WO2013029670A1 - Method and arrangement for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy - Google Patents

Method and arrangement for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2013029670A1
WO2013029670A1 PCT/EP2011/064985 EP2011064985W WO2013029670A1 WO 2013029670 A1 WO2013029670 A1 WO 2013029670A1 EP 2011064985 W EP2011064985 W EP 2011064985W WO 2013029670 A1 WO2013029670 A1 WO 2013029670A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
vehicles
charge
area
energy
determined
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2011/064985
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Uwe Schriek
Original Assignee
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Siemens Aktiengesellschaft filed Critical Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority to PCT/EP2011/064985 priority Critical patent/WO2013029670A1/en
Publication of WO2013029670A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013029670A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0027Stations for charging mobile units, e.g. of electric vehicles, of mobile telephones
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/60Monitoring or controlling charging stations
    • B60L53/63Monitoring or controlling charging stations in response to network capacity
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/06Resources, workflows, human or project management, e.g. organising, planning, scheduling or allocating time, human or machine resources; Enterprise planning; Organisational models
    • G06Q10/063Operations research or analysis
    • G06Q10/0631Resource planning, allocation or scheduling for a business operation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for specific business sectors, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/06Electricity, gas or water supply
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J2003/003Load forecast, e.g. method and systems for forecasting future load demand
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/70Systems integrating technologies related to power network operation and communication or information technologies mediating in the improvement of the carbon footprint of electrical power generation, transmission or distribution, i.e. smart grids as enabling technology in the energy generation sector
    • Y02E60/72Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipments
    • Y02E60/721Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipments the elements or equipments being or involving electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV], i.e. power aggregation of EV or HEV, vehicle to grid arrangements [V2G]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7038Energy storage management
    • Y02T10/7055Controlling vehicles with more than one battery or more than one capacitor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/121Electric charging stations by conductive energy transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/128Energy exchange control or determination
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/163Information or communication technologies related to charging of electric vehicle
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/10Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment
    • Y04S10/12Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment the elements or equipment being or involving energy generation units, including distributed generation [DER] or load-side generation
    • Y04S10/126Systems characterised by the monitored, controlled or operated power network elements or equipment the elements or equipment being or involving energy generation units, including distributed generation [DER] or load-side generation the energy generation units being or involving electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV], i.e. power aggregation of EV or HEV, vehicle to grid arrangements [V2G]

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy for supplying charging devices for electrically drivable vehicles (80, 81, 82) via a power supply system (16a, 16b, 16c, 16d). In this case, at least one charging device (11, 12, 13, 14) is respectively associated with one or more geographical areas (1, 2, 3, 4). The number of electrically drivable vehicles (80, 81, 82) (or the number of a subset of these vehicles) currently in the area (1) or areas in each case is captured. The captured number is respectively used to determine, for the area (1) or areas, the magnitude of an area-specific amount of energy to be provided for the at least one respectively associated charging device (11).

Description

description

Method and device for determining the size of a

electrical energy

The invention relates to a method for determining the size of an amount of electrical energy for supplying charging devices for electrically driven vehicles via a feed network and a corresponding arrangement.

It is anticipated that electrically powered vehicles will soon be traveling in large numbers on the road. Such electrically driven vehicles have a traction battery which provides the electrical energy required for the driving operation. Discharged traction batteries are recharged if necessary by means of a charging device. Therefore, charging devices for electric drivable vehicles, both in cities and on land, will soon become necessary in order to recharge traction batteries. In this case, a plurality of geographical areas exist, each of which one or more charging devices are assigned. So these geographic areas represent re ¬ gional coverage areas or regional supply cells for power supply electrically drivable vehicles.

The invention has for its object to provide a method and an arrangement with which the sizes of amounts of energy can be determined to provide for each of the respective geographical areas associated charging devices.

This object is achieved by a method and an arrangement according to the independent claims. Advantageous embodiments of the method and the arrangement are specified in the respective dependent claims. According to the invention, a method is provided for determining the size of an amount of electrical energy for supplying charging devices for electrically driven vehicles via a feed network, in which one or more geographic areas at least one charging device is assigned, wherein the number of currently in the area or Ge ¬ each present electrically driven vehicles is detected, and by means of the detected number for the area or areas each of the size of a region-specific amount of energy to provide for the at least one je ¬ Weils associated charging device is determined.

Alternatively, the number of a subset (subset) of the electrically driven vehicles currently located in the area or the areas can also be detected. Such a subset may be, for example, a vehicle fleet. The vehicles of the subset are recognized by a common property ¬ . This property can example ¬, consist in that the vehicles of the subset of a common provider (provider) are offered and / or that the vehicles of the subset have a common owner and / or that the vehicles of the subset used by a community of users or similar .

