical power during peak load standby or power outage.

*住宅邻居——邻居可参与电力聚集系统IOO并配备可从停泊的电动汽车200获得收入的电力输送装置(例如由屋主合作组部署)。 * Residential neighbors - neighbors may gather to participate in the power system can be equipped with IOO and revenue from parked electric vehicle power transmission device 200 (eg deployed by the owners cooperative group).

*图4的电网操作116总体包括与能源市场412的交互、电网运营商404的交互、以及执行电网114的自动物理控制的自动电网控制器118的交互。 FIG * 4 grid operator 116 generally includes an interaction with the energy market 412, 404 of the grid operator interaction, and the interaction controller automatically perform automatic power control of a physical grid 114 118. 流控制中心102还可与用于输入天气预报、事件、价格供给(price feed)等的信息源414连接。 Flow control center 102 can also be used to input the weather forecast, event, the supply price (price feed) such as the information source 414 is connected. 其它数据源414包括可用来优化系统性能并满足对示例性电力聚集系统100的约束的系统利益相关者、公共数据库、以及历史系统数据。 Other data sources 414 include system performance and can be used to optimize the system to meet the constraints of interest exemplary power aggregation system 100 is associated, public databases, systems and historical data.

因此,示例性电力聚集系统100可由多个组件构成,其:-与电资源112通信以采集数据并促使电资源112充电/放电。 Thus, 100 may be a plurality of components of an exemplary power aggregation system configuration, which: - the communication circuit 112 to collect resource data resources 112 and cause an electrical charging / discharging. •采集实时能源价格;•采集实时资源统计数据; • collect real-time energy prices; • collect real-time resource statistics;

•预测电资源112的行为(连通性、位置、连接/断开时的状态(诸如电池充电状态)); (The state (such as a battery state of charge) at the time of communication, location, connection / disconnection) • prediction of the electrical behavior of a resource 112;

•预测电网114/负荷的行为; • Predictive power 114 / load behavior;

*为了隐私和数据安全而对通信加密; * For privacy and data security of the encrypted communication;

*促使电动汽车200的充电以优化某些品质因数; * 200 led the charge electric vehicles in order to optimize some of merit;

,为未来的多个时间点提供有关负荷可用性的指南或保证等。 , Provide guidance or load availability assurance for future multiple time points.

这些组件可在单个计算资源(计算机等)或在分布式的一组资源(物理上共处一地或者不共处一地)上运行。 These components may be computing resources (computer, etc.) run on a single or a set of distributed resources (physically co-located or non co-located).

处于这样的布局400的示例性IPF系统100可提供许多好处:例如,低成本的附加服务(即供电业务)、对资源调度的细粒度(既在时间上又在空间上)控制、有保证的可靠性和服务水平、通过智能资源调度提高的服务水平、使诸如风能和太阳能发电之类的间歇发电资源的稳定。 In such a layout of an exemplary system 400 IPF 100 may provide many advantages: for example, the additional cost of the service (i.e. service power), fine-grained scheduling resources (both in space and in time) control, guaranteed reliability and service levels, improve the level of service through intelligent resource scheduling, to stabilize the intermittent generation resources such as wind and solar power and the like.

示例性电力聚集系统100使电网运营商404能控制连接至电网114的聚集的电资源112。 An exemplary system 100 enables aggregation power grid operator to control 404 is electrically connected to the aggregated resource grid 114 112. 电资源112可作为电资源、负荷、或存储,而且资源112可呈现出这些性质的组合。 Resource 112 may be used as electrical power resources, load, or storage, and resource 112 may exhibit a combination of these properties. 对电资源112的控制是促使来自这些资源U2的聚集体耗能、发电、储能的能力。 Control of the electric resource 112 is to promote aggregates these resources from U2's energy, power generation, energy storage capacity.

图5示出示例性电力聚集系统100中多个控制区域402的角色。 FIG. 5 shows the role of the plurality of control regions 100 of exemplary system 402 of the power aggregate. 各个电资源112可连接至特定电控制区内的电聚集系统100。 Each resource 112 may be electrically connected to a specific electrical control system 100 isoelectric focusing zone. 流控制中心102的单个实例可管理来自多个不同控制区501 (例如控制区502、 504、以及506)的电资源112。 Flow control center 102 may manage a single instance of power resources from a plurality of different control regions 501 (e.g., the control region 502, 504, and 506) of 112. 在一个实现中,此功能通过对电力聚集系统100内的资源进行逻辑上的分区来实现。 In one implementation, this functionality is achieved by partitioning the logic resources within the power aggregation system 100. 例如,当控制区402包括任意数量的控制区——控制区"A"502、控制区"B"504、......控制区"n"506时,电网运营商 For example, when the control region 402 includes any number of control zones - control area "A" 502, a control zone "B" 504, ...... control region "n" 506, the grid operator

116可包括相应的控制区运营商508、 510、......以及512。 116 may include a respective operator control region 508, 510, and 512 ....... 进一步划分成包 Further divided into packets

括所示控制区402之上和之下的控制划分分组的控制分层结构使得电力聚集系统IOO可縮放至不同量级的电网114和/或与电网U4连接的变化数量的电资源112。 Hierarchy division control 402 controls packet control region above and below that shown comprises a power aggregation system may be scaled to different IOO order of the grid 114 and / or the amount of change in the electrical connection to the grid resources 112 U4.

图6示出使用多个中央流控制中心102和102'的示例性电力聚集系统100的示例性布局600。 Figure 6 illustrates the use of a plurality of the central flow control center 102 and 102 'of an exemplary power aggregation system 100 of the exemplary layout 600. 各个流控制中心102和102'具有它们自己相应的终端用户406和406'。 Various flow control center 102 and 102 'have their own respective end users 406 and 406'. 可动态地分配要由流控制中心102的各个特定实例管理的控制区402。 It may be dynamically allocated to the control region of each specific instance of the management center 102 of the flow control 402. 例如,第一流控制中心102可管理控制区A 502和控制区B 504,而第二流控制中心102'管理控制区n 506。 For example, the first flow control center 102 can control the management area A 502 and the control zone B 504, and 102 'region of the second flow control management control center n 506. 类似地,相应的控制区运营商(508、 510以及512)由服务它们相应的不同控制区的同一流控制中心102服务。 Similarly, the corresponding control area operators (508, 510 and 512) 102 served by a serving their respective different control areas with the control center class.

示例性的流控制服务器 Exemplary flow control server

图7示出流控制中心102的示例性服务器106。 FIG 7 illustrates an exemplary flow control center 102 server 106. 图7中所示的实现仅是作为说明目的的一种示例配置。 Implementation shown in FIG. 7 as described is merely one example configuration purposes. 在本发明的范围内可能存在构成流控制中心102的示例性服务器106的所示组件甚至不同组件的许多其它安排。 There may be many other arrangements comprising the flow control center 102 shown in the exemplary server component 106 or even different components within the scope of the present invention. 可用硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件的组合来执行这样的示例性服务器106和流控制中心102。 It is implemented in hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware combinations to perform such an exemplary server 106 and a flow control center 102.

示例性的流控制服务器106包括用来与电资源112通信的连接管理器702、可包括学习引擎706和统计引擎708的预测引擎704、约束优化器710 以及用来接收电网控制信号714的电网交互管理器712。 Exemplary flow control server 106 includes a communication circuit for connecting the resource manager 112 and 702, 704 may comprise, constrained optimization grid 710 and an interactive learning engine 706 and the prediction engine statistics engine 708 for receiving the power control signal 714 Manager 712. 电网控制信号714 可包括诸如自动化控制发电控制(AGC)信号之类的发电控制信号。 Power supply control signal 714 may include a control such as automatic generation control signal generation control signal or the like (AGC). 流控制服务器106还可包括:数据库/信息仓库716;向电资源所有者408、电网运营商404以及电连接位置所有者410呈现用户界面的web服务器718; 用来与能源市场412协商合约条款的合约管理器720;以及信息采集引擎414,用来跟踪天气、相关新闻事件等,并从公共和私有数据库722下载信息以供预测多组电资源112的行为、监控能源价格、协商合约等。 Flow control server 106 may also include: Database / Information Warehouse 716; 408 to the electric resource owners, network operators and electrical connection location owners 404 410 presents a user interface of the web server 718; 412 consultations for the energy market contract terms contract manager 720; and information collection engine 414, used to track weather, news events, and download information from 722 public and private databases to predict behavior for more than 112 groups of electrical resources, monitoring, energy prices, negotiated contracts.

13示例性流控制服务器的操作 Operation 13 is an exemplary flow control server

连接管理器702维护与连接至电力聚集系统100的各个电资源112的通信信道。 The connection manager 702 maintains the connection to the respective electrical power aggregation system 100 resources to a communication channel 112. g卩,连接管理器702允许各个电资源112登录并例如利用网际协议(IP)(如果该网络是互联网104的话)通信。 g Jie, the connection manager 702 enables the individual login and resource 112, for example, using Internet protocol (the IP) (if the network is the Internet 104 words) communication. 换言之,电资源112回调(call home)。 In other words, electric resource 112 callback (call home). 即,在一个实现中,它们总是启动与服务器106的连接。 That is, in one implementation, they are always connected to the server 106 to start. 这个方面使示例性IPF模块134绕过防火墙、IP寻址、可靠性等问题工作。 This aspect makes the exemplary IPF module 134 to bypass the firewall, IP addressing problem, reliability and so on.

例如,当诸如电动汽车200之类的电资源112在家庭124处充电时,IPF模块134可通过输电线连接来连接至家庭的路由器。 For example, when the power resources such as an electric vehicle 200 or the like in the home charge 112 124, of IPF module 134 may be connected to a home power line is connected via a router. 该路由器将给汽车200分配地址(DHCP),而汽车200可连接至服务器106 (从这个方向不需要防火墙中的漏洞)。 The router 200 assigns cars will address (DHCP), and the car 200 may be connected to the server 106 (no firewall vulnerability in this direction).

如果连接出于任何原因被终止(包括服务器实例终止),则IPF模块134知道再次回调并连接至下一可用服务器资源。 If the connection is terminated for any reason (including the server instance is terminated), the IPF know callback module 134 and is connected again to the next available server resources.

电网交互管理器712接收并解释来自电网运营商404的自动化电网控制区118的接口的信号。 Grid interaction manager 712 receives and interprets automatic power control region 404 from the grid operator interface 118 signals. 在一个实现中,电网交互管理器712还产生要发送至自动化电网控制器118的信号。 In one implementation, the grid manager 712 also generates interactive automatic signal power to be transmitted to the controller 118. 要发送的信号的范围取决于电网运营商404与示例性电力聚集系统100之间的协议或合约。 Range of the signal to be transmitted depends on the grid operator 404 and an exemplary power aggregation system 100 agreements or contracts between. 在一种情形下,电网交互管理器712发送有关从电网114接收功率或向电网114供电的聚集电资源112的可用性的信息。 In one case, the grid interaction manager 712 transmits information about the availability of the received power from the grid 114 or 114 collect the electric power grid resources 112. 在另一变体中,合约可允许电网交互管理器712对自动化电网控制器118发送控制信号,以控制电网114受制于自动化电网控制器118的内置约束,且受制于合约所允许的控制范围。 In another variant, the grid may be allowed to interact contract manager sends a control signal 712 automated power controller 118 to control grid 114 is subject to constraints built automatic power controller 118, and subject to the control of the contracts allowed.

