JP5460622B2 - Hierarchical supply and demand control device and power system control system - Google Patents

Hierarchical supply and demand control device and power system control system Download PDF

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JP5460622B2
JP5460622B2 JP2011020477A JP2011020477A JP5460622B2 JP 5460622 B2 JP5460622 B2 JP 5460622B2 JP 2011020477 A JP2011020477 A JP 2011020477A JP 2011020477 A JP2011020477 A JP 2011020477A JP 5460622 B2 JP5460622 B2 JP 5460622B2
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supply
storage battery
pv
distributed power
demand
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JP2012161202A (en
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秀明 平野
康弘 小島
博幸 橋本
マルタ マルミローリ
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三菱電機株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/563Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications

Description

  The present invention relates to a hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus that performs supply and demand control of a power system and a power system control system including the same.

  A system or device for controlling an electric power system is disclosed in, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2. Patent Document 1 discloses a plurality of power storage devices connected to a power system, a detection unit that detects a system frequency and a power system state in an area, and power between each of the plurality of power storage devices and the power system. First control for controlling the plurality of power storage devices based on the power system state detected by the detector according to the control order of the power storage devices connected to the power system, determined based on a predetermined parameter related to power transmission efficiency A power supply system configured to include a unit is disclosed.

  Patent Document 2 discloses a distributed power source installed by consumers and customers who are spread across the power system of the jurisdiction by voluntarily controlling the received power of the customer in the power system of the jurisdiction. An electric power system control device used for supply and demand adjustment is disclosed regardless of the interconnection point voltage.

  In the technique disclosed in Patent Document 2, a power supply condition for adjusting supply and demand of generated power or a load in a block set in a power system under jurisdiction is presented to a public electronic information processing organization such as the Internet as a power supply condition command. . The consumer receives the power supply condition command via the Internet or the like and recognizes the power supply condition.

  The customer voluntarily controls the generated or received power according to the operating conditions of the distributed power supply and load equipment installed by the customer based on the presented power supply conditions, and at the same time adjusts the power by voluntary control. Measure quantity by time of day. The power supply command center revises the block range subject to supply and demand adjustment in consideration of past spontaneous control selection characteristics of consumers in the jurisdiction according to the supply and demand adjustment amount.

JP 2010-233353 A JP 2001-177990 A

  In the technique disclosed in Patent Document 1 described above, the storage battery is controlled by the control device in the substation according to the power system state in the area. However, in the technique disclosed in Patent Document 1, storage batteries existing in different regions are not taken into consideration, and the control performed by the control unit is control in each region.

  In actual operation, a storage battery in a certain area (hereinafter referred to as “A area”) is charged and can be discharged, but in a different area from A area (hereinafter referred to as “B area”), the storage battery is empty. As a result, it cannot be discharged, and instead a thermal power generator with a high power generation cost generates power. In this case, considering the economy, the storage battery in the A area is discharged and supplied to the B area, and the thermal power generator in the B area is stopped, thereby reducing the cost required for power generation. It is considered possible.

  However, the technology disclosed in Patent Document 1 does not consider storage batteries that exist in different regions as described above. Therefore, there is a problem that it is difficult to perform control such as stopping the thermal power generator in the B area when the storage battery in the A area can be discharged.

  Patent Document 2 described above discloses the supply and demand operation by the central power supply command station or the local power supply command station. In the technique disclosed in Patent Document 2, a supervised consumer or a distributed power source installed by a consumer is individually monitored and indirect control based on price information is performed.

  As described above, since the technique disclosed in Patent Literature 2 needs to be individually monitored, when the number of consumers and distributed power sources existing under management increases, the number of monitoring control targets increases. For example, when the number of photovoltaic power generation (PV) devices and storage batteries that are distributed power sources is significantly increased, the number of monitoring and control targets increases significantly. There is a risk that monitoring and control work at the site may not be possible.

  An object of the present invention is to provide a hierarchical power supply and demand control device capable of easily controlling the entire power system including a large number of distributed power sources and a power system control system including the same without being limited by a physical hierarchical structure. Is to provide.

A hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus according to the present invention is a hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus that hierarchically aggregates and controls a plurality of distributed power supplies connected to an electric power system, and is based on a predetermined index. And a control processing unit for controlling the distributed power source for each set of distributed power sources aggregated by the aggregation processing unit, wherein the plurality of distributed power sources includes a storage battery, the index, Ri index der showing the performance of the distributed power supply includes at least one of the charging efficiency and residual capacity of the storage battery, there are a plurality of types of the index to the dispersed type power supply, either the If the remaining capacity of the battery is close to full charge or empty state, the index used for aggregation of the dispersed type power supply, wherein the be subject to change the remaining capacity.
The hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus of the present invention is a hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus that hierarchically aggregates and controls a plurality of distributed power sources connected to an electric power system, and is based on a predetermined index. An aggregation processing unit that aggregates power sources, and a control processing unit that controls the distributed power source for each set of distributed power sources aggregated by the aggregation processing unit, wherein the plurality of distributed power sources are solar power generation Device and storage battery, wherein the index is an index indicating the performance of the distributed power source, and includes a rated output of the photovoltaic power generation device, at least one of charging efficiency and remaining capacity of the storage battery, and the distributed type When there are a plurality of types of indicators for the power source, and the remaining capacity of any of the storage batteries approaches a fully charged or empty state, the indicator used for aggregation of the distributed power sources is the remaining capacity Changed to It is characterized in.

  The power system control system of the present invention includes a hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus according to the present invention, a plurality of distributed power sources connected to the power system and controlled by the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus, and the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus. Based on the information about the distributed power source aggregated by the aggregation processing unit, the entire power system including the distributed power source is controlled by giving control information for controlling the distributed power source to the hierarchical supply and demand control device And a central power supply command device.

According to the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus of the present invention, the plurality of distributed power sources connected to the power system includes storage batteries, and is an index indicating the performance of the distributed power sources by the aggregation processing unit , and the charging efficiency of the storage batteries and Based on an index including at least one of the remaining capacities , the control processing unit controls each aggregated distributed power source set. Since the distributed power sources are aggregated based on an index indicating the performance of the distributed power source, the distributed power sources can be controlled without being limited by a physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the distributed power sources. In addition, since the distributed power source is controlled for each aggregated distributed power source set, it can be easily controlled even when the number of distributed power sources is increased and a large number of distributed power sources are installed. . Therefore, it is possible to easily control the entire power system including a large number of distributed power sources without being limited by a physical hierarchical structure such as an installation position of the distributed power sources. There are multiple types of indicators for distributed power sources, and when the remaining capacity of any storage battery approaches a fully charged or empty state, the indicator used to aggregate distributed power sources is changed to the remaining capacity. Therefore, it is possible to perform appropriate control while suppressing the influence of the remaining capacity.
Further, according to the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus of the present invention, the plurality of distributed power sources connected to the power system includes a photovoltaic power generation device and a storage battery, and is an index indicating the performance of the distributed power source by the aggregation processing unit. Then, it is aggregated based on an index including the rated output of the photovoltaic power generation apparatus and at least one of the charging efficiency and the remaining capacity of the storage battery, and is controlled by the control processing unit for each aggregated distributed power source set. Since the distributed power sources are aggregated based on an index indicating the performance of the distributed power source, the distributed power sources can be controlled without being limited by a physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the distributed power sources. In addition, since the distributed power source is controlled for each aggregated distributed power source set, it can be easily controlled even when the number of distributed power sources is increased and a large number of distributed power sources are installed. . Therefore, it is possible to easily control the entire power system including a large number of distributed power sources without being limited by a physical hierarchical structure such as an installation position of the distributed power sources. There are multiple types of indicators for distributed power sources, and when the remaining capacity of any storage battery approaches a fully charged or empty state, the indicator used to aggregate distributed power sources is changed to the remaining capacity. Therefore, it is possible to perform appropriate control while suppressing the influence of the remaining capacity.