It is particularly advantageous that in each case the size of the area-specific amount of energy is determined for the area or the areas to provide this area-specific energy ¬ amount for the charging device or the loading devices of the area concerned. In this determination, the detected number of electrically driven vehicles currently located in the area or in the areas (or the detected number of a subset of these vehicles) is taken into account.

In this case, among the electrically driven vehicles in the area are those vehicles which either stand in the relevant geographical area or drive and can be detected in an automatically running process. Driving are so detected, for example ¬ tools which can be detected on the basis of, for example radio signals (such example ¬ as radio signals from mobile telecommunications equipment or radio signals from transponders) or for which the current state ¬ location can be determined in other ways.

The size of the area-specific amount of energy is generally greater with increasing number of vehicles and smaller with decreasing number of vehicles. Thus sicherge ¬ assumed that stands as in a smaller number at a larger number of vehicles in the area befindli ¬ chen a greater amount of energy to the charge available at present in the field of vehicles.

The area-specific amount of energy can be determined for each area as an absolute amount of energy (for example, in kWh) or as a relative proportion (in%) of an available basic amount of energy or total amount of energy.

The process can be designed so that vehicles on the refreshes ¬ elle charge state of a traction battery of at least some of the (current) in the area or areas (or the current state of charge of the traction battery min ¬ least some vehicles of the subset) is determined, and the size of the area-specific amount of energy for the provision of the at least one respectively assigned charging device is determined by means of the detected number and the determined current charge states for the area or the areas. In this embodiment of the method is advantageous in that in addition to the detected number of vehicles in addition determines the current state of charge of the traction battery of min ¬ least some of these vehicles and is used to determine the size of the area-specific amount of energy. This makes it possible to predict the amount of energy required within the geographical area even more precisely and to with the size of the area-specific amount of energy even more accurate ¬ to determine.

The method can proceed so that the current charge state of a traction battery of at least some of the (current) in the area or areas of vehicles on or the current state of charge of the traction battery of at least some vehicles is determined the subset by tools ¬ for the driving in each case since the elapsed time is determined and using empirical values that relate to the time-related energy consumption of the vehicle, the state of charge is estimated. This configuration of the procedural ¬ proceedings allows the determination of the current state of charge of the traction battery, even if no direct access to the traction battery or on sizes of the state of charge

Describe driving battery is possible. ¬ to advantageous way legally only needs to be determined since the last charging time elapsed. This can be done simply by saving the time of the last load and forming the difference to the current time. By the known time-related energy consumption of the state of charge of Fahrbat ¬ terie can be determined so easy. However, the process may also proceed so that the current charge state of a traction battery of at least some of the (refreshes ¬ ell) in the area or areas of vehicles on or the current state of charge of the traction battery of at least some vehicles of the subset is determined by for the vehicles respectively elapsed time this elapsed time is compared is determined since the last charge, with the vehicles in the past elapsed by ¬ average time between charges, and on the basis of this comparison, the state of charge is estimated. This process also determines the elapsed time since the last charge. Then we compared these ver ¬ underlined time (ie taken into consideration) with that for the corresponding vehicle in the past average elapsed time between two loads. This average of elapsed time between charges is present here as an experience value and is stored in ¬ play in a memory device. Arrival hand of the comparison can easily way of charging ¬ state of the traction battery to be determined.

However, the method can also run such that the current state of charge of a driving battery of at least some of the (current) located in the area or areas vehicles or the current state of charge of a driving battery of at least some vehicles of the subset is determined by the since the last charge each time covered distance of the vehicles is determined and estimated by means of average distance-related energy consumption values, the state of charge. In this variant of the process since the last charge each distance traveled of the vehicles to be determined, after which the state of charge can be ¬ he averages by a known average entfernungsbezoge- nen power consumption value of the vehicles only need. Since the last charging each distance traveled, for example, by means of a navigation system or a board computer of the vehicle he ¬ averages.

The process may also proceed so that the current charge state of a traction battery of at least some of the (current) in the area or areas of vehicles on or the current state of charge of the traction battery of at least some vehicles is determined the subset by an ent ¬ speaking message the vehicles is received. In this variant, the state of charge of the driving battery can even be determined particularly easily if a message describing this charging state and sent by the respective vehicle is received.