数据库716可存储与电力聚集系统100相关的所有数据,包括例如电动汽车200的电资源日志、电连接信息、每辆汽车的能源计量数据、资源 Database 716 may store 100 all data associated power aggregation system, including electric cars such as electric logging resources, electrical connection information 200, each car energy metering data, resources

所有者偏好、账户信息等。 Owner preferences, and other account information.

如上所述,web服务器718向系统利益相关者提供用户界面。 As mentioned above, web server 718 provides the user interface to the system stakeholders. 这样的用户界面主要担当用于向用户传递信息的机构,但在某些情况下,用户界面用来从用户处采集诸如偏好之类的数据。 Such a user interface mechanism for communicating information primarily served to a user, but in some cases, the user interface is used to collect data such as preference or the like from the user. 在一个实现中,web服务器718还能启动与参与的电资源所有者408的联系,以广告交换电力的要约。 In one implementation, web server 718 can initiate contact with the participation of 408 electric resource owners to offer the power of advertising exchange.

竞标/合约管理器720与电网运营商404以及他们相关联的能源市场412交互以确定系统可用性、定价、服务水平等。 Bid / Contract Manager 720 and 404 grid operators and their associated energy market 412 interact to determine system availability, pricing, service level and so on.

如上所述,信息采集引擎414与公共和私有数据库722通信以采集与电力聚集系统100的操作有关的数据。 As described above, to acquire 414 data acquisition engine 722 communicate with the public and private databases relating to the operation of the power aggregation system 100.

预测引擎704可使用来自数据仓库716的数据以作出有关电资源行为的预测,诸如电资源112何时将连接和断开、全局电资源可用性、系统电负荷、实时能源价格等。 Prediction engine 704 may use data from the data repository 716 to make predictions about the behavior of electrical resources, such as resource 112 when the electrical connection and disconnection, electric global resource availability, system electrical load, real-time energy prices. 这些预测使电力聚集系统100能更完整地利用连接至电网114的电资源112。 The prediction of the power aggregation system 100 can be more fully utilize the resources connected to the electrical grid 114 112. 例如,通过学习大量电资源112的样本或典型的行为,学习引擎706可追踪、记录以及处理实际的电资源行为。 For example, by learning a lot of power resources of 112 samples or typical behavior, learning engine 706 can track, record and handle the actual behavior of power resources. 统计引擎708可将多种可能的概率统计技术运用于资源行为以标记其趋势和作出预测。 Statistics engine 708 can be a variety of possible statistical probability technical resources used to mark their behavior trends and make predictions.

在一个实现中,预测引擎704通过协同过滤执行预测。 In one implementation, the prediction engine 704 performs prediction by collaborative filtering. 预测引擎704 还可执行每个用户的一个或多个参数的预测,包括例如连接时间、连接时长、连接时的充电状态以及连接位置。 Predictive engine 704 may also perform a prediction for each user or more parameters including, for example connection time, connection duration, the state of charge and the connection position of the connection. 为执行每个用户的预测,预测引擎704可利用诸如历史数据、连接时间(周几、 一个月的第几周、 一年的第几个月、假日等)、连接时的充电状态、连接位置等。 To predict the execution of each user, the prediction engine 704 can be used, such as historical data, connection time (a few weeks, the first few weeks of the month, the first few months of the year, holidays, etc.), the charge state of the connection, the connection location Wait. 在一个实现中,可通过递归神经网络、动态贝叶斯(Bayesian)网络、或其它定向图形模型计算时间系列预测。 In one implementation, the dynamic Bayesian (the Bayesian) network, a directed graph, or other time-series prediction model is calculated by the recurrent neural network.

在一种情形下,对于从电网114断开的一个用户,预测引擎704可预测下次连接的时间、连接时间时的充电状态、连接的位置(而且可赋予其概率/可能性)。 In one case, for a user to disconnect from the grid 114, the prediction engine 704 may predict the next connection time, connection time when the state of charge, the position of connection (and can impart the probability / likelihood). 一旦资源112连接,则连接时间、连接时的充电状态以及连接位置成为对连接时长预测的求精的进一步输入。 Once the resource connection 112, the connection time, the state of charge and the connection position when connected as a further input connection for the duration prediction refinement. 这些预测有助于引导整个系统可用性的预测,以及确定用于资源分配的更准确的成本函数。 These projections help guide the overall system availability prediction, and determine a more accurate cost function for resource allocation.

为每一个独特的用户建立参数化的预测模型不是总在时间或空间上可縮放。 Prediction model parameterized for each unique user is not always on time or spatial scalable. 因此,在一个实现中,不对系统100中的每个用户分别使用一个模型,而是预测引擎704建立縮减的一组模型,在该縮减模型组中的每个模型用来预测许多用户的行为。 Thus, in one implementation, each user 100 is not a model system were used, but the prediction engine 704 to establish a reduced set of models, each model in the reduced model is used to predict a number of group users behavior. 为了确定如何将类似用户归组以便模型的建立和分配,系统IOO可标识各个用户的特征,诸如每天的独特连接/断开的次数、典型的连接时间、平均连接时长、连接时间的平均充电状态等,且可在全特征空间或在通过诸如主成份分析、随机预测等之类的维度縮减算法计算的某些縮减特征空间中建立用户群。 To determine how to create and assign similar users grouped to model the system IOO may identify various characteristics of a user, such as the number of unique connection per day / OFF, typical connection time, the average connection length, the average state of charge of the connection time and the like, and may reduce the build up customers certain feature space reduction algorithm in the full dimension of the feature space, such as principal component analysis or, in the random prediction or the like. 一旦预测引擎704将用户分配到一个群,则来自该群所有用户的全部数据被用来创建将用于对该群中的各个用户的预测的预测模型。 Once the prediction engine 704 to assign a user group, the group of all the data from all users are used to create a predictive model for each user in the group predicted. 在一个实现中,群分配程序是变化的,以优化系统100的速度(较少群)、精度(较多群)或这两者的某种组合。 In one implementation, the group assignment procedure is varied to optimize the speed of the system 100 (small groups), precision (major cluster), or some combination of both.

此示例性群集技术具有多种好处。 This exemplary clustering technique has many benefits. 首先,它能实现縮减的模型组,从而实现縮减的模型参数,这将减少作预测的计算时间。 First of all, it can achieve the model group reduced to achieve reduction of model parameters, which will reduce the computation time for the prediction. 它还縮减了模型参 It also reduced the model parameters

数的存储空间。 The number of storage space. 其次,通过识别系统100的新用户的特点(或特征),可 Secondly, the new user identification system 100 features (or characteristics), may be

将这些新用户分配给特点相似的现有用户群,而且根据现有用户的广泛数据建立的群集模型可更迅速地作出有关新用户的更准确预测,因为它利用 Assign users to these new features similar to the existing user base, and can more quickly make more accurate predictions about the new user in accordance with existing user data cluster model widely established, because it uses

了相似用户的历史性能。 The historical performance of similar users. 当然,随着时间的流逝,各个用户会改变他们的行为,因而可被分配到更符合他们行为的新群集。 Of course, over time, each user can change their behavior, which can be assigned to the new cluster is more in line with their behavior.

约束优化器710组合来自预测引擎704、数据仓库716以及合约管理器720的信息以产生满足系统约束的资源控制信号。 Constrained Optimization composition 710 from the prediction engine 704, the data warehouse 716, and contract information manager 720 to generate a control signal fulfills system resource constraints. 例如,约束优化器710 可信令电动汽车200以特定充电速率对其蓄电池组202充电、并稍后使蓄电池组202放电以供按特定上传速率向电网114上传电力:电力传递速率和定时调度被优化以符合特定电动汽车200的被追踪的单独连接和断开行为,并且还被优化以符合电网114的日常电力供给和需求"呼吸周期"。 For example, constrained optimization 710 may signal an electric vehicle 200 at its particular charge rate of battery 202 charge and discharge the battery set 202 for later upload power to the grid 114 by a specific upload rate: the power transfer rate and timing are scheduled be optimized to meet the individual connection and disconnection actions are tracked specific electric vehicle 200, and also be optimized to meet the needs of daily power supply grid 114 and "breathing cycle."

在一个实现中,约束优化器710在由连接管理器702担当中介将电网控制信号714或信息源414转换成汽车控制信号中扮演重要角色。 In one implementation, constrained optimization 710 in play by the connection manager 702 intermediaries will supply control signal 714 or 414 is converted to automobile sources of information play an important role in the control signal. 将来自电网运营商404或信息源414的电网控制信号714映射成发送至系统100 中各个独特电资源112的控制信号是特定约束优化问题的示例。 The power grid operator control signal from the information source 404, or 414 to 714 mapped to the transmission system 100 in each of the unique electrical control signals 112 are examples of specific resource constrained optimization problem.

各个资源112具有相关联的软或硬约束。 Each resource 112 having a soft or hard constraints associated. 资源约束的示例可包括:所有者的价格敏感性、汽车充电状态(例如如果汽车200完全充电,则它不能参与对电网114加负载)、直到资源112从系统100断开的预测时间量、 用户对收入与充电状态关系的敏感性、资源114的电限制、资源所有者408 的手动充电超驰等。 Examples of resource constraints may include: price sensitivity owner, vehicle charging state (e.g., if the vehicle 200 is fully charged, it can not participate in the load applied to the grid 114), until the resource 112 is disconnected from the predicted amount of time the system 100, the user sensitivity to income and the charge state of the relationship, electricity resource constraints 114, 408 charging resource owners manual override and so on. 可使用对特定资源112的约束来分配激活资源的各个特定动作的成本。 You may be used to allocate the cost of the operation to activate each particular resource constraints of a particular resource 112. 例如,其存储系统202中几乎没有存储能量的资源的与充电操作相关联的成本低,但其发电操作成本极高。 For example, system 202 stores low cost associated with the charging operation is almost no stored energy resources, but its high power operating costs. 被预测可用十个小时的完全充电的资源112将比被预测将在15分钟内断开的完全充电的资源112的发电操作成本更低,这表示将未完全充电的资源传递给所有者的负面后果。 It predicted ten hours to fully charge the available resources 112 lower than the predicted power of the disconnected operating costs fully charged within 15 minutes resource 112, which represents the transfer resources will not fully charged to the owner of the negative as a result of.

以下是将包括系统操作级(例如一10兆瓦到+10兆瓦,其中+代表负荷, 一代表发电)的发电信号714转换成汽车控制信号。 The following is a power generation system comprising signal level of operation (e.g., a +10 MW to 10 MW, wherein + represents a load, a representative of the power generation) 714 converts the control signal into a car. 值得注意的是, It is worth noting that,

因为系统100能计量各个资源112中的真实功率流,所以实际的系统操作 Because each of the real power flow metering system 112 can resource 100, the actual operation of the system

级一直是已知的。 Class has always been known.