  According to the power system control system of the present invention, since the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus of the present invention described above is provided, a large number of distributed power supplies are not limited by the physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the distributed power supply. It is possible to realize a power system control system that can easily control the entire power system including

It is a figure which shows the structure of the electric power grid | system control system 100 provided with the hierarchical type demand-and-supply control apparatus 1 which is the reference form of this invention. It is a figure which shows the structure seen from the middle supply 2 at the time of integrating the PV apparatus 3 of FIG. 1 based on a rated output. It is a figure which shows the structure of the electric power grid | system control system 101 provided with the hierarchy type demand-and-supply control apparatus 6 which is the 1st Embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the structure seen from the medium pay 2 at the time of integrating the storage battery 5 shown in FIG. 3 based on charging efficiency. It is a figure which shows the structure seen from the medium pay 2 at the time of integrating the storage battery 5 shown in FIG. 3 based on remaining capacity. It is a figure which shows the structure of the electric power grid | system control system 102 provided with the hierarchy type demand-and-supply control apparatus 8 which is the 2nd Embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the structure seen from the middle supply 2 at the time of consolidating the storage battery 5 shown in FIG. 6 based on charging efficiency, and consolidating the PV apparatus 3 based on a rated output.

< Reference form>
In the operation of the power system, the voltage and frequency must be kept stable. As a basic condition for maintaining voltage and frequency in a stable state, it is necessary to match the demand from factories and ordinary households with the supply capacity from power generators (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “generators”). . This basic condition may be referred to as “demand balance” in the following description. When a state where the supply and demand balance cannot be satisfied occurs, the voltage and frequency fluctuate, which may affect the stable power supply. In Japan, each power company is taking measures to stabilize the power system by installing various devices.

  Electric power companies maintain the stability of the power system by controlling thermal power plants and hydroelectric power plants with a central power supply command device (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “medium pay”) installed at the central power supply command center. I am doing so. However, when the number of power generation devices connected to the power system increases, there is a problem that the stability of the power system may not be maintained.

  For example, when the number of photovoltaic power generation (photovoltaic power generation; abbreviated as PV) devices connected to the power system increases, the supply power varies due to the influence of solar radiation. PV devices generate electricity when the sun is illuminating the PV device and do not generate electricity when they are not lit. In areas where there are many PV devices, if the sun suddenly illuminates the PV device or demand decreases, the supply capacity becomes excessive and the stability of the power system may be lost.

Thus, when the number of power generation devices such as PV devices connected to the power system is increased, there is a problem that the stability of the power system may not be maintained. Therefore, in this reference embodiment, the following configuration is adopted.

FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of an electric power system control system 100 including a hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus 1 that is a reference form of the present invention. The power system control system 100 includes a hierarchical supply and demand control device 1, a central power supply command device (medium supply) 2, a photovoltaic power generation (PV) device 3, and a generator 4. The generator 4 means a power generation means other than the PV device 3, and is, for example, a wind power generator, a thermal power generator, a hydraulic power generator, or the like. The PV device 3 corresponds to a distributed power source. The hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 1 controls a plurality of distributed power sources connected to the power system, that is, the PV devices 3 in this reference form, in a hierarchical manner.

  A distributed power source refers to a power source that is distributed in the vicinity of a demand area. A distributed power source is a relatively small power source as compared with a power source such as a thermal power generator installed by an electric power company. Specific examples of the distributed power source include a power generation device using natural energy such as a solar power generation (PV) device and a wind power generation device, a cogeneration system such as a fuel cell and a micro gas turbine, and a storage battery. .

  The hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 1 is provided with a plurality, specifically three. When the three hierarchical supply and demand control devices 1 are distinguished from each other, reference numerals “1A” to “1C” are used to indicate the first hierarchical supply and demand control device 1A, the second hierarchical supply and demand control device 1B, and the third hierarchy. This is shown as a mold supply and demand control device 1C. The PV device 3 is provided with a plurality, specifically six. When distinguishing and indicating the six PV devices 3, reference numerals “3A” to “3F” are used to indicate the first PV device 3A, the second PV device 3B, the third PV device 3C, the fourth PV device 3D, and the fifth PV device 3E. And a sixth PV device 3F. The generator 4 is provided with two or more, specifically two. When the two generators 4 are distinguished from each other, reference numerals “4A” and “4B” are used to indicate the first generator 4A and the second generator 4B.

  In the power system control system 100, the first tier demand-and-supply control device 1A and the first and second generators 4A and 4B are connected to the lower layer of the mid-supply 2. Further, the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 1B and 1C are connected to the lower layer of the first tier type supply and demand control device 1A. Moreover, the 1st-3rd PV apparatus 3A-3C is connected to the lower layer of the 2nd hierarchy type demand-and-supply control apparatus 1B. Also, the fourth to sixth PV devices 3D to 3F are connected to the lower layer of the third tier supply and demand control device 1C.

  The first tier supply and demand control apparatus 1A includes a PV aggregation processing unit 11, a PV control processing unit 12, an upper layer interface 13, and a lower layer interface 14. The second and third tier demand-and-supply control devices 1B and 1C have the same configuration as the first tier demand-and-supply control device 1A. Although not shown in FIG. 1, the PV aggregation processing unit 11, the PV control processing The unit 12 includes an upper layer interface 13 and a lower layer interface 14.

  The PV aggregation processing unit 11 aggregates the lower-layer PV devices 3 based on one or more predetermined indexes. The PV control processing unit 12 calculates the output suppression amount of the PV device 3 based on the control information transmitted from the upper layer in order to control the PV device 3 under management. The “output suppression amount” is an amount indicating how much power output from the PV device 3 to the power system is suppressed.

The upper layer interface 13 transmits and receives information to and from the upper layer. In this preferred embodiment, the upper layer interface 13, the PV device 3 information aggregated by the PV aggregation processing unit 11 (hereinafter sometimes referred to as "PV information") to the upper layer. In the case of the first tier supply and demand control apparatus 1 </ b> A, the directly connected upper layer is middle salary 2, so the upper layer interface 13 transmits the PV information to middle salary 2. In the case of the second and third hierarchy type supply and demand control devices 1B and 1C, the directly connected upper layer is the first hierarchy type supply and demand control device 1A, and therefore, the upper layer interface 13 receives the PV information from the first hierarchy type supply and demand control. Transmit to device 1A. The PV information is, for example, a rated output. In the following description, a group of aggregated PV devices 3 may be referred to as an “aggregated PV device”.