The method may also be configured such that the number of currently located in the area or the areas in each case Chen vehicles or the number of a subset of these vehicles is detected by messages or signals from a arranged on board the vehicles mobile telecommunica ¬ tion device or arranged on board the vehicles mobile transponder. As such a mobile telecommunication ¬ telecommunications device, for example, a mobile phone, a smartphone or a portable computer with mobile functionality can be used. In the operation of such devices, the current geographical position of the device is repeatedly determined in order to offer mobile services. Information about this geographical position can advantageously be used with little effort to determine how many vehicles are in the respective geographical area. Alternatively, it is possible, for example, to use a transponder arranged on the vehicle, the position of which can be determined by means of reading devices arranged in the relevant geographical area. For example, a so-called RFID tag can be used as such a transponder.

According to the invention, an arrangement for determining the size of an amount of electrical energy for supplying charging devices for electrically driven vehicles via a supply network, wherein at least one charging device is associated with one or more geographic areas, with at least one detection device for detecting the number of current in the area or the areas located electric drivable vehicles or for detecting the number of a subset of these vehicles, and an energy quantity determining means for determining the size of a region-specific amount of energy for Bereitstel ¬ ment for each at least one charging device for the area or areas by means of recorded number. This arrangement may include a state of charge detection device for determining the respective current charge state of a traction battery of electrically driven vehicles. Furthermore, the energy quantity determination device can be set up to determine the size of the area-specific energy quantity for the area or the areas by means of the number of detected vehicles and the ascertained current charge state of the driving battery of at least some of these vehicles.

The arrangement may further comprise: a storage device for storing empirical values for time-related energy consumptions and / or average elapsed times between two charging processes and / or average distance-related energy consumption values for

electrically driven vehicles.

The arrangement may also include: receiving means for receiving messages or signals originating from a arranged on board the vehicles mobile telecommunications ¬ device or by an element located on-board vehicle transponder.

The described embodiments of the arrangement have the same advantages which have been mentioned above in connection with the method.

The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to exemplary embodiments. For this purpose, an exemplary embodiment of the arrangement according to the invention with exemplary method steps is shown in the single FIGURE.

In the figure, a first geographical Ge ¬ Bidding 1, a second geographic area 2, a third ¬ geo graphical region 3 and a fourth geographic region 4 are shown schematically. These four geographical areas adjoin one another, dividing one area into four geographical areas. The first geographical area 1 is assigned a first loading device 11, the second geographical area 2 is assigned a second loading device 12, the third geographical area 3 is assigned two third loading devices 13 and the fourth geographical area 4 is assigned a fourth loading device 14. Can be in these chargers, it is in the exemplary embodiment to Elektroener ¬ energy charging stations at which electric vehicles driven by means of a charging cable or by means of inductive energy transfer with electrical energy. The first charging device 11 is connected by means of a first power supply line 16a to an energy-reducing device 18 of a power supply network 20. Likewise, the second charging device 12 is electrically connected by means of a two ¬ th power supply line 16b, the third charging means 13 by means of a third power supply line 16c and the fourth loading device 14 by means of a fourth power supply line 16d to the power steering device 18th The first power supply line 16a, the second power supply line 16b, the third power supply line 16c, and the fourth power supply line 16d form a feed network for the charging devices 11, 12, 13, and 14.

In the first geographical area 1, a first receiving device 22 is arranged. This first receiving device 22 (which is, for example, an antenna) is electrically connected to a first detection device 24. The first detection means 24 is electrically connected by means of communication lines 26 to an energy quantity detection means 30 and a state of charge detection means 32. The energy quantity determination device 30 and the state of charge determination device 32 are part of a central energy control device 34. The energy quantity determination device 30 is used to determine the area-specific energy quantities and to reserve these amounts of energy for the individual geographical areas. Upon determination of the amounts of energy, the energy-reducing device 18 of the energy supply network 20 is able to direct or direct the area-specific energy quantities determined via the feed network 16a, 16b, 16c, 16d to the charging devices of the respective geographical areas.

In the same way, the second geographical area 2 has a second receiving device 37 and a second detecting device 39. Likewise, the third geographical area 3 has a third receiving device 42 and a third detecting device 45. The fourth geographical area 4 has a fourth receiving device 48 and a fourth detecting device 50. In addition, the fourth geographical area 4 has a fifth reception device 52 and a fifth detection device 54. In each geographical area so at least one Ladeeinrich ¬ tung, at least one receiving device and at least one detector are arranged.