在此示例中,假定初始系统操作级是o兆瓦,则没有资源是活动的(从 In this example, the operating system level is assumed that the initial o MW, no resources are active (from

电网取电或向电网传递电力),而且经协商的下一小时的聚集服务合约等 Power to take power or electricity delivered to the grid), and negotiated the next hour gathering service contracts, etc.

级是±5兆瓦。 Level is ± 5 MW.

在此实现中,示例性电力聚集系统IOO维护三个列表的可用资源112。 In this implementation, the exemplary power aggregation system IOO maintains three lists 112 of available resources. 第一列表包括可按照优先顺序被激活以供充电的资源112 (负荷)。 Comprises a first list of resources may be activated for charging in accordance with the priority order 112 (load). 存在按优先级排序以供放电(发电)的第二列表的资源112。 There is a second priority order list for discharging (power generation) of the resource 112. 这些列表中的每个资源112 (例如,所有资源112在两个列表均可有位置)具有相关联的成本。 Each of these lists of resources 112 (e.g., all resources 112 may have two positions in the list) with associated costs. 列表的优先级顺序与成本直接相关(即列表从最低成本到最高成本排序)。 Priority order directly related to the cost of the list (ie the list from lowest cost to highest cost of ordering). 将成本值分配给各个资源112是重要的,因为它使得将获得类似结果的两个操作能相对于系统操作进行比较。 Assigning a cost value to each resource 112 is important because it allows to achieve a similar result with respect to both operating systems compare operation. 例如,向系统增加一个单位的充电(负荷、从电网取电)等价于去掉一个单位的发电。 For example, increasing a charging unit (load, take power from the grid) to the system is equivalent to a unit to remove power. 为执行增加或减少系统输出的任何操作,可能存在多个动作选择,而在一个实现中,系统100选择最低成本的操作。 To execute any operating system to increase or decrease the output, there may be a plurality of select operation, in one implementation, the operating system 100 selects the lowest cost. 第三列表的资源112包括具有硬约束的资源。 Resource 112 includes a third list of resource hard constraints. 例如,其所有者408已经超驰系统100来强制充电的资源将被置于第三列表的静态资源上。 For example, the owner has overridden 408 100 to force the charging system resources would be placed on a third list of static resources.

在时间"l"时,电网运营商请求的操作级改变至+ 2兆瓦。 At a time "l", the grid operator requested operation stage is changed to + 2 MW. 系统激活对来自该列表的第一"n"个资源充电,其中"n"是附加负荷被预测为等于2兆瓦的资源的数量。 The system activation of the first "n" from the list of resources charge, where "n" is an additional load is predicted to equal the number of resource 2 MW. 在资源被激活之后,监控激活的结果以确定该动作的实际结果。 After the resource is activated, the activation of the monitoring results to determine the actual result of the operation. 如果2兆瓦以上的负荷是活动的,则系统将按照相反的优先级顺序禁用充电以将系统操作保持在合约指定的公差范围内。 If more than 2 MW load is active, the system will be disabled in a reverse order of priority to a charging system operation is maintained within the specified tolerance contract.

从时间"1"直到时间"2",所请求的操作等级保持恒定为2兆瓦。 From the time "1" until time "2", the requested operation is to maintain a constant level of 2 MW. 然而, 某些电资源的行为不一定是静态的。 However, the behavior of certain power resources is not necessarily static. 例如,作为2兆瓦系统操作的一部分的某些汽车200会充满(充电状态=100%)或会从系统100断开。 For example, some of the automobile as part of the operation system 2 MW 200 will be full (= 100% state of charge) or 100 may be disconnected from the system. 其它汽车200可连接至系统100并要求立即充电。 Vehicle 200 may be connected to the system 100 and require immediate charging. 所有这些动作将引起电力聚集 All these actions will cause electricity aggregation

系统100的操作级的变化。 Change in the operating system level 100. 因此,系统100持续监控系统操作级并激活或停用资源112以将操作级保持在合约指定的公差范围内。 Thus, the operation to contract stage is maintained at the specified tolerance system 100 continually monitors the operating system level 112 and activate or deactivate resources.

在时间"2"时,电网运营商请求的操作级降至一l兆瓦。 At time "2", the grid operator requested operation down to a level l MW. 系统咨询可用资源列表并选择最低成本组资源以实现一l兆瓦的系统操作级。 Consulting the list of available system resources and choose the lowest-cost set of resources in order to achieve a level operating system l MW. 具体地,系统按顺序移动遍历优先级列表,从而比较启动充电与禁用充电的成本,并在每个时间步骤激活最低成本的资源。 Specifically, the system moves sequentially traversing the priority list, to compare the charging start and charging is disabled costs, resources and activates the lowest cost at each time step. 一旦操作级达到一l兆瓦,则系统100继续监控实际操作级,从而查找可能需要激活附加资源112的偏差,以将操作级保持在合约指定的公差范围内。 Once the operator reaches a level l MW, the system 100 continues to monitor the actual level of operation, so that additional resources need to be activated for possible deviation of 112, to operate within the contract stage holding the specified tolerance.

在一个实现中,示例性的成本计算机制得到有关实时电网发电混合体的信息的馈送以确定充电或发电(汽车200到电网114)对"碳覆盖区域(carbon footprint)"的边际影响,其中"碳覆盖区域"统指对燃料资源和环境的影响。 In one implementation, an exemplary cost of the computer system to obtain the feed information generating mixture about real power to determine the charging or power generation (car 200 to the grid 114) marginal effect on the "carbon coverage area (carbon footprint)", where " carbon coverage area "refers collectively to impact on fuel resources and the environment. 示例性系统100还允许优化任何成本度量或若干成本度量的加权组合。 The exemplary system 100 also allows the optimization of a cost metric or any weighted combination of several cost measure. 系统100可优化品质因数,其可包括例如最大化经济值和最小化环境影响的组合等。 The system 100 can optimize the quality factor, which may include a combination of maximum economic value and minimizing environmental impact, for example.

在一个实现中,系统100还使用成本作为时间变量。 In one implementation, the system 100 is also used as a time variable cost. 例如,如果系统100在即将到来的时间窗期间调度已放电的电池组来充电,则当它充电时系统100可预测其预测成本概况,从而允许系统100进一步自适应地优化。 For example, if the battery pack system 100 during the time window scheduled upcoming discharged is charged, the charging system 100 when it is predicted that a predictable cost profiles, allowing the system 100 further optimized adaptively. 即,在某些情形下,系统100知道它将在特定的未来时间获得高容量的发电资源。 That is, in some cases, the system knows it will get 100 high-capacity power generation resources in a specific future time.

流控制服务器106的多个组件构成具有以下多个功能和组件的调度系 A plurality of flow control assembly 106 configured Server-based scheduling a plurality of functions and has the following components

统: EC:

°数据收集(采集实时数据并存储历史数据); ° data collection (acquisition time data and historical data is stored);

°通过预测引擎704的预测,其输入实时数据、历史数据等并输出资源可用性预报; ° predicted by the prediction engine 704, the input real-time data, historical data, and outputs the forecasting availability of resources;

°基于资源可用性预报、诸如来自电网运营商404的命令信号之类的约束、用户偏好、天气状况等建立的优化。 ° established optimization constraints based on availability forecasting resources, such as from the grid operator's command signal 404 and the like, user preferences, weather conditions and so on. 该优化可采取优化期望度量的资源控制计划的形式。 The optimization measures can be taken to optimize the desired form of resource control plan.

调度功能可启用多个有用能源服务,包括: Scheduling function enables a number of useful energy services, including:

18°诸如快速响应服务和快速调节之类的辅助服务; 18 ° ancillary services such as fast response service and fast adjustment and the like;

°用来补偿突然的、可预测的、或意外的电网不平衡的能量; ° to compensate for sudden, predictable, or unexpected power grid imbalance;

°对常规和不稳定需求的响应; And in response to conventional unstable ° demand;

°稳定可再生能源(例如补充风力发电电力)。 ° stabilizing renewable energy sources (e.g. supplementary wind power).

示例性电力聚集系统100聚集并控制许多正在充电/上传的电动汽车200所呈现的负荷,以提供诸如调节和热备用之类的供电业务(附加能源服务)。 An exemplary power aggregation system 100 and the control load of aggregate are many charge / uploading electric vehicle 200 is presented to provide such regulation and such hot standby power service (service additional energy). 因此,有可能通过累加多个电资源112来满足电网运营商404的调用时间(call time)要求。 Therefore, it is possible by accumulating more than 112 electricity resources to meet the grid operator to call time 404 (call time) requirements. 例如,可分别禁用12个5kW的运行负载以提供一小时的60kW的热备用。 For example, the operation load can be disabled 5kW to 12 hours to provide a hot standby to 60kW. 然而,如果各个负载最多可被禁用30分钟,而且最小调用时间是两小时,则可将负载串联地(一次三个)禁用以提供两小时的15kW的备用。 However, if the respective loads can be disabled up to 30 minutes, and the minimum time of two hours call, you can load standby series (three at a time) is disabled to provide two hours of 15kW. 当然,由电力聚集系统100进行的各个电资源的更复杂交错是可能的。 Of course, more complicated cross each electric resources by the power aggregation system 100 is possible.

对需要最大化配电效率的电力公司(或电功率分配实体)而言,电力公司需要最小化无功功率流。 (Allocation entity or power) distribution of the need to maximize the efficiency of power companies, utility companies need to minimize the reactive power flow. 通常,存在用来最小化无功功率流的多种方法,包括将电感器或电容器组切换至配电系统以改变该系统的不同部分的功率因数。 Typically, there are various methods to minimize the reactive power flow, the switch comprising an inductor or a capacitor bank to change the power factor of the power distribution system to the different parts of the system. 为了有效地管理和控制此动态无功伏安(VAR)支持,它必须按照位置已知的方式进行。 In order to effectively manage and control this activity volt-ampere reactive (VAR) support, it must be according to the position in a known manner. 在一个实现中,电力聚集系统100包括与示例性远程IPF模块134 —起放置在电动汽车200中的功率因数校正电路,从而允许这样的服务。 In one implementation, the power aggregation system 100 includes an exemplary remote IPF module 134 - Power factor correction circuit from the electric vehicle 200 is placed in, thereby allowing such services. 具体地,电动汽车200可具有能与电动汽车200是否在充电、传递电力、或空闲无关地动态地连接至电网的电容器(或电感器)。 Specifically, the electric vehicle 200 may have energy electric vehicle 200 is charging, power transmission, or idle independently dynamically connected to the capacitor (or inductor) grid. 然后可将此服务出售给电力公司以便配电级的动态VAR支持。 This service can then be sold to the power company for distribution level dynamic VAR support. 电力聚集系统100既能感测对分布方式的VAR支持的需求,又能利用分布式的远程IPF 模块134采取提供VAR支持的动作而无需电网运营商404的介入。 100 VAR support both senses of the way the distribution of power gathering system requirements, but also to take advantage of distributed remote IPF module 134 provides VAR support to take action without the intervention of the grid operator 404.