  The upper layer interface 13 receives control information transmitted from the upper layer. In the case of the first tier supply and demand control apparatus 1A, the upper layer interface 13 receives control information transmitted from the medium pay 2 that is the upper layer. In the case of the second and third tier demand-and-supply control apparatuses 1B and 1C, the upper layer interface 13 receives control information transmitted from the first tier demand-and-supply control apparatus 1A that is the upper layer. The control information transmitted from the upper layer includes an index used for aggregation of the PV devices 3 in the PV aggregation processing unit 11.

  The lower layer interface 14 transmits and receives information to and from the lower layer. Specifically, the lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the lower layer. In the case of the first tier type supply and demand control device 1A, the directly connected lower layers are the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 1B and 1C. Therefore, the lower layer interface 14 provides the second and third tier type supply and demand control. Control information is transmitted to the devices 1B and 1C. In the case of the second and third hierarchical type supply and demand control devices 1B and 1C, the directly connected lower layer is the PV device 3, so the lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the PV device 3.

  The lower layer interface 14 receives PV information such as rated output transmitted from the lower layer. In the case of the first tier supply and demand control apparatus 1A, the lower layer interface 14 receives PV information transmitted from the second and third tier supply and demand control apparatuses 1B and 1C, which are lower layers. In the case of the second and third layer type supply and demand control devices 1B and 1C, the lower layer interface 14 receives the PV information transmitted from the PV device 3 which is the lower layer.

  The medium pay 2 includes a medium pay communication interface 21 and a medium pay control processing unit 22. The mid-supply communication interface 21 receives lower layer information transmitted from the lower layer. Specifically, the mid-supply communication interface 21 receives information on the aggregated PV device (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “aggregated PV information”) transmitted from the first tier demand-and-supply control device 1 </ b> A, and from the generator 4. Information of the generator 4 to be transmitted (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “generator information”) is received. The mid-supply communication interface 21 gives the received lower-layer information, specifically aggregated PV information and generator information, to the mid-supply control processing unit 22. Further, the mid-supply communication interface 21 transmits control information including an index and a set value used in a mid-supply control processing unit 22 to be described later to the lower layer, specifically, the first tier type supply and demand control device 1A, and the first and It transmits to 2nd generator 4A, 4B.

  The mid-supply control processing unit 22 controls the power system based on lower layer information such as aggregated PV information and generator information given from the mid-supply communication interface 21 and an index selected by the operator. Perform the operation.

  As described above, the PV aggregation processing unit 11 of the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus 1 aggregates the lower-layer PV apparatuses 3 based on one or more predetermined indexes. The aggregation method varies depending on the index. When there are a plurality of indices, the PV aggregation processing unit 11 aggregates the PV devices 3 based on the respective indices. The index is, for example, the rated output of the PV device 3. When the index is the rated output of the PV device 3, the PV aggregation processing unit 11 compares the PV device 3 with a magnitude relationship as compared with a predetermined PV aggregation threshold, for example, as shown in the following formula (1). Classify and aggregate. The PV aggregation threshold is a setting value given by the operator as a threshold when the PV devices 3 are aggregated.

Specifically, as shown in Expression (1), when the PVi rated output is larger than the PV aggregation threshold, the PV aggregation processing unit 11 aggregates PVi into a high output group, and the PVi rated output is PV aggregated. When it is less than or equal to the threshold, PVi is aggregated into a low output group. In the formula (1), PVi indicates the iPV device of the plurality of PV devices 3. For example, PV1 indicates the first PV device 3A. The variable i represents an integer of 1 to m, and the variable m represents the number of PV devices 3. In this preferred embodiment, since the variable m is 6, the variable i is an integer of 1-6.

  The index used for aggregation of the PV device 3 is not limited to the rated output of the PV device 3, and may be, for example, the power generation efficiency of the PV device 3. When a plurality of indexes are defined, the PV aggregation processing unit 11 creates groups based on the respective indexes, so that a plurality of groups (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “aggregation groups”) can be formed. Moreover, the variation of the PV apparatus 3 for every hierarchical supply-demand control apparatus 1 is also known by changing the PV aggregation threshold. In actual operation, for example, the PV aggregation threshold is set to 500 kW, the PV device 3 whose rated output is larger than 500 kW is set as the control target of the medium supply 2, and the PV device 3 having the rated output of 500 kW or less is controlled as the medium supply 2. It can also be excluded.

  Table 1 shows PV information of the first to sixth PV devices 3A to 3F shown in FIG. In Table 1, the rated output of the PV device 3 is shown as PV information. Table 1 also shows a region where the PV device 3 is installed (hereinafter also referred to as “installation region”). Here, the installation area of the first to third PV devices 3A to 3C is indicated as “A area”, the installation area of the fourth to sixth PV devices 3D to 3F is indicated as “B area”, and the A area and the B area are Be different.

  As shown in Table 1, the rated output of the first PV device 3A is larger than the second to sixth PV devices 3B to 3F, which are other PV devices. The first to third PV devices 3A to 3C are installed in the A region, and the fourth to sixth PV devices 3D to 3F are installed in the B region different from the A region.

  Table 2 shows the result of the aggregation process performed on the first to sixth PV apparatuses 3A to 3F using the rated output as an index by the PV aggregation processing unit 11 of the first hierarchy type supply and demand control apparatus 1A. Table 2 shows PV rated output aggregation information that is aggregated PV information when the PV devices 3 are aggregated using the rated output as an index. The aggregated PV information shown in Table 2 is aggregated PV information when the aggregation process is performed according to the above-described formula (1).

  As shown in Table 2, the first PV device 3A is aggregated into a high output group, and the second to sixth PV devices 3B to 3F are aggregated into a low output group. As a result, for example, an aggregated PV device aggregated in a high-output group (hereinafter also referred to as “high-output aggregated PV device” in some cases) is set as a control target by the medium pay 2, and an aggregated PV device aggregated in a low-output group (hereinafter, It may be possible to perform control such as excluding “sometimes referred to as“ low output aggregate PV device ”” from being controlled.

  Table 3 shows PV region aggregation information that is aggregated PV information when the PV devices 3 are aggregated using the installation region as an index.

  In the conventional technology, as shown in Table 3, aggregation is performed using the installation area as an index. In this case, the first to third PV devices 3A to 3C are aggregated into a group in the A region, and the fourth to sixth PV devices 3D to 3F are aggregated into a group in the B region. The first PV device 3A and the second and third PV devices 3B and 3C are grouped in the same A area group, but as shown in Table 1, the rated outputs are different. As described above, in the conventional technology, the PV devices 3 having different rated outputs are aggregated into one group, and aggregation according to the purpose of the operator as shown in Table 2 cannot be performed.

On the other hand, in this reference form, since the PV devices 3 are aggregated based on an index indicating the performance of the PV device 3 such as the rated output, aggregation according to the purpose of the operator as shown in Table 2 is performed. Is possible.