The state of charge detection device 32 is further connected to a memory device 60 by means of communication lines 26. The memory device 60 has a first memory 62, a second memory 64 and a third memory 66. In the first memory 62, time-related energy consumption values of electrically driven vehicles are stored. In the second memory 64 average elapsed time between charges are stored for electrically driven vehicles and in the third memory 66 are for electrically driven vehicles distance-related average energy consumption values abge ¬ stores. This data can be stored in each vehicle individually from ¬. These data can also as a means ¬ values for different vehicle classes (eg. As small cars, compact cars, midsize car, etc.) or for vehicles (motorcycles, cars or trucks, etc.) to be stored. Furthermore, the state of charge detection device 32 is connected to a timer 70 via a communication line 26. Finally, the state of charge detection device 32 is connected via a further communication line 26 to a vehicle locating device 73. This vehicle location device 73 can determine the current location and / or the travel movements of the vehicles, for example using the known GPS system (GPS = Global Positioning System).

In the following, various embodiments of a method for determining the amount of electric energy amount for supplying the charging devices will be described. First embodiment:

In the first embodiment there are currently three electrically driven vehicles 80, 81 and 82 in the first geo ¬ graphic arts 1. The first vehicle 80 is parked in a parking lot in the geographical territory. 1 The second

Vehicle 81 and the third vehicle 82 driving around in the current ers ¬ th geographic area first

On board the first vehicle 80, a first traction battery 84 and a first mobile telecommunication device 86 are arranged, the latter being switched on and active. On board the second vehicle 81, a second traction battery 88 and a second mobile telecommunication device 90 are arranged. Onboard the third vehicle 82, a third battery 92, a third mobile telecommunication device 94 and a transponder 96 are arranged.

The first receiving means 22 receives from the first telecommunication device 86 of the first vehicle 80 excluded broadcast signals, arrow 100. Likewise, receives the first Emp ¬ catching means 22 of the second telecommunication device 90 of the second vehicle 81 and from the third telecommunication device 94 of the third vehicle 82 from - sent signals. The first receiving device 22 forwards the signals to the first detection device 24, arrow 101. This first detection device 24 evaluates the signals and recognizes that the three electrically driven vehicles 80, 81 and 82 are located in the first geographical area 1. This number ("three vehicles in the first geographical area") as well as optional other identifiers (such as a vehicle identification number) of the detected vehicles 80, 81 and 82 are supplied from the first detection means 24 via the communication lines 26 to the energy quantity detection means 30 Subsequently, in the energy quantity determination device 30 and the state of charge determination device 32, the information is present that currently the three electrically operated vehicles 80, 81 and 82 in the first geographical area 1.

Alternatively or additionally, it can also be recognized by means of the transponder 96 arranged in the third vehicle 82 that the third vehicle 82 is located in the first geographical area 1. With a transponder reading device arranged in the first geographical area 1, the transponder 96 is excited to emit a signal when the transponder 96 is in the vicinity of the reading device. Upon receipt of such a signal at the Leseein ¬ direction will be appreciated that the third vehicle 82 is in the first geographic area. 1 Then the current state of charge of the traction batteries of these three vehicles 80, 81 and 82 is determined. First reads the charge state determination means 32 from the first memory 62 of the memory means 60 the information from when the last charging of the vehicle 80 taken place has and how large the average time-related Ener ¬ sumption of the vehicle 80 is, arrow reads 103. Further, the state of charge detection means 32 from the timer 70 shows the current time and date, arrow 105.

Then, the state of charge detecting means 32 determines the state of charge of the vehicle battery 80 using the relationship:

(missing in traction battery energy quantity) = (since last charge elapsed time) x (time-related energy consumption ¬).

In the example it is assumed that since the last charging process ¬ elapsed time is 50 hours and that the average time-related energy consumption 0.3

kWh / hour. This results in the lack of energy in the driving battery 84 of the vehicle 80 to:

50 hours x 0.3 kWh / hour = 15 kWh.

Thus, the state of charge detection device 32 has determined the state of charge of the traction battery 84 of the first vehicle 80: The traction battery 84 of the first vehicle 80 requires 15 kWh for charging.

In the same way, the state of charge of the traction battery 88 is determined for the vehicle 81: the vehicle 81 has an energy requirement of 10 kWh. For the vehicle 82 are in the storage device 60 no information, therefore, is the mean of the energy requirements of the vehicles 80 and 81 are used as the energy requirements for the vehicle 82: The Ener ¬ energy requirement of the vehicle 82 is thus 0.5 * (15 + 10) kWh = 12.5 kWh. This energy requirement values (vehicle 80: 15 kWh; driving ¬ convincing 81: 10 kWh; vehicle 82: 12.5 kWh) relating to the current state of charge of the driving battery is transmitted from the charging condition detection means 32 to the power quantity detecting means 30, arrow 104 ,

The energy quantity determination device 30 determines by summation of these individual values, the area-specific energy ¬ quantity for the first geographical area. The area-specific see amount of energy El for the first geographical area ¬ be ¬ 15 kWh + 10 kWh + 12.5 kWh = 37.5 kWh. This determined the specific energy quantity El = 37.5 kWh for the first geographic area.