示例性远程IPF模块 Exemplary remote IPF module

图8更详细地示出图1和2的远程IPF模块134。 Figure 8 shows in more detail a remote IPF module 134 of FIG. 1 and 2. 所示的远程IPF模块134仅是作为说明目的的一种示例配置。 Remote IPF module 134 shown merely by way of illustration is an exemplary configuration purposes. 在本发明的范围内可能存在构成示例性远程IPF模块134的所示组件甚至不同组件的许多其它安排。 There may be many other arrangements constituting an exemplary remote IPF module assembly 134 shown in different components even within the scope of the present invention. 这样的示例性远程IPF模块134具有某些硬件组件和能以硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件等的组合来执行的某些组件。 Such exemplary remote IPF module 134 with certain components and certain hardware components can be a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like to be executed.

远程IPF模块134的所示示例由适合电动汽车200的实现来代表。 Remote IPF module 134 illustrated example be achieved by a suitable representative of the electric vehicle 200. 因此,为了描述的目的,某些汽车系统800被包括为示例性远程IPF模块134 的一部分。 Accordingly, for purposes of description, it is included as part of an exemplary remote IPF module 134, system 800 in some automobiles. 然而,在其它实现中,远程IPF模块134可排除汽车系统800 的部分或全部被认为是远程IPF模块134的组件。 However, in other implementations, the remote IPF module 134 may exclude some or all of the vehicle systems 800 are considered remote IPF module assembly 134.

所描述的汽车系统800包括车辆电脑和数据接口802、诸如电池组202 之类的储能系统以及逆变器/充电器804。 Automotive described system 800 includes a vehicle computer and a data interface 802, such as a battery energy storage system 202 or the like and an inverter / charger 804. 除汽车系统800之外,远程IPF 模块134还包括通信功率流控制器806。 In addition to the vehicle system 800, the remote IPF module 134 further includes a communication controller 806 of power flow. 通信功率流控制器806又包括:诸如输电线通信装置之类的与来自电网114的交流功率通过接口连接的某些组件,例如输电线上的以太网网桥120;以及诸如电流感测变压器之类的电流或电流/电压(电力)传感器808。 Communication power flow controller 806 also includes: a communication device such as certain components of the power line or the like connected through an interface with the AC power from the grid 114, for example, Ethernet bridge 120 on the transmission line; and a sense transformer as the electrical type electric currents / voltage (electric power) sensor 808.

通信功率流控制器806还包括:以太网和信息处理组件,诸如处理器810或微控制器以及相关联的以太网媒体接入控制(MAC)地址812;易失性随机存取存储器814;非易失性存储器816或数据存储器;诸如RS-232 接口818或CAN总线接口820之类的接口;以太网物理层接口822,其允许根据物理层的以太网标准通过MAC/数据链路层处的网络接入手段和一般寻址格式的布线和信令。 Power flow communication controller 806 further comprises: Ethernet and information processing component, such as a processor or microcontroller 810 and an associated Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) address 812; volatile random access memory 814; a non- volatile memory 816 or data memory; RS-232 interface, such as a CAN bus interface 818 or interface 820 or the like; Ethernet physical layer interface 822, according to the Ethernet standard that allows the physical layer by the MAC / data link layer at the and means for routing the signaling network and general access addressing format. 以太网物理层接口822提供到传输介质的电的、 机械的、以及程序接口——即在一个实现中,使用输电线上的以太网网桥120。 Ethernet physical layer interface 822 provides a transmission medium to an electrical, mechanical, and program interface - that is, in one implementation, a transmission line 120 on the Ethernet bridge. 在一个变体中,使用与互联网104的无线或其它通信信道来代替输电线上的以太网网桥120。 In one variant, the Internet 104 using a wireless communication channel or other Ethernet bridge 120 instead of the transmission line.

通信功率流控制器806还包括记录往返各个电资源112 (在此情况下为电动汽车200的电池组202)的功率传递的双向功率流计824。 Communication controller 806 further comprises a power flow to and from the respective recording power resource 112 bidirectional power flow meter 824 (in this case the battery pack 202 to the electric vehicle 200) of the transmitted power.

通信功率流控制器806在电动汽车200或其它电资源112内、或连接至电动汽车200或其它电资源112工作,以允许以上介绍的电资源112聚集(例如通过有线或无线通信接口)。 The communication controller 806 in the power flow in an electric vehicle or other electric resource 200 112, 200, or connected to an electric car or other electric work resource 112, 112 to allow the gathering power resources described above (e.g., via a wired or wireless communication interface). 以上列举的这些组件可在通信功率流控制器806的不同实现之间变化,但这些实现通常包括: The components listed above may vary between different implementations of power flow in a communication controller 806, these typically implemented comprises:

允许与其它汽车组件通信的汽车内通信机构; It allows communication with other car components car communication means;

与流控制中心102通信的机构; Flow control means in communication with the center 102;

处理元件;数据存储元件; 功率计;以及 Processing element; data storage element; power meter; and

任选地,用户界面。 Optionally, the user interface.

通信功率流控制器806的实现能允许的功能包括: Communicate power flow controller 806 allow the functions comprising:

•当电资源112未连接时(未连接至互联网104,或服务不可用),执行预编程或学到的行为; • When resource 112 is not electrically connected to (not connected to the Internet 104, or service is unavailable), perform pre-programmed or learned behavior;

•存储本地缓存的行为概况以便"漫游"连接(当在外来系统上充电时或在断开操作(即没有网络连接)时所执行的操作); • local cache memory for behavioral profiling "roaming" connection (when the charge on the foreign system in operation or disconnected operation (i.e., without a network connection) performed);

•允许用户超驰当前系统行为;以及 • allows the user to override the current system behavior; and

•在离线操作期间计量功率流信息并缓存计量数据以便稍后交易。 • During the off-line operation to measure the power flow metering information and cache data for the transaction later. 因此,通信功率流控制器806包括中央处理器810、用于在电动汽车200内通信的接口818和820、用于诸如电动汽车200外部的通信的输电线上的以太网网桥120之类的输电线通信装置、以及用于测量通过所连接的AC输电线208流入和流出电动汽车200的功率流计824。 Thus, the communication power flow controller 806 includes a central processor 810, interface 818 and 820 for communication with an electric vehicle 200, such as an Ethernet bridge for communication on power line 200 outside the electric vehicle 120 or the like power line communication means for measuring the AC power line and the connected electric vehicle 208 into and out of the power flow meter of 824,200.

示例性远程IPF模块的操作 Operation of the exemplary remote IPF module

继续以电动汽车200作为电资源112的代表,在这样的电动汽车200 停泊且连接至电网114期间,远程IPF模块134发起与流控制服务器106 的连接、注册自己、且等待来自流控制服务器106的指示远程IPF模块134 调节流入或流出电动汽车200的功率流的信号。 Continue to electric vehicle 200 as an electric represents a resource 112, during such an electric vehicle 200 parked and connected to the grid 114, 134 connected to remote IPF module initiates the flow control server 106 registers itself, and waits for a flow control server 106 IPF module 134 indicates that the remote signal 200 to adjust power flow into or out of the electric car. 这些信号通过数据接口与车辆电脑802通信,该数据接口可以是包括RS-232接口818或CAN总线接口820的任何合适的接口。 These signals are the data interface 802 in communication with the vehicle computer via the data interface may comprise any suitable interface 818 or RS-232 interface CAN bus interface 820. 遵照从流控制服务器106接收到的信号,车辆电脑802控制逆变器/充电器804来对汽车电池组202充电或使电池组202 放电上传至电网114。 Received from the server in accordance with the flow control signal 106, the vehicle computer 802 controls inverter / charger 804 to charge the automotive battery 202 or the discharge of the battery pack 202 to upload grid 114.

远程IPF模块134周期性地将有关能流的信息发送至流控制服务器106。 Remote IPF module 134 periodically transmits information on the energy flow to the flow control server 106. 当电动汽车200被连接至电网114时,如果不存在至流控制服务器106 的通信路径(即该位置未正确装配或出现网络故障),则电动汽车200可遵循预编程的或学习的离线操作行为,例如存储为非易失性存储器816中的一组指令。 When the electric automobile 200 is connected to a 114 grid, if the communication path to the flow control server 106 does not exist (i.e., the location is not fitted properly or network failure), the electric automobile 200 can follow preprogrammed or learned off operational behavior , for example, a set of instructions stored in non-volatile memory 816. 在这样的情况下,还可将能源交易缓存在非易失性存储器816中以便稍后发送至流控制服务器106。 In such a case, the transaction may also be cached in order to transmit energy to the flow control server 106 later in the nonvolatile memory 816.

在电动汽车200处于像运输的操作期间,远程IPF模块134被动地监听、记录选定的汽车操作数据以供稍后分析和消费。 In the electric vehicle 200 is in operation as during transport, remote IPF module 134 passively listening, recording the selected car operating data for later analysis and consumption. 当通信信道变得可用时,远程IPF模块134可将此数据发送至流控制服务器106。 When the communication channel becomes available, remote IPF module 134 may send this data to the flow control server 106.

示例性功率流计 Exemplary power flow meter

功率是每单位时段的功耗率。 Power is the rate of power consumption per unit time period. 功率表示在特定时间段期间传输的电量, 因此功率的单位是每单位时间的能量。 Power represents power transmitted during a specific time period, thus the power unit is the energy per unit time. 示例性的功率流计824测量双向流上给定电资源112的功率——即从电网114到电动汽车200或从电动汽车200到电网114的功率。 Exemplary bi-directional power flow meter 824 measuring the flow of a given electrical power resources of 112 - i.e., the power from the grid 114 or to electric vehicle 200 from electric vehicle 200 to the grid 114. 在一个实现中,即使至服务器的连接暂时中断或服务器本身不可用,远程IPF模块134也可在本地高速缓存来自功率流计824 的读数以确保与中央流控制服务器106的准确交易。 In one implementation, even if the connection to the server is temporarily interrupted or the server itself is not used, the remote IPF module 134 may also be derived in a local cache 824 of the power flow readings to ensure accurate central flow control server 106 of the transaction.

示例性功率流计824以及远程IPF模块134的其它组件使示例性电力聚集系统100具有系统范围的特征,包括: Exemplary power flow meter 824 and a remote IPF module 134 other components of the aggregation system so that the power of an exemplary system 100 having a range of characteristics, comprising:

°在电资源专属基础上追踪能源使用; ° track in the exclusive resources on the basis of electrical energy;

°电力质量监控(检査电压、频率等是否偏离其额定工作值,如果这样则通知电网运营商,还有可能改变资源功率流来帮助更正该问题); 。 ° power quality monitoring (checking voltage, frequency and other work has deviated from its nominal value, if such notification grid operators, it is also possible to change the power flow of resources to help correct the problem);. 针对能源利用的车辆专属的计费和交易; For billing and transaction-specific energy use of vehicles;

. 汽车计费(当电资源所有者408不是电连接位置所有者410 (即不是计量账户所有者)时支持准确计费)。 Car Charging (support accurate billing when the electric resource owners 408 is not electrically connected to the position of the owner of 410 (ie, not meter account owner)). 可在电动汽车200处捕捉来自功率流计824的数据以供计费; Electric vehicle may be captured at the flow meter data 200 from the power supply 824 to charging;

. 在充电位置与智能计量表集成(双向信息交换);以及 In the charging position integrated with the smart meter (two-way exchange of information); and

. 抗干扰(例如当功率流计824在诸如电动汽车200之类的电资源112 Interference (e.g., when the power flow meter 824, such as power resources, like an electric vehicle 200 112

中得到保护时)。 When the protected).