  Aggregated PV information, which is information of the PV device 3 aggregated by the PV aggregation processing unit 11, is transmitted to the upper layer middle supply 2 or the hierarchical supply and demand control device 1 by the upper layer interface 13. In the case of the first tier type supply and demand control device 1A, the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 1B and 1C are connected as the directly connected lower layers, and the PV device 3 is connected as the lower layer below them. The PV aggregation processing unit 11 aggregates the PV device 3 and the received aggregated PV information together.

  Each hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 1 repeats communication to an upper layer and performs aggregation processing. Eventually, the information of all the PV devices 3 is collected into the medium pay 2. At this time, it is not necessary for the mid-supply 2 to individually grasp to which tiered demand-and-supply control device 1 each PV device 3 is connected. The medium pay 2 only needs to grasp the PV information of the PV device 3 directly connected to the medium pay 2 and the aggregated PV information aggregated by the hierarchical supply and demand control device 1 directly connected to the medium pay 2. Medium pay 2 uses the aggregated PV information based on the index selected by the operator.

  FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a configuration viewed from the mid-supply 2 when the PV devices 3 of FIG. 1 are aggregated based on the rated output. FIG. 2 shows information grasped by the medium pay 2 when the rated output is selected as an index used for the aggregation process in the power system control system 1 shown in FIG. The middle supply 2 can be handled as if the first and second generators 4A and 4B, the high-power aggregate PV device 31, and the low-power aggregate PV device 32 are connected.

  The medium pay 2 receives information transmitted from the generator 4 or the hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus 1 through the medium pay communication interface 21. Based on the information received by the mid-supply communication interface 21, the mid-supply control processing unit 22 considers operational constraints and evaluation formulas using the following formulas (2) and (3), for example, Calculations for controlling the entire power system are performed using quadratic programming.

  Expression (2) represents the constraint condition of the supply and demand balance, and indicates that the generated power of the generator 4 and the generated power of the PV device 3 match the demand at each time. In Equation (2), “Demand” represents demand, “P” represents power generated by the generator 4, “PP” represents power generated by the PV device 3, and “GEN” represents a set of the generators 4. "PV" represents a set of PV devices 3, and "t" represents time.

  Formula (3) represents an example of an evaluation formula in the case where control is performed with medium pay 2. Using equation (3), an evaluation value for the generator 4, for example, a total fuel cost and a total evaluation value for the PV device 3 are obtained. Since the PV device 3 does not consume fuel, the evaluation value for the PV device 3 is 0, for example. In Expression (3), “V” represents the overall evaluation value, “Cost” represents the evaluation value for the generator 4, specifically, the evaluation value of the power generated by the generator 4, and “EVAP” represents the PV device 3. Represents the evaluation value of “TIME”, and “TIME” represents the period of control. In Formula (3), “P”, “PP”, “GEN”, “PV”, and “t” are the same as in Formula (2).

  The control content with respect to the PV device 3 of the middle supply 2 includes output suppression. This is a method of satisfying the supply-demand balance by suppressing the output of the PV device 3 at the time when the supply capacity becomes excessive. The middle supply 2 transmits the aforementioned output suppression amount as control information to the PV device 3 in order to perform output suppression.

  The medium pay 2 transmits respective control information from the medium pay communication interface 21 to the generator 4 or the PV device 3 directly connected thereto. In addition, the middle salary 2 controls the hierarchical index supply and demand control device 1 with respect to each of the selected index information and the generator 4, the high-output aggregate PV device 31, and the low-output aggregate PV device 32 that are connected to the respective devices and below. Send information and.

  The hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 1 that has received the control information by the upper layer interface 13 is similar to the middle supply 2 for the generator 4, the high-output aggregation PV device, and the low-output aggregation PV device of the lower layer of its own device. Calculation for controlling by the PV control processing unit 11 is performed. The control information calculated by the PV control processing unit 11 is transmitted to the lower layer by the lower layer interface 14.

  In the case of the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 1 in which the PV device 3 is directly connected to the lower layer, in addition to the generator 4, the high-output aggregate PV device and the low-output aggregate PV device, the PV device directly connected to them is included. Control.

According to this preferred embodiment as described above, hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus 1, aggregates PV device 3 based on the indicator of the performance such as the rated output of the PV device 3. Accordingly, the PV device 3 can be controlled without being limited by a physical hierarchical structure such as an installation position of the PV device 3. Moreover, since the PV device 3 is controlled for each aggregated PV device, that is, for each set of aggregated PV devices 3, even when the number of PV devices 3 is increased and a large number of PV devices 3 are installed, It can be controlled easily.

  Therefore, the mid-supply 2 and the hierarchical supply and demand control device 1 can easily control the entire power system including the large number of PV devices 3 without being restricted by the physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the PV devices 3. It can be carried out. In addition, by providing such a hierarchical supply and demand control device 1 together with the mid-supply 2, an electric power system including a large number of PV devices 3 is not limited by a physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the PV device 3. The electric power system control system 100 which can perform the whole control easily can be implement | achieved.

<First Embodiment>
As a countermeasure when the number of PV devices connected to the power system increases, there is a method of installing a storage battery in the power system. This Embodiment demonstrates the structure which controls the whole electric power system from middle supply in the electric power system in which the storage battery was installed.

FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of the power system control system 101 including the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 6 according to the first embodiment of the present invention. The power system control system 101 of the first embodiment of the present invention is similar in configuration to the power system control system 100 of the reference mode shown in FIG. 1 described above, and therefore the same reference numerals are used for the same configurations. In addition, a common description is omitted.

The power system control system 101 according to the present embodiment includes a middle supply 2, a generator 4, a storage battery 5, and a hierarchical supply and demand control device 6. The power system control system 101 corresponds to a configuration in which the storage battery 5 is provided in place of the PV device 3 in the power system control system 100 of the reference form. The storage battery 5 corresponds to a distributed power source. In the present embodiment, the hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 collectively controls the storage batteries 5 that are a plurality of distributed power sources connected to the power system.

  The generator 4 is provided with two or more, specifically two. When the two generators 4 are distinguished from each other, reference numerals “4A” and “4B” are used to indicate the first generator 4A and the second generator 4B. There are a plurality of hierarchical supply-demand control devices 6, specifically three. When the three hierarchical supply and demand control devices 6 are distinguished from each other, the first hierarchical supply and demand control device 6A, the second hierarchical supply and demand control device 6B, and the third hierarchical layer are denoted by reference numerals “6A” to “6C”. This is shown as a mold supply and demand control device 6C. A plurality of storage batteries 5 are provided, specifically six. When the six storage batteries 5 are distinguished from each other, reference numerals “5A” to “5F” are used to indicate the first storage battery 5A, the second storage battery 5B, the third storage battery 5C, the fourth storage battery 5D, the fifth storage battery 5E, and Shown as a sixth storage battery 5F.