The area-specific amount of energy El in the first geographical ¬ phical area indicates that in the first geographical area 1 overall amount of energy of 37.5 kWh is required if all immediately in the first geographical area loading-sensitive vehicles 80, 81 and 82, the Charging device 11 would use to charge their traction batteries.

As a next step, the reserved power amount Determined ¬ averaging means 30 this determined area-specific amount of energy of 37.5 kWh for the first geographic area for a freely selectable period of time, for example for coming ¬ 30 min. This reservation and the size of gebietsspe ¬-specific amount of energy divides the power amount discovery ¬ device 30 via communication lines 26 to the power supply network 20, arrow 108. Thus, the power supply system 20 is instructed when required ready hold this amount of energy for the period of the next 30 min in the event that the vehicles in the first geographic area should request a charge.

Second embodiment:

The second exemplary embodiment differs from the first exemplary embodiment in that the state of charge determining device 32 retrieves information about the respectively average times between two charging processes for the vehicles 80, 81 and 82 instead of the time-related energy consumptions from the second memory 64 of the memory device 60 , Arrow 109. Then, the state of charge detection means 32 compares the elapsed times for the individual vehicles since the last charging with these average elapsed times. For example, this results for the vehicle 80 that the the average elapsed time between two charges is 48 hours and 24 hours have elapsed since the last charge. From these values, the state of charge detection device 32 determines that the traction battery of the vehicle 80 is halfway discharged and that this vehicle (if it were currently using the first charging device 11 to charge the traction battery) would require an amount of energy for this charging process, which corresponds to half the amount of energy storable in the traction battery. In the exemplary embodiment, this is an amount of energy of 20 kWh.

In the same way, the state of charge determined investigative averaging means 32 that the vehicle 81 with respect to the traction battery would an amount of energy of 10 kWh and for the vehicle 82 requires an amount of energy of 5 kWh with immediate Aufla ¬ dung.

This information is transmitted from the charging condition detection means 32 to the power quantity detecting means 30, arrow 112. The energy-amount determination means 30 then determines that the area-specific for the first geographical ¬ phical region 1 quantity of energy El current (20 kWh + 10 kWh + 5 kWh) = 35 kWh. The power quantity detecting means 30 is reserved in this exemplary embodiment this amount of energy of 35 kWh for the next time interval (for example for the next 30 min) and transmits information about the area-specific Ener ¬ giemenge El and the reservation of the power supply ¬ network 20, arrow 114 Thereafter, the power supply network 20 plans the power capacities to be able to supply the amount of power El = 35 kWh to the first charging device 11 of the first geographical area 1 within the next 30 minutes via the first power supply line 16a. Third embodiment:

The third embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that the state of charge ER- averaging means 32 from the third memory 66 of the storage device 60 information on the average distance-related energy consumption values of the vehicles 80 and 81 reads, arrow 120. For example, for the driving ¬ convincing 80 stores the information that the average distance-related energy consumption value is 0.1 kWh / km. Furthermore, queries the state of charge of investigation device from 32 from the vehicle location device 73, the information of how far the vehicle has traveled 80 since the last La ¬ devorgang, arrow 122. The vehicle positioning means 73 knows the path of the vehicle 80 since the last charging and can determine the length of the route. For example, the vehicle location device 73 cooperates with a navigation system of the vehicle 80 or with the on-board computer of the vehicle 80 and receives data about the current location of the vehicle 80 from this navigation system or on-board computer. In the exemplary embodiment, the vehicle has been 150 since the last charging process km driven far. From these values, the state of charge Ermittlungsein- determined direction 32 that the vehicle has consumed an amount of energy of (0.1 kWh / km x 150 km = 15 kWh) since the last charging process, and that the state of charge of the traction battery demzu ¬ follow a missing amount of energy in the size of 15 kWh. This information sends the charging condition detection means 32 to the power quantity detecting means 30, arrow 124. The energy-amount determination means 30 adds information required by the three vehicles amounts of energy in a known manner and thus receives in the third embodiment, the area specific energy ¬ amount for the first geographical area for the first charging device 11. Fourth embodiment:

The fourth embodiment differs from the first embodiments in that the vehicle sends 80 by means of which is arranged on board the vehicle mobile tele ¬ communication device 86 a message to the first receiving means 22, wherein this message Informa ¬ functions of the charge state of the traction battery 84 of the vehicle 80, arrow 125. This information is forwarded via the first detection device 24 and the communication lines 26 to the energy quantity determination device 30, arrow 130. In the same way, the energy ¬ gen-determining means 30 receives information about the state of charge of the traction batteries of vehicles 81 and 82. Thereafter, the energy amount detection means 30 sums them up

Energy amounts and determined in this Ausführungsbei ¬ game the area-specific amount of energy for the first geo ¬ graphical area 1. This amount of energy is then reserved and information about the area-specific amount of energy and the reservation are transmitted to the power supply ¬ network 20.