移动资源定位器 Mobile Resource Locator

示例性电力聚集系统100还包括用于确定诸如充电式电动汽车200之类的汽车电资源112的电网络位置的各种技术。 An exemplary power aggregation system 100 further includes a means for determining the position of a variety of techniques such as an electric vehicle electrical network resource 200 rechargeable electric vehicle 112 or the like. 电动汽车200可在多个位置处连接至电网114,而且通过对充电位置的具体了解可实现对能量交换的 The electric vehicle 200 may be connected to the power grid 114 at a plurality of positions, but by understanding the specific position of the charging of the energy exchange can be achieved

22准确控制和交易。 22 accurate control and transactions.

用于确定电动汽车充电位置的某些示例性技术包括: Means for determining the position of an electric vehicle charging Certain exemplary techniques include:

•(通过有线、无线等)查询位置的独特标识符,其可以是: • (via wired, wireless, etc.) the unique identifier of the query position, which may be:

-充电站处网络硬件的唯一ID; - Unique ID of the network hardware of the charging station;

-通过与计量表通信得到的本地安装的智能计量表的唯一ID; -站点处专门为此目的安装的唯一ID;以及 - a local unique ID by communicating with meter obtained smart meter installation; - specifically at a site installation of the unique ID for this purpose; and

•利用GPS或其它信号源(蜂窝、WiMAX等)建立"软"(估计的地 • using GPS or other signal source (cellular, WiMAX, etc.) to establish a "soft" (estimated to

理)位置,然后基于用户偏好和历史数据将其求精(例如汽车倾向于在所 Li) position, and based on user preference and historical data which refinement (e.g., the automobile tends

有者的住宅124处而不是邻居的住宅处充电)。 There were 124 residential rather than residential neighborhood at the charge).

图9示出分辨连接至示例性电力聚集系统100的电资源112在电网114 上的物理位置的示例性技术。 Figure 9 shows an exemplary technique resolution is electrically coupled to an exemplary power aggregation system resources 100 112 physical position on the grid 114. 在一个实现中,远程IPF模块134获得本地安装的网络调制解调器或路由器(互联网接入点)302的媒体接入控制(MAC)地址902。 In one implementation, the remote IPF module 134 to obtain network modem or router (Internet Access Point) installed local media access control (MAC) address of 902,302. 然后远程IPF模块134将此唯一MAC标识符发送至流控制服务器106,该流控制服务器106利用此标识符来分辨电动汽车200 的位置。 The remote IPF module 134 transmits this MAC identifier unique to the flow control server 106, the flow control server 106 using this identifier to distinguish the location of the electric vehicle 200.

为辨别其物理位置,远程IPF模块134有时还可使用可与远程IPF模块134通信的物理上安装在其附近的其它设备的MAC地址或其它唯一标识符,所述其它设备包括"智能"电表904、有线电视盒906、基于RFID的单元908、或能与远程IPF模块134通信的示例性ID单元910。 To distinguish its physical location, the remote IPF module 134 may also be used and may be mounted physically remote IPF module 134 in communication with the MAC address of other devices in its vicinity or other unique identifier, the apparatus further comprises a "smart" meters 904 , cable box 906, RFID-based unit 908 or 134 can communicate with a remote module IPF ID exemplary unit 910. 在图10中更详细地描述了ID单元910。 ID unit 910 is described in more detail in FIG. 10. MAC地址902并不总是给出与相关联的硬件的物理位置有关的信息,而在一个实现中,流控制服务器106包括建立MAC 地址或其它标识符与该硬件的相关联物理位置之间的联系的追踪数据库912。 MAC address 902 does not always give information about the physical location of the hardware associated, in one implementation, flow control is established between the server 106 comprises a MAC address or other identifier associated with the physical location of hardware 912 tracking database links. 按此方式,无论移动电资源112何时连接至电网114,远程IPF模块134和流控制服务器106都可找出移动电资源112。 In this way, regardless of the resource 112 when a mobile connected to the grid 114, the remote IPF module 134 and flow control server 106 can identify the mobile resource 112.

图IO示出确定移动电资源112在电网114上的物理位置的另一示例性技术。 FIG IO shows another exemplary technique 112 to determine the physical location of the resource on the mobile grid 114. 示例性ID单元910可在充电位置处或附近插入电网114。 Exemplary ID unit 910 may be inserted into the grid 114 at or near the charging position. ID单元910的操作如下。 ID unit 910 operates as follows. 新连接的电资源112通过在无线接收区内广播查验(ping) 或消息来搜索本地连接的资源。 The new resource is electrically connected to the receiver 112 in a wireless broadcast inspection area (ping) message to search for resources or local connections. 在一个实现中,ID单元910响应(1002) 查验并将ID单元910的唯一标识符1004传送回电资源112。 In one implementation, ID locations, in response to 910 (1002) and the ID checking unit 1004 transmits the unique identifier of the resource 910 112 green. 然后电资源112的远程IPF模块134将该唯一标识符1004发送至流控制服务器106, 该流控制服务器106确定ID单元910的位置并用它代替电资源112的准确或近似网络位置(取决于ID单元910的捕集区域的大小)。 And power resources of the remote IPF module 112 transmits 134 the unique identifier 1004 to the flow control server 106, the stream server 106 determines the location ID control unit 910 and use it instead of 112 electric resource exact or approximate location of the network (depending on the ID unit the size of the trapping region 910).

在另一实现中,新连接的电资源112通过广播包含电资源112的唯一标识符1006的査验或消息来搜索本地连接的资源。 In another implementation, the newly connected power resources comprise radio resources 112 through a broadcast message unique identifier examination or 112 to 1006 of the search for resources locally connected. 在此实现中,ID单元910不需要信任或重新使用无线连接,而且不回答移动电资源112的远程IPF模块134,而是直接以自己的唯一标识符1004和在査验消息中接收到的电资源112的唯一标识符1006来回答(1008)流控制服务器106。 In this implementation, ID locations 910 do not need to trust or re-using a wireless connection, and does not answer a mobile remote resource 112 IPF module 134, but directly in their own unique identifier 1004 and the received power in the identification message unique identifier for the resource to answer 112 1006 (1008) flow control server 106. 然后中央流控制服务器106使移动电资源112的唯一标识符1006与"已连接"状态相关联,并使用ID单元910的其它唯一标识符1004来确定或近似电资源112的物理位置。 The central server 106 then flow controls the moving electric resource unique identifier 1006 and "connected" state is associated, and using other unique identifiers ID 1004910 unit 112 to determine the physical location of the resource or approximately 112 electrically. 如果特定的ID单元910仅与一个准确网络位置相关联, 则该物理位置不一定是近似的。 If a particular cell ID only an accurate network 910 associated with the location, the physical location is not necessarily approximate. 远程IPF模块134在收到流控制中心106 的确认之后知悉该查验是成功的。 Remote IPF module 134 knows after receiving confirmation flow control center 106 of the check is successful.

在其中电资源112与流控制服务器106之间的通信路径通过无线连接(其本身不能准确地确定网络位置)的情况下,这样的示例性ID单元910 Wherein the electrical communication path between the resource 112 and the flow control server 106 via a wireless connection (which itself can not accurately determine the network location), such exemplary unit 910 ID

尤其有用。 Particularly useful.

图ll示出确定移动电资源112在电网114上的物理位置的另一示例性方法1100和系统1102。 Another exemplary method 112 shown in FIG ll determining the physical location of mobile resources on the grid system 114 of 1100 and 1102. 在其中电资源112和流控制服务器106通过无线信令方案进行通信的情形下,仍期望在与电网114连接期间确定物理连接位置。 In the case where 106 via wireless communication resource 112 the electrical signaling scheme and flow control server is still desirable to determine the physical location of the connection to the grid 114 during connection.

无线网络(例如GSM、 802.11、 WiMax)包括分别发送唯一标识符的许多蜂窝或发射塔。 Wireless networks (e.g. GSM, 802.11, WiMax) or cellular towers includes a plurality of unique identifiers are transmitted. 此外,发射塔与连接至发射塔的移动客户端之间的连接强度是客户端到发射塔的接近程度的函数。 Furthermore, the connection strength between the tower and the tower is connected to the mobile client is a client of the tower closeness function. 当电动汽车200连接至电网114时,远程IPF模块134可采集可用发射塔的唯一标识符,并建立这些标识符与各个连接的信号强度之间的关系,如数据库1104中所示。 When the electric automobile 200 is connected to the grid 114, the remote module 134 can capture IPF unique identifier available towers, and establish a relationship between identifiers and the respective signal strength of the connection, as shown in the database 1104. 电资源112 的远程IPF模块134将此信息发送至流控制服务器106,其中该信息与诸如数据库1106之类的测量数据组合,以使位置推断引擎1108能作三角测量或推断已连接的电动汽车200的物理位置。 Electric resource 112 remote IPF module 134 sends this information to the flow control server 106, wherein the measurement information database 1106, such as a combination of data or the like, so that the position of the inference engine 1108 can triangulate or inferring an electric vehicle 200 is connected physical location. 在另一实现中,IPF模块134 可使用信号强度读数来直接分辨资源位置,在这种情况下IPF模块134发送位置信息代替信号强度信息。 In another implementation, IPF module 134 may be used to distinguish the signal intensity readings directly resource location, in this case IPF module 134 transmits the position information instead of the signal strength information.

因此,示例性方法1100包括:采集信号强度信息(1110);将所采集的信号强度信息发送至流控制服务器106 (1112);以及利用所存储的发射 Thus, the exemplary method 1100 comprising: collecting signal strength information (1110); and transmitting the collected signal strength information to the flow control server 106 (1112); and using the stored transmitting

塔位置信息和所采集的来自电资源112的信号推断物理位置(1114)。 And tower position information acquired from the electrical signal 112 to infer the physical location of the resource (1114).

图12示出利用来自全球定位卫星(GPS)系统的信号来确定移动电资源112在电网114上的物理位置的方法1200和系统1202。 Figure 12 shows the use of a signal from a global positioning satellite (GPS) systems to determine the physical location of the mobile 112 on the resource grid 114 methods 1200 and 1202 systems. 利用GPS使远程IPF模块134能以不准确的方式分辨其在电网上的物理位置。 IPF by GPS module 134 so that the remote can distinguish its physical location on the grid in an inaccurate manner. 将来自GPS 的有噪声的位置信息发送至流控制服务器106,该流控制服务器106将该位置信息与测量信息数据库1204 —起使用以推断电资源112的位置。 The position information from the GPS noise transmitted to the flow control server 106, the streaming server 106 controls the location information of the measurement information database 1204-- used to infer the electric resource from position 112.

示例性方法1200包括:采集有噪声的位置数据(1206);将所采集的有噪声的位置数据发送至流控制服务器106 ( 1208);以及利用所存储的测量信息和所采集的数据推断位置(1210)。 An exemplary method 1200 comprises: acquiring noisy location data (1206); the position data acquired noise is transmitted to the flow control server 106 (1208); and the measurement information using the stored and the collected data estimated position ( 1210).