In the power system control system 101, as in the power system control system 100 of the reference form, the first and second generators 4 </ b> A and 4 </ b> B and the first tier type supply and demand control device 6 </ b> A are connected to the lower layer of the mid-supply 2. Has been. Further, the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 6B and 6C are connected to the lower layer of the first tier type supply and demand control device 6A. In the present embodiment, the first to third storage batteries 5A to 5C are connected to the lower layer of the second tier supply and demand control apparatus 6B. Moreover, the 4th-6th storage batteries 5D-5F are connected to the lower layer of the 3rd hierarchy type demand-and-supply control apparatus 6C.

  The first tier type supply and demand control device 6 </ b> A includes an upper layer interface 13, a lower layer interface 14, a storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 and a storage battery control processing unit 62. The second and third tier supply and demand control devices 6B and 6C have the same configuration as the first tier supply and demand control device 6A. Although not shown in FIG. 3, the upper layer interface 13 and the lower layer interface 14 The storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 and the storage battery control processing unit 62 are provided.

  The storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 aggregates the lower-layer storage batteries 5 based on one or more predetermined indexes. The storage battery control processing unit 62 calculates the charge / discharge power of the storage battery 5 based on the control information transmitted from the upper layer in order to control the storage battery 5 under management.

  In the present embodiment, upper layer interface 13 transmits information on each storage battery 5 aggregated by storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 (hereinafter also referred to as “storage battery information”) to the upper layer. The upper layer interface 13 receives control information transmitted from the upper layer. The upper layer through which the upper layer interface 13 transmits and receives the storage battery information and the control information is medium pay 2 in the case of the first tier type supply and demand control device 6A, and in the case of the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 6B and 6C. This is the first tier supply and demand control apparatus 6A. The storage battery information is, for example, charging efficiency. In the following description, the aggregated storage batteries 5 may be referred to as “aggregated storage batteries”.

  The lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the lower layer. In the present embodiment, the lower layer interface 14 receives storage battery information such as charging efficiency transmitted from the lower layer. The lower layer through which the lower layer interface 14 transmits and receives control information and storage battery information is the second and third layer type supply and demand control devices 6B and 6C in the case of the first layer type supply and demand control device 6A, and the second and third layers. In the case of the type supply and demand control devices 6B and 6C, the storage battery 5 is used.

The middle pay 2 includes the middle pay communication interface 21 and the middle pay control processing unit 22 as in the reference embodiment. In the present embodiment, the mid-supply communication interface 21 receives information on the aggregate storage battery (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “aggregate storage battery information”) transmitted from the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 6 and is transmitted from the generator 4. Receive generator information. The mid-supply communication interface 21 gives the received aggregate storage battery information and generator information to the mid-supply control processing unit 22. Further, the mid-supply communication interface 21 sends control information including an index and a set value used in the mid-supply control processing unit 22 described later to the lower-layer first tier demand-and-supply control device 6A, and the first and second generators. Transmit to 4A and 4B.

  The mid-supply control processing unit 22 controls the power system based on lower layer information such as the aggregate storage battery information and generator information given from the mid-supply communication interface 21 and the index selected by the operator. Perform the operation.

  As described above, the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 of the hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 aggregates the lower-layer storage batteries 5 based on one or more predetermined indexes. The aggregation method varies depending on the index. When there are a plurality of indices, the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 aggregates the storage batteries 5 based on the respective indices. The index is, for example, the charging efficiency of the storage battery 5. When the index is the charging efficiency of the storage battery 5, the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 classifies the storage battery 5 according to its magnitude relationship as compared to a predetermined storage battery aggregation threshold, for example, as shown in the following formula (4). And aggregate. The storage battery aggregation threshold is a set value given by the operator as a threshold when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated.

  Specifically, as shown in Formula (4), when the charging efficiency of the storage battery i is larger than the storage battery aggregation threshold, the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 aggregates the storage battery i into the high efficiency group, and the charging efficiency of the storage battery i Is equal to or less than the storage battery aggregation threshold, the storage battery i is aggregated into the low efficiency group. In Formula (4), the storage battery i indicates the i-th storage battery among the plurality of storage batteries 5. For example, the storage battery 1 indicates the first storage battery 5A. Variable i represents an integer of 1 to k, and variable k represents the number of storage batteries 5. In the present embodiment, since the variable k is 6, the variable i represents an integer of 1 to 6.

  When the storage battery aggregation threshold for the charging efficiency in Equation (4) is, for example, 75%, the storage batteries 5 with a charging efficiency of 80% are aggregated into a high efficiency group, and the storage batteries 5 with a charging efficiency of 70% are aggregated into a low efficiency group. Is done.

  The index used for the aggregation of the storage batteries 5 is not limited to the charging efficiency of the storage battery 5, and may be other, for example, the remaining capacity of the storage battery 5 or the maximum generated power. When a plurality of indexes are defined, the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 creates groups based on the respective indexes, so that a plurality of aggregation groups can be created. Moreover, the dispersion | variation in the storage battery 5 for every hierarchical supply-and-demand control apparatus 6 is also known by changing a storage battery aggregation threshold value.

  The number of aggregation groups created by the aggregation processing by the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 is not limited to two, but may be three or more as shown in the following formula (5). When following Formula (5), when the remaining capacity of the storage battery i is larger than the first threshold value, the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 aggregates the storage battery i into the large remaining capacity group, and the remaining capacity of the storage battery i is equal to or less than the first threshold value. When it is present and larger than the second threshold, the storage battery i is collected into the remaining capacity group, and when the remaining capacity of the storage battery i is equal to or less than the second threshold, the storage battery i is collected into the remaining capacity small group. In equation (5), variable i is the same as in equation (4). The first threshold value is larger than the second threshold value (first threshold value> second threshold value).

  In Expression (5), two threshold values, that is, a first threshold value and a second threshold value are set as the aforementioned storage battery aggregation threshold value for the remaining capacity of the storage battery 5. As an example of the storage battery aggregation threshold for the remaining capacity, the first threshold is 90%, the second threshold is 10%, and the like.

  Table 4 shows storage battery information of the first to sixth storage batteries 5A to 5F shown in FIG. Table 4 shows the charging efficiency and remaining capacity of the storage battery 5 as the storage battery information. Moreover, in Table 4, the installation area of the storage battery 5 is shown collectively. In Table 4, the installation area of 1st-3rd storage batteries 5A-5C is shown as "A area", the installation area of 4th-6th storage batteries 5D-5F is shown as "B area", A area and B area Shall be different.

  As shown in Table 4, the charging efficiency is the highest for the third storage battery 5C and the sixth storage battery 5F, and the remaining capacity is the highest for the first storage battery 5A. The first to third storage batteries 5A to 5C are installed in the A area, and the fourth to sixth storage batteries 5D to 5F are installed in the B area different from the A area.

  Tables 5 and 6 show the result of the aggregation process performed on the first to sixth storage batteries 5A to 5F by the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 of the first tier supply and demand control apparatus 6A. Table 5 shows storage battery charging efficiency aggregation information, which is aggregate storage battery information when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated using the charging efficiency as an index according to the above-described formula (4). Table 6 shows storage battery remaining capacity aggregation information, which is aggregated storage battery information when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated using the remaining capacity as an index according to the above formula (5).