Fifth Embodiment: The fifth embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that only the number of electrically drivable vehicles currently located in the geographical area is used to determine the area-specific energy amount (the state of charge of the traction batteries is disregarded). As already erläu tert ¬, the number of vehicles currently in the first geographical area 3. The energy quantity determination means 30 reads from the storage device 60 from the information that an average per vehicle, there is a quantity of energy consumption of 12 kWh.

Thereafter, the amount of energy detection means 30 determines that the area-specific amount of energy for the first geographical area 1 has the following size: three vehicles x 12 kWh / vehicle = 36 kWh. These area-specific energy ¬ amount is allocated and information about the gebietsspe ¬-specific amount of energy and the reservation

are sent to the power grid 20.

Sixth embodiment:

In the sixth embodiment, it is assumed that a size of 30 kWh was determined for the area-specific amount of energy for the first geographic area 1 and that a size of 60 kWh was determined for the area-specific amount of energy for the fourth geographi ¬ specific area. 4 The energy amount determination means 30 then transmits to the power supply network 20 the information that the area-specific energy quantity for the first geographical area 1 is only 50% of the size of the area-specific energy quantity for the fourth geographical area 4. It ¬ towards applies the power supply network 20 Before, during the next time interval (for example, during the next 30 min) 66% of the total available amount of energy of the fourth power supply line 16d to be transmitted to the fourth charging device 14 of the fourth geographical area 4 and only 33 % of the available total amount of energy via the first power supply line 16a to the first charging device 11 of the first geographical area 1 to transmit. In other words, no information about the absolute size of the area-specific energy quantities is transmitted here, but information about a relative share of the total available energy.

Seventh embodiment:

The seventh embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that the first Erfas ¬ sungseinrichtung 24 detects in the evaluation of the received signals from the vehicles 80, 81 and 82 that only the vehicles 80 and 81 belong to a subset of vehicles. The first detection device 24 detects this on the basis of transmitted with the signals of the vehicles. In the exemplary embodiment, this subset are indicative Kennzei ¬ chen only contained in the originating from the vehicles 80 and 81 signals. By evaluating the license plate is clearly recognized that the vehicles 80 and 81 belong to the subset.

In the exemplary embodiment, the vehicles 80 and 81 are in fact rented by a specific car rental company and therefore belong to the vehicle fleet of this car rental company.

In this seventh exemplary embodiment, the number "subset" of the vehicles is therefore the number "two", since only the two vehicles 80 and 81 of the subset (vehicle fleet) are located in the first geographical area 1. In the exemplary embodiments, area-specific energy quantities have been described as examples the first geographical area 1, and determines for the fourth geographical area. 4 In moving ¬ cher, such area-specific quantities of energy can also be determined for the second geographic area 2 and for the third geographical area. 3

A method and an arrangement has been described with which the size of energy amounts to be made available for the individual geographical areas can be determined. For this purpose, a recording (monitoring) of the number of electrically driven vehicles in the individual geographical areas takes place and the state of charge of the traction batteries of these vehicles is determined. By means of these information , in each case a region-specific amount of energy is determined. This amount of energy can be reserved for a certain time span ¬ and related information is transmitted to the power grid. At the end of the period, the procedure is repeated. This will make it makes it possible to predict the energy demand of the charging devices for electrically driven vehicles in the individual geographical areas and to make provisions that the vehicles can be supplied with a sufficiently large amount of energy if necessary.