示例性的交易方法和其它功能示例性的电力聚集系统IOO支持以下功能和交互: Exemplary transaction methods, and other functions of the exemplary power aggregation system IOO supports the following functions and interactions:

1. 建立(setup)——电力聚集系统100通过web服务器718和合约管理器720在系统外创建合约和/或向开放市场中投标以获得供电业务合约。 1. The establishment (setup) - Power gathering system 100 to create a contract and / or tender to the open market outside the system through a web server 718 and 720 contract manager to get power business contracts. 然后系统100基于电网运营商404的分派将这些请求分解成具体的电力需求, 并通过若干种通信技术中的一种将这些需求发送至车辆所有者408。 Then the system 100 based on the grid operator 404 dispatches these requests into specific power requirements, and sends them to the vehicle owner needs 408 by one of several communication technologies.

2. 输送——电网交互管理器712通过电力输送设备从电网运营商404 接受实时电网控制信号714,并通过从所连接的电动汽车200向电网114 输送供电业务来应答这些信号714。 2. transport - grid interaction manager 712 through the power transmission equipment receiving real-time power control signal 714 from the grid operator 404, and the response to these signals the power supply 714 through the delivery service from the electric automobile 200 is connected to the grid 114.

3. 报告——在电力输送事件完成之后,交易管理器可报告存储在数据库716中的供电业务交易。 3. The report - after the power transmission event is complete, the transaction manager can report power business transactions stored in the database 716. 计费管理器将这些请求分解成具体的贷记或借记计费交易。 Billing manager these requests into specific billing credit or debit transaction. 可将这些交易发送至电网运营商电力公司的计费系统以供账户对账。 These transactions can be sent to the power grid operator's billing system for account reconciliation. 还可使用这些交易来直接支付资源所有者408。 These transactions can also be used to direct resources to pay the owner 408.

在一个实现中,车载远程IPF模块134可包括用来接收提供供电业务的要约的通信管理器,将它们显示给用户并允许用户应答这些要约。 In one implementation, the vehicle 134 may include a remote IPF module providing power supply for receiving an offer of service communication manager, which will be displayed to the user and allows the user to offer these responses. 有时可由一般与流控制服务器106的web服务器718连接的电资源所有者408 Sometimes the owner of the radio resources by the general flow control server 718 connected to web server 106 408

25执行这种类型的广告或合约交互。 25 perform this type of advertising or contractual interaction.

在管理基于汽车的负荷或存储的示例性模型中,示例性的电力聚集系 In the exemplary management model vehicle based load or store, the exemplary power train aggregation

统100用作车辆所有者408 (个人、车队等)与电网运营商404 (独立系统运营商(ISO)、区域传输运营商(RTO)、电力公司等)之间的中介。 Intermediary between (personal, team, etc.) with the grid operator 404 (Independent System Operator (the ISO), the transmission carrier area (the RTO), electric power company) is used as the vehicle owner 408 100 EC.

由单个充电式电动汽车200呈现的负荷和存储电资源112不是ISO或电力公司考虑直接控制的足够重要的资源。 A single rechargeable electric car load and store 200 presented electric resource ISO 112 is not considered important enough power company or resources directly controlled. 不过,通过将许多电动汽车200 聚集到一起、管理它们的负荷行为、并导出简单的控制接口,电力聚集系统100提供对电网运营商404有价值的服务。 However, a number of electric vehicles by 200 to gather together, to manage their load behavior, and derives a simple control interface, power aggregation system 100 provides 404 valuable services to grid operators.

类似地,车辆所有者408在参与不简单而且没有受到激励那么做的情况下可能没兴趣参与。 Similarly, the owner of the vehicle 408 and not be motivated to participate in simple you may have no interest in participating in the case do. 通过聚集的管理来创造价值,电力聚集系统100可向车辆所有者提供支付、降低的付费成本等形式的激励。 To create value by bringing together the management, power aggregation system 100 may provide payment to the owner of the vehicle, in the form of reduced costs incentive payment. 电力聚集系统100 还能使汽车充电和向电网114上传电力自动化而且对车辆所有者408几乎完全无缝,从而使参与令人愉快。 Power aggregation system 100 also enables vehicle charging and upload to the 114 power grid automation and vehicle owner 408 almost completely seamless, so that the participation pleasant.

通过将可测量电力质量属性的远程IPF模块134置于电动汽车200中, 电力聚集系统100实现了配电网114的大规模分布式传感器网络。 Measurable by remote power quality attribute IPF module 134 is placed in an electric vehicle 200, the electric power accumulation system 100 to achieve a large-scale distributed sensor network 114. Distribution Network. 电力聚集系统100可测量的电力质量属性包括频率、电压、功率因数、谐波等。 Power aggregation system 100 may measure the power quality attributes include frequency, voltage, power factor, harmonics. 接着,利用电力聚集系统100的通信基础设施,包括远程IPF模块134,可将此感测到的数据实时报告至聚集信息的流控制服务器106。 Next, using the communication infrastructure power aggregation system 100, including remote IPF module 134, can use this sensed data in real time reporting to the information aggregation server 106 of the flow control. 而且,可将此信息提交给电力公司,或者电力聚集系统100可通过控制多辆电动汽车200 的汽车充电/电力上传行为、改变负荷功率因数等直接校正不合需要的电网状态。 Further, this information can be presented to the power company, or the power aggregation system 100 may vehicle charging / power control behavior uploading multiple electric vehicles 200, changing the load power factor correction directly grid state undesirable.

示例性电网聚集系统100还可为家庭/企业提供不间断电源(UPS)或备用电力(包括互连孤岛效应电路)。 An exemplary power aggregation system 100 may also provide an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or backup power (including interconnecting circuit islanding) for home / business. 在一个实现中,电力聚集系统100 允许电资源112将其电池的电力输出到家庭(或企业)以对家庭负载中的部分或全部供电。 In one implementation, the electric power accumulation system 100 allows its battery resource 112 outputs power to a home (or business) to supply all or part of the family load. 可将特定的负载配置为在电网停电事件期间保持"打开" 的关键负载。 Specific load can be configured to remain "open" critical loads during power outage events. 在这样的情形下,管理住宅124从电网114的孤岛效应是重要的。 In such a situation, it is important to manage 124 residential island effect from the power grid 114. 这样的系统可包括能与电动汽车200通信的反孤岛效应电路(在下文中进一步描述为智能断路器箱)。 Such a system may comprise anti-islanding capable of 200 electric vehicle communications circuit (a smart circuit breaker box further described hereinafter). 远程IPF模块134的通信能力允许电动汽车200知道供电是否安全,其中"安全"定义为"由于家庭的主断路器处于断开状态所以对输电线工人是安全的"。 Remote IPF module 134 of communication capabilities allow electric car powered 200 know if it is safe, where "security" is defined as "due to the family's main circuit breaker in the off state so the power line workers are safe." 如果电网电力下降,则智能断路器箱从电网断开,然后联系本地参与的任何电动汽车200或其它电资源112,并请求它们开始供电。 If the grid power drops, the smart grid is disconnected from the circuit breaker box and contact any participating local electric car 200 or other electric resource 112, and requests them to start power supply. 当电网电力恢复时,智能断路器箱关闭本地电源并重新连接。 When the grid power is restored, intelligent breaker box off the local power supply and reconnect.

对于移动计费(当车辆所有者408与计量表账户所有者410不是同一人时),计费管理器需要在电动汽车再充电期间判断两个重要的方面:谁 For mobile billing (when the owner of the vehicle 408 and 410 meter account holder is not the same person), billing manager needs to determine during recharging electric vehicles are two important aspects: Who

拥有该车辆,以及谁拥有正在迸行再充电的设施的计量账户。 It owns the vehicle, and who has're recharging facilities into line metering account. 当车辆所有 When the vehicle all

者408不是计量账户所有者410时,存在若干选择: 408 are not metered account holder 410, there are several options:

1. 计量表所有者410可给予免费充电。 1. The meter 410 may be given free of charge owner.

2. 车辆所有者408可在充电的时候付费(通过信用卡、账户等)。 2. The owner of the vehicle 408 is payable at the time of charging (by credit card, account, etc.).

3. 可自动结算预先建立好的账户。 3. automatic settlement prebuilt account.

在没有电力聚集系统100的监督的情况下,偷窃服务可能出现。 In the absence of supervision of power aggregation system 100, the theft of service may occur. 在自动账户结算的情况下,电力聚集系统100通过车辆ID和位置ID、并通过对进入/流出该车辆的带时间附注的能量流的示例性计量来记录电动汽车200何时在需要支付的位置充电。 In the case where the automatic settlement of accounts, the power aggregation system 100 via the vehicle ID and location ID, and the example metering strip by the time of entering / exiting the vehicle notes energy flow to the recording position when the electric automobile 200 to be paid charge. 在这些情况下,对车辆所有者408所使用的能量计费,而且该部分能量并未充电至设施的计量账户所有者410 (从而避免了双重计费)。 In these cases, the owner of the vehicle 408 using the energy charging, and the measurement part of the energy is not charged to the owner of the account facilities 410 (thus avoiding double charging). 可将执行自动账户结算的计费管理器与电力公司整合, 或可将其实现为独立的借记/贷记系统。 You can perform automated account settlement of billing manager with integrated power company, or it can be implemented as a stand-alone debit / credit system.

可为充电站(免费或收费)安装向用户呈现有用信息的用户界面。 Available (for free or for a fee) mounted presents useful information for the user interface to the user charging station. 具体地,通过收集有关电网114、车辆状态、以及用户偏好的信息,该站点可呈现诸如当前电价、估计再充电费用、再充电前的估计时间、向电网114 上传电力的估计报酬(总计或每小时)等。 Specifically, by collecting the relevant grid 114, vehicle status, and information about user preferences, the site can be presented, such as the current price, estimated recharge costs, the estimated time before recharging, estimated remuneration to the 114 upload electricity grid (total or per hour) and so on. 信息采集引擎414与电动汽车20、公共和/或私有数据网络722通信以采集在计算此信息中所使用的数据。 Information collection engine 414 20 722 communications public and / or private data networks to collect this information in the calculation data used in the electric vehicle.

示例性电力聚集系统100还为电资源所有者408 (诸如车辆所有者) 的利益提供其它特性: An exemplary power aggregation system 100 also provides other characteristics for the benefit of the owner of 408 (such as a vehicle owner) power resources:

•作为参与该系统的回报,车辆所有者可获得用于汽车充电的免费用 • In return participating in the system, vehicle owners are available for free of charge with car

电; Electricity;

•车辆所有者通过避开高峰时段费率能降低充电成本; • vehicle owner by avoiding peak hours rates can reduce the cost of charging;

•车辆所有者可获得基于他们的汽车所提供的实际能量服务的报酬;•车辆所有者可获得参与该系统的特惠。 • Vehicle owners pay based on actual energy available to their cars provided services; • Vehicle owners available to participate in the preferential system.