  As shown in Table 5, when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated using the charging efficiency as an index according to the equation (4), the storage batteries (hereinafter referred to as “high-efficiency aggregation storage batteries”) in which the high-efficiency third and sixth storage batteries 5C and 5F are aggregated. And a group of storage batteries in which the low efficiency first, second, fourth, and fifth storage batteries 5A, 5B, 5D, and 5E are aggregated (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “low efficiency intensive storage batteries”) Divided into

  Further, as shown in Table 6, when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated using the remaining capacity as an index according to the equation (5), the storage battery in which the first storage battery 5A having a large remaining capacity is aggregated (hereinafter referred to as “large remaining capacity aggregation storage battery”). A group), a group of storage batteries in which the second to fourth storage batteries 5B to 5D in the remaining capacity are aggregated (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “aggregated storage battery in the remaining capacity”), and the fifth and sixth of the remaining capacity small. The storage batteries 5E and 5F are divided into a group of storage batteries (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “remaining capacity small aggregation storage batteries”).

  Table 7 shows storage battery area aggregation information, which is aggregate storage battery information when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated using the installation area as an index.

  In the conventional technique, as shown in Table 7, aggregation is performed using the installation area as an index. In this case, the 1st-3rd storage batteries 5A-5C are collected by the group of A area, and the 4th-6th storage batteries 5D-5F are collected by the group of B area.

  Although the 1st-3rd storage batteries 5A-5C are collected by the group of the same A area, as shown in above-mentioned Table 4, charge efficiency or remaining capacity differs. Similarly, although the 4th-6th storage batteries 5D-5F are collected by the group of the same B area, as shown in the above-mentioned Table 4, charging efficiency or remaining capacity differs.

  As described above, according to the conventional technology, the storage batteries 5 having different charging efficiency or remaining capacity are aggregated into one group, and aggregation according to the purpose of the operator as shown in Table 5 or Table 6 cannot be performed. .

  On the other hand, in the present embodiment, since the storage batteries 5 are aggregated based on an index indicating the performance of the storage battery 5 such as charging efficiency or remaining capacity, in accordance with the purpose of the operator as shown in Table 5 or Table 6. Aggregation is possible.

  Aggregated storage battery information, which is information of the storage battery 5 aggregated by the storage battery aggregation processing unit 61, is transmitted by the upper layer interface 13 to the middle layer supply 2 or the hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 of the upper layer. In the case of the first tier supply and demand control device 6A, the second and third tier supply and demand control devices 6B and 6C are connected to the directly connected lower layer, and the storage battery 5 is connected as the lower layer below it. The storage battery aggregation processing unit 61 aggregates the storage battery 5 and the received aggregate storage battery information together.

  Each hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 repeats communication to an upper layer and performs aggregation processing. Eventually, the information of all the storage batteries 5 is collected and communicated to the medium pay 2. At this time, it is not necessary for the mid-supply 2 to individually identify which tiered supply and demand control device 6 each storage battery 5 is connected to. The medium pay 2 only needs to grasp the storage battery information of the storage battery 5 directly connected to the medium pay 2 and the aggregate storage battery information aggregated by the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 6 directly connected to the medium pay 2. The medium pay 2 uses the aggregate storage battery information based on the index selected by the operator.

  FIG. 4 is a diagram showing a configuration viewed from medium pay 2 when the storage batteries 5 shown in FIG. 3 are aggregated based on the charging efficiency. FIG. 4 shows information grasped by the medium pay 2 when the charging efficiency is selected as an index used for the aggregation process in the power system control system 101 shown in FIG. 3. The middle supply 2 can be handled as if the first and second generators 4A, 4B, the high efficiency intensive storage battery 51, and the low efficiency intensive storage battery 52 are connected.

  FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a configuration viewed from medium pay 2 when the storage batteries 5 shown in FIG. 3 are aggregated based on the remaining capacity. As shown in Table 6, the remaining capacity may be selected as an index. FIG. 5 shows information grasped by the middle salary 2 when the remaining capacity is selected as an index. The middle supply 2 can be handled as if the first and second generators 4A and 4B, the remaining capacity large consolidated storage battery 53, the remaining capacity middle consolidated storage battery 54, and the remaining capacity small consolidated storage battery 55 are connected. it can.

  The medium pay 2 receives information transmitted from the generator 4 or the hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 through the medium pay communication interface 21. Based on the information received by the mid-supply communication interface 21, the mid-supply control processing unit 22 considers operational constraint conditions and evaluation formulas using the following formulas (6) to (9), for example, Calculations for controlling the entire power system are performed using quadratic programming.

  Formula (6) represents the constraint condition of the supply and demand balance, and shows that the generated power of the generator 4 and the charge / discharge power of the storage battery 5 coincide with the demand at each time. In Expression (6), “D” represents the discharge power from the storage battery 5, “C” represents the charge power from the storage battery 5, and “BT” represents the set of the storage batteries 5. In Equation (6), “Demand”, “P”, “GEN”, and “t” are the same as in Equation (2).

  Equation (7) represents the time-series change in the remaining capacity of the storage battery 5, decreases the discharge power for a unit time from the remaining capacity of the previous time, and increases the charge power for the unit time multiplied by the charging efficiency. Let In Expression (7), “S” represents the remaining capacity, and “R” represents the charging efficiency. In Expression (7), “t” is the same as Expression (2), and “D” and “C” are the same as Expression (6).

  Expression (8) represents the upper and lower limit constraints of the remaining capacity of the storage battery 5 (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “remaining capacity constraint”). In Expression (8), “Smin” represents the minimum capacity, and “Smax” represents the maximum capacity. In Expression (8), “t” is the same as Expression (2), and “S” is the same as Expression (7).

  Expression (9) represents an example of an evaluation expression in the case where control is performed with medium pay 2. The total of the evaluation values for the generator 4 and the evaluation value for the storage battery 5, for example, the total value obtained from the remaining capacity, are obtained by Expression (9). In the formula (9), “EVAB” represents an evaluation value for the storage battery 5. In Formula (9), “P”, “GEN”, and “t” are the same as in Formula (2), “V”, “Cost”, and “TIME” are the same as in Formula (3), and “D ”,“ C ”, and“ BT ”are the same as in Equation (6), and“ S ”is the same as in Equation (7).

  When the storage batteries 5 are aggregated with charging efficiency, the remaining capacity of the aggregate storage battery is, for example, an average value corresponding to the capacity ratio. When there is no fully charged and empty storage battery 5, the remaining capacity restriction is not affected, and therefore the aggregate storage battery can be controlled by aggregation based on the charging efficiency described above. On the other hand, when there is a fully charged or empty storage battery 5, it is affected by the remaining capacity restriction, and therefore, the storage battery 5 that cannot be charged / discharged is included. In such a case, by collecting the remaining capacity as an index, the fully charged and empty storage battery 5 can be preferentially used, or the other storage batteries 5 can be charged / discharged. As a result, appropriate control is possible.