Claims

claims
A method for determining the amount of electrical energy quantity for supplying electrically-powered vehicle charging devices (80, 81, 82) via a feed network (16a, 16b, 16c, 16d) comprising one or more geographic areas (1, 2, 3, 4) in each case at least one charging device (11, 12, 13, 14) is assigned, wherein
 the number of electrically driven vehicles currently in the area (1) or the areas (80,
81, 82) or the number of a subset (80, 81) of these vehicles is detected, and
- By means of the recorded number for the area (1) or the areas in each case the size of a region-specific amount of energy for the provision of the at least one respectively ¬ to ordered charging device (11) is determined (108).
2. The method according to claim 1,
d a d u r c h e c e n c i n e s that
- the current state of charge of the traction battery in at least some of the field (1) or the fields of vehicles located (80) or the current state of charge of a Fahrbatte ¬ rie at least some vehicles of the subset is determined, and
- The size of the area-specific amount of energy to provide for the at least one respectively associated charging device (11) is determined by means of the detected number and the determined current charge states for the area (1) or the areas.
3. The method according to claim 2,
d a d u r c h e c e n c i n e s that
- Vehicles of the current charge state of a traction battery of at least some within the geographical area (1) or the fields contained (80) or the current charge state of a Fahrbatte ¬ rie at least some vehicles the subset is determined by each elapsed for the vehicles since last charge Time is determined (103, 105) and by means of empirical values relating to the time-related energy consumption of the vehicles (103), the state of charge is estimated.
4. The method according to claim 2 or 3,
d a d u r c h e c e n c i n e s that
- the current state of charge of a running battery of at least some of the area (1) or the areas located vehicles (80) or the current state of charge of a driving range of at least some vehicles of the subset is determined by for each of the vehicles since elapsed since the last load Time is determined (103, 105), this elapsed time is compared with the average time for the Fahr ¬ witness in the past time between two charging operations (109), and based on this comparison, the state of charge is estimated.
5. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 4,
d a d u r c h e c e n c i n e s that
- The current state of charge of a running battery of at least some of the in the area (1) or the areas located vehicles (80) or the current state of charge of a Fahrbatte ¬ ¬ rie of at least some vehicles of the subset is determined by the each since the last charging distance traveled the vehicle is determined (122) and the state of charge is estimated by means of average distance-related energy consumption values (120).
6. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 5,
d a d u r c h e c e n c i n e s that
 - the current state of charge of a driving battery of at least some of the in the area (1) or the areas located vehicles or the current state of charge of a driving battery of at least some vehicles of the subset is determined by a corresponding message is received from the vehicles (125).
7. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that
 the number of vehicles currently in the area (1) or areas (80, 81, 82) or the number of a subset (80, 81) of these vehicles is recorded by means of messages or signals (100) on board the vessel Vehicles arranged mobile telecommunication device (86) or a transponder (96).
8. An arrangement for determining the amount of electrical energy quantity for supplying charging devices for electrically driven vehicles (80, 81, 82) via a supply network (16a, 16b, 16c, 16d), one or more geographical areas (1, 2 , 3, 4) each having at least one charging device (11, 12, 13, 14) is assigned, with
- At least one detecting means (24) for detecting the number of currently located in the area (1) or the areas electrically driven vehicles (80, 81, 82) or for detecting the number of a subset (80, 81) of these vehicles, and
- An energy quantity detecting means (30) for determining the size of a region-specific amount of energy to provide for the respective at least one charging device (11) for the area (1) or the areas by means of the detected number.
9. Arrangement according to claim 8,
marked by
 - A state of charge detection device (32) for determining the respective current state of charge of a traction battery (84, 88, 92) of electrically driven vehicles (80, 81, 82).
10. Arrangement according to claim 8 or 9,
d a d u r c h e c e n c i n e s that
 the energy quantity determining device (30) is set up by means of the number of detected vehicles (80,
81, 82) and the determined current state of charge of the traction battery (84, 88, 92) of at least some of these vehicles (80, 81, 82) each determine the size of the area-specific energy quantity for the area (1) or the areas.
11. Arrangement according to one of claims 8 to 10,
marked by
 a memory device (60) for storing empirical values for time-related energy consumptions (62) and / or average elapsed times between two charging processes (64) and / or average distance-related energy consumption values (66) for electrically driven vehicles (80, 81, 82).
12. Arrangement according to one of claims 8 to 11,
marked by
- Receiving means (22) for receiving messages or signals (100, 125) arranged by a on board the vehicles (80, 81, 82) arranged mobile telecommunication device (86, 90, 94) or of an on board the vehicles Transponder (96) come.
PCT/EP2011/064985 2011-08-31 2011-08-31 Method and arrangement for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy WO2013029670A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/EP2011/064985 WO2013029670A1 (en) 2011-08-31 2011-08-31 Method and arrangement for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/EP2011/064985 WO2013029670A1 (en) 2011-08-31 2011-08-31 Method and arrangement for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2013029670A1 true WO2013029670A1 (en) 2013-03-07

Family

ID=44583002

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2011/064985 WO2013029670A1 (en) 2011-08-31 2011-08-31 Method and arrangement for determining the magnitude of an amount of electrical energy