在示例电力聚集系统100与电网运营商404之间也存在特性: •作为电资源聚集器的电力聚集系统100可获得由电网运营商支付的管理费(其可以是所提供服务的某些函数); There are also characteristics between 100 and 404 examples of the power grid operator gathering systems: • As a resource aggregator electric power aggregation system 100 may acquire the management fees paid by the grid operator (which may be a function of some of the services provided) ;

•作为电资源聚集器的电力聚集系统100可出售到电力市场412中; • As a resource aggregator electric power aggregation system 100 can be sold to the electricity market, 412;

•电网运营商404可为电力聚集系统100付费,但自己来运营电力聚集系统100。 • grid operators can pay 404 100 gathered for the power system, but gathered himself to operate the power system 100.

示例性安全和远程智能孤岛效应 Exemplary safety and intelligent remote island effect

示例性电力聚集系统100可包括用于实现安全标准和安全地致动放电操作的方法和组件。 An exemplary power aggregation system 100 may comprise a method and assembly for implementing the safety standards and discharging operations actuated. 例如,示例性电力聚集系统IOO可使用车载线路传感器以及安装在特定位置的智能孤岛效应设备。 For example, an exemplary power aggregation system may be used onboard IOO line sensors and devices installed in the smart islanding particular location. 因此,电力聚集系统100实 Thus, real power aggregation system 100

现了安全的汽车至电网操作。 Now the safety car to the grid operator. 此外,电力聚集系统ioo实现了备用电力情 Furthermore, the power aggregation system standby power to achieve the situation ioo

形下资源的自动协调。 Shaped automatic coordination of resources.

在一个实现中,如果远程IPF模块134感测不到来自电网114的线路功率,则包含远程IPF模块134的电动汽车200停止汽车到电网的电力上传。 In one implementation, the power line if the remote sensing IPF module 134 from the power grid is less than 114, the remote IPF module 134 comprises an electric car to the car 200 stops power grid upload. 停止电力上传可防止使可能未断开的电线带电,或使正在维修的输电线206带电,等等。 Upload to stop the power may not be prevented that the broken wire charged, or to charge the transmission line 206 is repaired, and the like. 然而,这并不排除在电网停电时利用此电动汽车200 来提供备用电力,因为以下描述的安全装置将确保不会产生孤岛状态。 However, this does not exclude the use of this electric vehicle 200 at the time of power failure to provide backup power, because the safety device will be described below to ensure that no islanding state.

在充电位置处安装的附加智能孤岛效应设备可与电动汽车200的远程IPF模块134通信,以在电网停电时协调对电网114的电力上传的激活。 Additional smart islanding charging device installed at a position remote IPF 134 in communication with an electric vehicle module 200 to coordinate power outage when the activation of the upload grid 114. 此技术的一个特定实现是车辆到家庭备用供电能力。 A specific implementation of this technology is the vehicle to a home backup power supply capacity.

图13示出了在车辆到家庭情形下的示例性安全装置,其中使用电资源112向一个负载或一组负载供电(就像在家中一样)。 FIG 13 shows the exemplary case where a safety device in the home, in a vehicle in which the electric resource 112 to a power load or a load group (the same as at home). 断路器箱1300被连接至电计量表1302。 Breaker box 1300 is electrically connected to the 1302 meter. 当电资源112向电网(或本地负载)输电时,为安全起见应当避免孤岛状态。 When the electric resource 112 to the grid (or local load) transmission, should be avoided for safety reasons islanding state. 电资源112不应当使线路工人通常认为在停电时不带电的线路带电。 Electric resource 112 should not generally considered that the lineman live line during power outage uncharged.

本地安装的智能电网断路开关(开关)1304感测电力线路以检测停电状况并协同电资源112实现汽车到家庭的电力传递。 Smart local installation grid disconnect switch (switch) sensing power line 1304 to detect a power outage and to achieve synergistic automotive electric resource 112 to a power transmission family. 在停电的情况下,智 In case of power failure, wisdom

28能电网断路开关1304将断路器1306从电网114断开,并与电资源112通信以开始电力备用服务。 Power switch 28 can disconnect the circuit breaker 1304 1306 disconnected from the grid 114, and a communication resource 112 and to start the electrical power backup service. 当供电业务恢复运营时,智能电网断路开关1304 与电资源112通信以禁用备用服务并将断路器重新连接至电网114。 When the power recovery business operations, disconnect switch 1304 and the communication intelligent electric resource grid 112 to disable the backup service and the circuit breaker 114 is reconnected to the grid.

图14示出了当多个电资源112对家庭供电时的示例性安全装置。 FIG 14 shows an example when the safety device when a plurality of family resource 112 electrical power. 在此情况下,智能电网断路开关1304与所有连接的电资源112协作。 In this case, the smart grid disconnect switch 1304112 collaboration with all power resources connected. 一个电资源112被认为是用来产生基准信号1402的"主"资源1400,而另一个电资源被认为是"从"资源1404并遵循主1400的基准。 An electric resource 112 is considered to be used to generate a reference signal "main" 1402 of resource 1400, and the other of the resource is considered to be "from the" resource 1404 and 1400 follow the main reference. 在主资源1400从网络消失的情况下,智能电网断路开关1304将另一从资源1404分配为基准/主资源1400。 In the case of the disappearance of the main resources of the network from 1400, smart grid disconnect switch 1304 and the other from the 1404 allocation of resources as a reference / main resource 1400.

图15更详细地示出图13和14的智能电网断路开关1304。 Figure 15 illustrates in more detail the smart grid disconnect switch 1304 of FIG. 13 and 14. 在一个实现中,该智能电网断路开关1304包括处理器1502、与连接的电资源112 耦合的通信装置1504、能够感测内部线路和电力公司侧的交流线路的电压传感器1506、用于在停电状况期间工作的电池1508、以及用于维持电池1508的充电电平的电池充电器1510。 In one implementation, the smart grid disconnect switch 1304 includes a processor 1502 electrically coupled to the communication device 112 connected to resource 1504 can sense a voltage sensor sensing line and the inner side of the AC line power company 1506 for power outage during the work cell 1508, 1510 and the battery charger for maintaining the charge level of the battery 1508. 受控的断路器或继电器1512在由处理器1502信令时在电网电力与电资源提供的电力之间切换。 1512 breaker or relay controlled switch between the power supplied in the electrical power grid resource signaling by the processor 1502.

示例性用户体验选项 An exemplary user experience options

示例性的电力聚集系统100能实现多个期望的用户特性: Exemplary user characteristic power aggregation system 100 can achieve more desired:

•数据收集可包括驾驶距离以及电和非电燃料利用率,以允许对总体 • Data collection may include driving distance as well as electrical and non-electrical fuel utilization to allow for overall

车辆效率的推导和分析(按照能量、支出、环境影响等)。 Vehicle efficiency derivation and analysis (according to energy expenditure, environmental impact, etc.). 此数据被导出 This data is exported

到流控制服务器106用于存储716,以及用于显示在车载用户界面、充电站 Flow control server 106 to 716 for storage, and a user interface for displaying the in-vehicle charging station

用户界面、以及web/蜂窝电话用户界面上。 User interface, and the web / cellular telephone user interface.

•智能充电学习车辆行为并自动改变充电时序。 • Smart charging behavior and learning vehicle charging automatically change the timing. 车辆所有者408在需 408 vehicle owners in need

要时可超驰并请求立即充电。 And can override the request is to be charged immediately.

示例性方法 An exemplary method

图16示出了电力聚集的示例性方法1600。 FIG 16 illustrates an exemplary method 1600 of the power aggregate. 在该流程图中,将操作概括为各个框。 In this flowchart, the operation will be summarized for each frame. 该示例性方法1600可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性电力聚集系统IOO的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 1600 may, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by way of exemplary components of a power aggregation system IOO. 在框1602,与连接至电网的多个电资源中的每一个建立通信。 In block 1602, establishing communication with each of a plurality of electrically connected to the grid resources. 例如, 中央流控制服务可管理与移动电动汽车的多个间歇连接,每个电动汽车可在不同位置处连接至电网。 For example, a central flow control service management connected to the plurality of the intermittent movement of the electric vehicle, the electric vehicle may be connected to each of the grid at different positions. 当汽车连接至电网时,车载远程代理将各个汽车连接至互联网。 When the car is connected to the grid, on-board remote agents to each car is connected to the Internet.

在框1604,分别向电资源信令以从电网对其供电或从其取电。 In block 1604, respectively radio resources signaling to be powered from the power grid or to take power therefrom. 图17是通信地控制电资源以供电力聚集的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 17 is a flowchart of the communication control radio resources of an exemplary method for a power aggregate. 在该流程图中,将操作概括为各个框。 In this flowchart, the operation will be summarized for each frame. 该示例性方法1700可通过硬件、软件、 或硬件、软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性智能功率流(IPF)模块134 的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 1700 may, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by components of the exemplary intelligent power flow (IPF) in module 134.

在框1702,在电资源与用于聚集电力的服务之间建立通信。 At block 1702, to establish communication between the electric power used to aggregate resources and services. 在框1704,将与电资源相关联的信息发送至服务。 At block 1704, the service will be sent to the electrical information associated with the resource. 在框1706,从服务接收至少部分基于该信息的控制信号。 In block 1706, receiving at least part of the information based on the control signal from the service. 在框1708,控制资源来例如向电网供电或从电网取电,即用于储电。 In block 1708, for example, to control resources or power to the grid to take power from the grid, i.e. for electric storage. 在框1710,测量电设备的双向功率流,并将其用作在框1704发送至 In block 1710, the electrical measuring device bidirectional power flow, as in block 1704 and sent to

服务的与电资源相关联的信息的一部分。 Part of the services associated with electric resource information.

图18是计量电资源的双向功率的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 18 is a flowchart of an exemplary method for measurement of a bidirectional electric power resources. 在该流程图 In the flow chart

中,将操作概括为各个框。 , The operation summed for each frame. 该示例性方法1800可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、 The exemplary method 1800 may be implemented by hardware, software, or hardware,

软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性功率流计824的组件来实现。 A combination of software, firmware, etc., for example by components of an exemplary power flow meter 824. 在框1802,双向地测量电资源与电网之间的能量传递。 At block 1802, two-way measure the energy transfer between the electric grid resources. 在框1804,将测量结果发送至服务,该服务部分基于所述测量结果聚 In block 1804, the measurement result is transmitted to the service, the service is based in part on the measurement result poly

集电力。 Set the power.

图19是确定电资源的电网位置的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 19 is a flowchart of an exemplary method of power resources of the grid position determined. 在该流程图中,将操作概括为各个框。 In this flowchart, the operation will be summarized for each frame. 该示例性方法1900可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、 软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性电力聚集系统IOO的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 1900 may be, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by way of exemplary components of a power aggregation system IOO.

在框1902,确定物理位置信息。 In block 1902, determining the physical location information. 可根据诸如GPS信号之类的源、或根据指示它们位置的蜂窝发射塔信号的相对强度来推导物理位置信息。 It may be derived according to the physical location information, such as a tower or relative intensity of the signal according to the indication of their cellular location of the GPS signal source or the like. 或者, 通过接收与附近设备相关联的唯一标识符、并找到与该唯一标识符相关联的位置来推导该物理位置信息。 Alternatively, by receiving a unique identifier associated with a nearby device, and find the position of the unique identifier associated with the physical location of the derived information.