  The medium pay 2 transmits control information to the generator 4 and the storage battery 5 directly connected from the medium pay communication interface 21. In addition, the middle salary 2 is for the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 6 for the selected index information, and the generator 4 connected to the lower layer of each device, the high-efficiency aggregate storage battery 51, and the low-efficiency aggregate storage battery 52, respectively. Control information.

  The hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 6 that has received the control information by the upper layer interface 13 stores the storage battery for the generator 4, the high-efficiency intensive storage battery 51, and the low-efficiency intensive storage battery 52 in the lower layer of its own device, in the same way as the medium pay 2. The control processing unit 62 performs a calculation for performing control. The control information calculated by the storage battery control processing unit 62 is transmitted to the lower layer by the lower layer interface 14. At this time, when the lower-layer storage battery 5 has a fully charged storage battery or an empty storage battery, the storage battery control processing unit 62 changes the aggregation method, and performs an operation for controlling the aggregate storage battery aggregated using the remaining capacity as an index. You may go.

  In the case of the tiered supply and demand control device 6 in which the storage battery 5 is directly connected to the lower layer, in addition to the generator 4, the high efficiency intensive storage battery 51 and the low efficiency intensive storage battery 52, the storage battery 5 directly connected to them is also included. Take control.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 6 aggregates the storage batteries 5 based on an index indicating performance such as the charging efficiency or remaining capacity of the storage battery 5. Thereby, the storage battery 5 can be controlled without being restricted by the physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the storage battery 5. Further, since the storage battery 5 is controlled for each aggregate storage battery, that is, for each aggregate of the aggregated storage batteries 5, the number of the storage batteries 5 is increased, and even when a large number of storage batteries 5 are installed, the storage battery 5 is easily controlled. Can do.

  Therefore, the mid-supply 2 and the hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 can easily control the entire power system including a large number of storage batteries 5 without being restricted by a physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the storage batteries 5. Can do. Further, by providing such a hierarchical supply and demand control device 6 together with the mid-supply 2, the entire power system including a large number of storage batteries 5 is not limited by the physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the storage batteries 5. The power system control system 101 that can be easily controlled can be realized.

<Second Embodiment>
The hierarchical demand-and-supply control apparatuses 1 and 6 shown in the above-described reference form and the first embodiment are targeted for aggregation of either the storage battery 5 or the PV apparatus 3. The PV device 3 can also be an aggregation target at the same time. For example, the hierarchical supply and demand control device may be a hierarchical supply and demand control device that collectively controls the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 when the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 are connected to the power system. . In the present embodiment, a hierarchical supply and demand control device that collectively controls the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 will be described as a hierarchical supply and demand control device that simultaneously aggregates the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3.

FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of a power system control system 102 including the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 8 according to the second embodiment of the present invention. The power system control system 102 of the second embodiment of the present invention is configured with the power system control system 100 of the reference embodiment shown in FIG. 1 and the power system control system 101 of the first embodiment shown in FIG. Are the same, the same components are denoted by the same reference numerals, and a common description is omitted.

  The power system control system 102 according to the present embodiment includes a middle supply 2, a PV device 3, a generator 4, a storage battery 5, and a hierarchical supply and demand control device 8. In the present embodiment, the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 controls the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 that are a plurality of distributed power sources connected to the power system in a hierarchical manner.

  The PV device 3 is provided with a plurality, specifically four. The generator 4 is provided with two or more, specifically two. When the two generators 4 are distinguished from each other, reference numerals “4A” and “4B” are used to indicate the first generator 4A and the second generator 4B. The storage battery 5 is provided with a plurality, specifically five. A plurality of, specifically, three hierarchical supply and demand control devices 8 are provided. When the three hierarchical supply and demand control devices 8 are distinguished from each other, reference numerals “8A” to “8C” are used to indicate the first hierarchical supply and demand control device 8A, the second hierarchical supply and demand control device 8B, and the third hierarchy. This is shown as a mold supply and demand control device 8C.

In the power system control system 102, as in the power system control systems 100 and 101 of the reference embodiment and the first embodiment, the first and second generators 4A and 4B, A hierarchical supply and demand control device 8A is connected. In the present embodiment, the second and third tier supply and demand control devices 8B and 8C and the two PV devices 3 are connected to the lower layer of the first tier supply and demand control device 8A. Moreover, the three storage batteries 5 are connected to the lower layer of the 2nd hierarchy type demand-and-supply control apparatus 8B. In addition, two storage batteries 5 and two PV devices 3 are connected to the lower layer of the third tier supply and demand control device 8C.

  The first tier supply and demand control device 8A includes an upper layer interface 13, a lower layer interface 14, a storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81, and a storage battery / PV control processing unit 82. The second and third tier supply and demand control devices 8B and 8C have the same configuration as the first tier supply and demand control device 8A. Although not shown in FIG. 6, the upper layer interface 13 and the lower layer interface 14 The storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81 and the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 are configured.

  The storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81 aggregates the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 based on one or more predetermined indexes. The storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 controls charge / discharge power of the storage battery 5 and output of the PV device 3 based on control information transmitted from the upper layer in order to control the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 in the lower layer. Calculate the quantity.

  In the present embodiment, the upper layer interface 13 transmits the aggregate storage battery information and the aggregated PV information to the middle supply 2 or the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 that is the upper layer. Further, the upper layer interface 13 receives control information transmitted from the upper layer middle supply 2 or the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8. The upper layer through which the upper layer interface 13 transmits and receives storage battery information, aggregated PV information, and control information is medium pay 2 in the case of the first tier type supply and demand control device 8A, and the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 8B, In the case of 8C, it is the first tier supply and demand control device 8A.

  The lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the lower layer. In the case of the first tier supply and demand control device 8A, the lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the lower layer PV device 3 and the second and third tier supply and demand control devices 8B and 8C. In the case of the second tier supply and demand control apparatus 8B, the lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the storage battery 5 of the lower layer. In the case of the third tier supply and demand control device 8C, the lower layer interface 14 transmits control information to the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 in the lower layer.

  The lower layer interface 14 receives information transmitted from the lower layer. In the case of the first tier supply and demand control device 8A, the lower layer interface 14 receives information transmitted from the lower layer PV device 3 and the second and third tier supply and demand control devices 8B and 8C. In the case of the second tier supply and demand control apparatus 8B, the lower layer interface 14 receives information transmitted from the lower layer storage battery 5. In the case of the third tier supply and demand control device 8C, the lower layer interface 14 receives information transmitted from the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 in the lower layer.

The middle pay 2 includes the middle pay communication interface 21 and the middle pay control processing unit 22 as in the reference embodiment and the first embodiment. In the present embodiment, the mid-supply communication interface 21 receives the aggregate storage battery information and the aggregate PV information transmitted from the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 8 and also receives the generator information transmitted from the generator 4. The mid-supply communication interface 21 gives the received aggregate storage battery information, aggregate PV information, and generator information to the mid-supply control processing unit 22. Further, the mid-supply communication interface 21 transmits control information including an index and a set value used in the mid-supply control processing unit 22 described later to the lower-layer generator 4 and the first tier type supply and demand control device 8A.