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2013029670A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2746093A1 (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-25 Fundació Privada Barcelona Digital Centre Tecnologic Method and apparatus for optimized management of an electric vehicle charging infrastructure
WO2014183942A1 (en) * 2013-05-13 2014-11-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for automatically ascertaining the power requirement and/or the occupancy requirement of an electric filling station, and associated dp installations

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102007029877A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-02-14 GM Global Technology Operations, Inc., Detroit System and method for optimizing a charging of an electric / hybrid vehicle via a supply network
WO2008073453A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-19 V2Green, Inc. Power aggregation system for distributed electric resources
US20100079004A1 (en) * 2008-10-01 2010-04-01 Keefe Robert A System and Method for Managing the Distributed Generation of Power by a Plurality of Electric Vehicles
DE102009043380A1 (en) * 2009-09-29 2011-04-07 Ewe Ag Charging control system for controlling unidirectional charging process of electrical vehicle, has charging control unit receiving predicted charging motion and controlling charging of battery in relation to unidirectional charging motion
DE102010027726A1 (en) * 2010-04-14 2012-05-10 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Electrical power providing method for electrical energy network for battery electric vehicle, involves determining driving profile of vehicle, and providing electrical power to network as function of energy requirement prediction

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102007029877A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-02-14 GM Global Technology Operations, Inc., Detroit System and method for optimizing a charging of an electric / hybrid vehicle via a supply network
WO2008073453A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-19 V2Green, Inc. Power aggregation system for distributed electric resources
US20100079004A1 (en) * 2008-10-01 2010-04-01 Keefe Robert A System and Method for Managing the Distributed Generation of Power by a Plurality of Electric Vehicles
DE102009043380A1 (en) * 2009-09-29 2011-04-07 Ewe Ag Charging control system for controlling unidirectional charging process of electrical vehicle, has charging control unit receiving predicted charging motion and controlling charging of battery in relation to unidirectional charging motion
DE102010027726A1 (en) * 2010-04-14 2012-05-10 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Electrical power providing method for electrical energy network for battery electric vehicle, involves determining driving profile of vehicle, and providing electrical power to network as function of energy requirement prediction

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2746093A1 (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-25 Fundació Privada Barcelona Digital Centre Tecnologic Method and apparatus for optimized management of an electric vehicle charging infrastructure
WO2014183942A1 (en) * 2013-05-13 2014-11-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for automatically ascertaining the power requirement and/or the occupancy requirement of an electric filling station, and associated dp installations

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
EP1067498B1 (en) Shared vehicle system and method involving reserving vehicles with highest states of electrical charge
JP5575760B2 (en) Charging spot search system
JP4365429B2 (en) Vehicle equipped with a navigation device and a device for displaying charge information
EP2641313B1 (en) System and method for updating charge station information
US8862388B2 (en) Apparatus, method and article for providing locations of power storage device collection, charging and distribution machines
US8446124B2 (en) Method for recharging electric vehicles in geographically distributed recharging stations
CN104182492B (en) Information providing means
EP1067481A2 (en) Vehicle sharing system and method with parking state detection
JP5120204B2 (en) Travel guidance device, travel guidance method, and computer program
JP2014500697A (en) System and method for routing to a charging station
JP5454537B2 (en) Electric vehicle charging control system
EP2985172A1 (en) Location-based electric power mediation module, electric vehicle, mediation server, and user certification socket or connector
US20100094496A1 (en) System and Method for Operating an Electric Vehicle
US20120158229A1 (en) Electric vehicle having a gps based gas station reservation function
JP5607427B2 (en) Charging vehicle allocation management server and charging vehicle allocation management system
US8463472B2 (en) Charge monitoring apparatus
CA2798221C (en) Method and guidance-unit for guiding transportation means with batteries to reconditioning stations
EP1742188A2 (en) Data processing apparatus for probe traffic information and data processing system and method for probe traffic information
JP5077701B2 (en) Power supply control device
US20110184842A1 (en) Energy transfer systems and methods for mobile vehicles
DE112010000433T5 (en) Remote power management for plug-in vehicles
US8473135B2 (en) Information and telecommunications system, vehicular device, center device, and method for controlling the system
US9830753B2 (en) Apparatus, method and article for reserving power storage devices at reserving power storage device collection, charging and distribution machines
JP5938802B2 (en) Method for identifying nearest parking space available from vehicle, vehicle assistance system suitable therefor, and user terminal device for vehicle assistance system
DE102011084223A1 (en) Method and system for monitoring an energy storage system for a vehicle for travel planning

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 11752524

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase

Ref document number: 11752524

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1