在框1904,根据该物理位置信息确定例如电资源或它与电网的连接的电网络位置。 In block 1904, the location information is determined depending on the physical resources such as an electrical network or a position which is electrically connected to the grid.

图20是调度电力聚集的示例性方法的流程图。 20 is a flowchart of an exemplary scheduling method of a power aggregate. 在该流程图中,将操作 In this flowchart, the operation

概括为各个框。 Summarized for each box. 该示例性方法2000可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性流控制服务器106的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 2000 may, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by components of the exemplary server 106 in flow control.

在框2002,输入与单个电资源相关联的约束。 At block 2002, the constraints of a single electrical input and associated resources.

在框2004,基于输入约束调度电力聚集。 In block 2004, based on input constraints scheduling power aggregation.

图21是智能孤岛效应的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 21 is a flowchart of an exemplary method for intelligent islanding. 在该流程图中,将操作概括为各个框。 In this flowchart, the operation will be summarized for each frame. 该示例性方法2100可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性电力聚集系统IOO的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 2100 may be, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by way of exemplary components of a power aggregation system IOO.

在框2102,感测到停电。 At block 2102, a power outage is sensed.

在框2104,建立本地连接——与电网隔离的网络。 At block 2104, establish a local connection - grid isolated network. 在框2106,信令本地储能资源对本地连接供电。 At block 2106, a local signaling connection power resources in the local storage.

图22是扩展用于电力聚集的用户界面的示例性方法的流程图。 FIG 22 is a flowchart of an exemplary method for a power extension aggregated user interface. 在该流程图中,将操作概括为各个框。 In this flowchart, the operation will be summarized for each frame. 该示例性方法2200可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性电力聚集系统100的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 2200 may be, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by components of the exemplary system 100 of the power aggregate.

在框2202,使用户界面与电资源相关联。 At block 2202, the user interface and the power associated with the resource. 用户界面可显示于诸如包括储能系统的电动汽车之类的电资源之中、之上、或附近,或用户界面可显示在诸如蜂窝式电话或便携式计算机之类的与电资源所有者相关联的设备上。 The user interface may be displayed in an electric vehicle such as an electric resource such energy storage system comprises, on, or near, the user interface may be displayed, or related, such as a cellular phone or a portable computer with associated electric resource owners on the device.

在框2204,通过该用户界面输入电力聚集偏好和约束。 At block 2204, a user interface through which input power aggregate preferences and constraints. 换言之,用户通过该用户界面可控制电资源在电力聚集情形下的参与度。 In other words, the user can control the electric power resources in the aggregation engagement situation through the user interface. 或者,用户可控制此类参与的特性。 Alternatively, the user may control the characteristics of such participation.

图23是获得和保持电力聚集系统中的电动汽车车辆所有者的示例性方法的流程图。 And FIG 23 is a flowchart of an exemplary method of obtaining an electric car vehicle owners kept a power aggregation system. 在该流程图中,将操作概括为各个框。 In this flowchart, the operation will be summarized for each frame. 该示例性方法2300 可通过硬件、软件、或硬件、软件、固件等的组合,例如通过示例性电力聚集系统IOO的组件来实现。 The exemplary method 2300 may be, for example, by a combination of hardware, software, or hardware, software, firmware or the like by way of exemplary components of a power aggregation system IOO.

在框2302,将电动汽车车辆所有者招募到电力聚集系统中作为分布式的电资源。 At block 2302, the electric car vehicle owners to recruit electric power aggregation system resources as distributed. 在框2304,向参与电力聚集系统的各个车辆所有者提供激励。 At block 2304, providing incentives for each vehicle owner participation in the power aggregation system.

在框2306,对电力聚集系统的重复的连续服务重复补偿。 In block 2306, repeated consecutive service aggregation system power compensation repeated.

结论 in conclusion

虽然己经用结构特征和/或方法动作专用的语言描述了示例性系统和方法,但应当理解在所附权利要求中限定的本发明不一定受限于所描述的具体特征和动作。 Although already with structural features and / or methods described in language specific exemplary systems and methods, but the present invention should be understood as defined in the appended claims is not necessarily limited to the specific features and acts described. 更确切地说,所公开的具体特征和动作是作为实现所声明要求保护的方法、设备、系统等的示例性形式。 Rather, the specific features and acts disclosed as exemplary forms of implementing the claimed methods declared, equipment, systems and the like.

Claims (21)

1.一种方法,包括: 与连接至电网的多个电资源中的每一个建立通信连接;以及个别地信令所述电资源向所述电网供电、从所述电网取电、或确定电资源的可用负载、储电或发电容量。 1. A method, comprising: a plurality of electrical connection to the grid resource in establishing communication with each; and individually electrically signaling the resource to the power grid, to take power from the grid, or determining an electrical available load, or electrical generating capacity of storage resources.
2. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于,所述电资源包括储能系统。 L The method according to claim 2, wherein said electrical energy storage system comprises a resource.
3. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,个别地信令各个电资源部分地基于所述电资源与所述电网之间的功率流的计量。 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that each signaling radio resources individually based in part on the measurement of the power flow between the electrical grid resource.
4. 如权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,所述计量在各个电资源之上或附近进行。 4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the metering or near the top of the respective power resources.
5. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于,还包括:确定各个电资源的电网络位置;以及部分基于所述电网络位置个别地信令各个电资源。 5. The method according to claim l, characterized in that, further comprising: determining the position of the respective electrical supply network resource; and individually part of the electrical network based on signaling the position of each power resources.
6. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,还包括基于对所连接的电资源的至少某些约束的优化为每一个所述电资源调度功率流。 6. The method according to claim 1, characterized by further comprising a resource-based optimization is electrically connected to at least some of said constraints for each resource scheduling electric power flow.
7. 如权利要求6所述的方法,其特征在于,还包括基于所述经优化的调度将电网控制信号或采集到的信息转换成资源控制信号。 7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that, further comprising the optimized scheduling based on the power control signal or the collected information into a resource control signal.
8. 如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述电资源包括在不同位置处间歇地连接至所述电网的移动电资源。 8. The method according to claim 1, wherein said resource comprises electrically connected to the mobile grid resources intermittently at different positions.
9. 如权利要求8所述的方法,其特征在于,所述移动电资源包括可连接至所述电网的电动汽车。 9. The method according to claim 8, wherein the resource comprises a mobile electric grid connected to the electric vehicle.
10. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于,所述信令包括个别地引导所述电资源以各个电资源专属的时间和速率向所述电网供电或从所述电网取电。 10. The method according to claim l, wherein said signaling comprises directing the individually dedicated electrical resources and time resources to the rate of each electric power grid or to take power from the grid.
11. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于,还包括: 从电网运营商接收电网控制信号或从信息源接收采集到的信息; 调度所述电资源的聚集以减轻由所述电网控制信号或所述采集到的信息指示的电网状况;以及如所预测地向所述电网运营商提供所述聚集。 11. The method according to claim l, characterized in that, further comprising: receiving a power control signal received from the grid operator or to collect information from the information source; aggregate schedule the radio resources to mitigate the grid is controlled by signal or the acquired information indicating the status of the power grid; and the aggregate as predicted to provide the grid operator.
12. 如权利要求11所述的方法,还包括与所述电网运营商签订合约以执行所述聚集来交换所述补偿。 12. The method as claimed in claim 11, further comprising a contract with the grid operator to perform the exchange of the aggregate compensation.
13. 如权利要求ll所述的方法,其特征在于,还包括:预测可用个别电资源、可用的聚集电资源中的趋势以及每个用户的趋势, 包括连接时长、连接时间、断开时间、连接位置、以及连接时的资源充电状态(SOC);以及使所述聚集至少部分地基于所预测的趋势。 13. The method according to claim ll, characterized in that, further comprising: an individual prediction of available power resources, aggregation tendency available electrical resources and trends for each user, including a long connection, connection time, off-time, connection position, and a resource state of charge of the connection (the SOC); and causing the aggregation tendency at least in part on the prediction.
14. 如权利要求13所述的方法,其特征在于,预测所述趋势基于学习所述多个电资源的行为。 14. The method according to claim 13, wherein the prediction of the learning based on the trend behavior of the plurality of power resources.
15. 如权利要求11所述的方法,其特征在于,所述预测至少部分地基于将预期的未来事件与有关可用聚集电资源的过去数据关联来改变。 15. The method according to claim 11, wherein said at least partially based on the predicted expected future events associated with the relevant data available to change the aggregate power resources in the past.
16. —种系统,包括:服务器,其与连接至电网的多个电资源中的每一个通信;以及连接管理器,其个别地信令所述电资源与所述电网交换电力。 16. - kind of system, comprising: a server, which is connected to each of the plurality of communication resources, electrical power grid; and a connection manager which individually electrically signaling the resource exchange with the power grid.
17. 如权利要求16所述的系统,其特征在于,所述电资源包括电动汽车的储电系统,每一辆电动汽车在不同位置处间歇地连接至所述电网。 17. The system according to claim 16, wherein said electrical storage resource comprises an electric vehicle electrical system, each connected to an electric car intermittently at different positions to the grid.
18. 如权利要求16所述的系统,其特征在于,还包括约束优化器,其根据电资源所有者、电网运营商、所述电网的物理状态、所述服务器的管理员与所述电网的管理员之间的合约、或自动化电网控制器所选择或施加的参数优化来聚集所述电力交换。 18. The system according to claim 16, characterized in that, further comprising a constrained optimization, the administrator based on an electrical property owner, the grid operator, the physical state of the grid, the grid with the server contract, or between the automatic power controller or the administrator of the selected parameter optimization applied to the aggregate power exchange.
19. 如权利要求18所述的系统,其特征在于,还包括预测引擎,其学习、 推断或预测所述电资源、电资源所有者、电连接位置所有者、电网运营商、或自动化电网控制器的趋势,其中所述电力交换的聚集的优化至少部分基于所述趋势。 19. The system according to claim 18, wherein the engine further includes a prediction, their learning, prediction or estimation of the radio resources, electrical property owner, the owner of the electrical connecting position, the grid operator, or automated grid control the trend is, wherein optimizing the exchange of electric power accumulated at least in part on the trend.
20. 如权利要求18所述的系统,其特征在于,还包括合约管理器,其在所述服务器的管理员与电源运营商之间建立聚集电力交换的协定。 20. The system according to claim 18, characterized in that, further comprising a contract manager, which has established an agreement aggregate power exchanged between the server and the administrator of the power operator.
21. —种系统,包括:用于通过网络个别地信令电资源的装置,其中各个电资源在不同的位置处间歇地连接至所述电网;以及用于通过响应于由电网控制信号所信令的所述电网的状态的信令来动态地聚集流入和流出所述电资源的功率的装置。 21. - kind of system, comprising: signaling means electrically individually through the network resources for the respective radio resources which is intermittently connected at different positions to the grid; and means for in response to the channel by the power control signal the signaling state of the grid to make the dynamically gathering device into and out of the electric power resources.
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