  The mid-supply control processing unit 22 determines the power system based on lower layer information such as the aggregate storage battery information, the aggregate PV information, and the generator information given from the mid-supply communication interface 21 and the index selected by the operator. Perform calculations for control.

  In the storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81 of the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 8, as shown in the above formula (1) or formula (4), one or more predetermined indexes, PV aggregation threshold and storage battery aggregation threshold are set. The storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 may be aggregated based on the set values such as. The index and the set value used for the aggregation process may be specified to be different between the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3.

  The information of the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 aggregated by the storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81, that is, the aggregate storage battery information and the aggregate PV information are transmitted to the upper layer by the upper layer interface 13. In the case of the first tier type supply and demand control device 8A, the PV device 3 and the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 8B and 8C are connected to the lower layer, and the second and third tier type supply and demand control devices 8B, Since the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 are connected to the lower layer of 8C, the storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81 aggregates the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 together with the received aggregate storage battery information and aggregate PV information.

  Information of the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 aggregated by the storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81 of the first tier supply and demand control device 8A, that is, the aggregate storage battery information and the aggregate PV information, 2 is transmitted. In the case of the second tier type supply and demand control device 8B, the storage battery 5 is aggregated in the storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81. Therefore, the aggregated storage battery information is stored in the upper tier first tier type supply and demand control device 8A by the upper layer interface 13. Sent to. In the case of the third tier supply and demand control device 8C, the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 are aggregated in the storage battery / PV aggregation processing unit 81. Therefore, the aggregate storage battery information and the aggregate PV information are stored in the upper layer by the upper layer interface 13. It is transmitted to the first tier type supply and demand control device 8A.

  Each hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 repeats communication to the upper layer and performs aggregation processing. Eventually, the information of all the storage batteries 5 and the PV devices 3 is collected into the medium pay 2. At this time, it is not necessary for the middle supply 2 to individually identify which tiered supply and demand control device 8 each storage battery 5 and each PV device 3 is connected to. The medium pay 2 only needs to grasp the aggregated storage battery information and the aggregated PV information collected by the hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 8 directly connected to the medium pay 2. The medium pay 2 uses the aggregate storage battery information and the aggregate PV information based on the index selected by the operator.

  Although different from the present embodiment, the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 may be directly connected as a lower layer to the mid-supply 2. In this case, the medium pay 2 is directly connected to the storage battery information of the storage battery 5 directly connected to the medium pay 2, the PV information of the PV device 3 directly connected to the medium pay 2, and the medium pay 2. Only the aggregated storage battery information and the aggregated PV information collected by the first tier supply and demand control apparatus 8A need be grasped.

  FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a configuration viewed from the middle supply 2 when the storage batteries 5 illustrated in FIG. 6 are aggregated based on the charging efficiency and the PV devices 3 are aggregated based on the rated output. FIG. 7 shows information grasped by the medium pay 2 in the power system control system 102 shown in FIG. Medium pay 2 is handled as if two generators 4, a high-efficiency intensive storage battery 51, a low-efficiency intensive storage battery 52, a high-power intensive PV device 31, and a low-power intensive PV device 32 are connected. Can do.

  The medium pay 2 receives information transmitted from the generator 4 or the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 through the medium pay communication interface 21. Based on the information received by the middle-pay communication interface 21, the middle-payment control processing unit 22 operates using the above-described formulas (7) and (8) and the following formulas (10) and (11). In consideration of the constraint condition and the evaluation formula, calculation for controlling the entire power system is performed using, for example, a quadratic programming method.

  Expression (10) represents the constraint condition of the supply and demand balance, and the generated power of the generator 4, the charge / discharge power of the storage battery 5, and the generated power of the PV device 3 coincide with the demand at each time. Indicates. In the formula (10), “Demand”, “P”, “PP”, “GEN”, “PV” and “t” are the same as those in the formula (2), and “D”, “C” and “BT”. Is similar to equation (6).

  It is also necessary to satisfy the constraints regarding the remaining capacity of the storage battery 5 shown in the equations (7) and (8).

  Expression (11) represents an example of an evaluation expression in the case where control is performed with medium pay 2. The sum of the evaluation values for the generator 4, the evaluation value for the storage battery 5, and the sum of the evaluation values for the PV device 3 is obtained by Expression (11). In the formula (11), “P”, “PP”, “GEN”, “PV” and “t” are the same as those in the formula (2), and “V”, “Cost”, “EVAP” and “TIME”. Is the same as in formula (3), “D”, “C” and “BT” are the same as in formula (6), “S” is the same as in formula (7), and “EVAB” is the formula ( It is the same as 9).

  Although the output suppression is mentioned as the control content with respect to the PV apparatus 3 of the middle supply 2, since the storage battery 5 is also a control target, the output suppression of the PV apparatus 3 can be made unnecessary by coordinating these. There is. For example, depending on the evaluation value, output suppression of the PV device 3 can be replaced by charging with the storage battery 5. In other words, the storage battery 5 can be charged instead of suppressing the output of the PV device 3.

Compared with the above-mentioned reference form and the first embodiment, in this embodiment, the plan options increase, and a better evaluation value can be obtained by performing control in consideration of the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3. There is a possibility that can be obtained.

  The medium pay 2 transmits control information of the distributed power supply to the distributed power supply directly connected by the medium pay communication interface 21. In the present embodiment, since the generator 4 is directly connected to the medium supply 2 as a distributed power source, the medium supply 2 is connected to the generator 4 by the medium supply communication interface 21. Send control information. Although different from the present embodiment, when the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 are directly connected to the generator 4 in addition to the generator 2, the intermediate supply 2 is connected to the generator 4 by the intermediate supply communication interface 21. The control information is transmitted to the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3.

  Further, the medium pay 2 is the information of the selected index, the high-efficiency intensive storage battery 51, the low-efficiency intensive storage battery 52, the high tiered supply and demand control device 8, that is, the first tier-type supply and demand control device 8A. Control information for each of the output aggregation PV device 31 and the low output aggregation PV device 32 is transmitted.

  The hierarchical demand-and-supply control device 8 that has received the control information by the upper layer interface 13 controls the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 to control the distributed power supply in the lower layer of its own device, similarly to the middle pay 2. Perform the operation. For example, the generator 4, the high-efficiency intensive storage battery 51, the low-efficiency intensive storage battery 52, the high-power intensive PV device 31 and the low-power intensive PV device 32 are connected to the lower layer of the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 as distributed power sources. If there is, the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 performs a calculation for the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 to control them.

  Specifically, in the first tier type supply and demand control device 8A, the storage battery / PV control is performed on the lower-layer high-efficiency intensive storage battery 51, the low-efficiency intensive storage battery 52, the high-power intensive PV device 31 and the low-power intensive PV device 32. A calculation for performing control by the processing unit 82 is performed.

  The control information calculated by the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 is transmitted again to the lower layer by the lower layer interface 14. When calculating the control information by the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82, if the storage battery 5 in the lower layer has a fully charged storage battery or an empty storage battery, the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 changes the aggregation method, and the remaining capacity The calculation for the control with respect to the aggregated storage battery that is aggregated using as an index may be performed.

  In the case of the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 in which the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 are directly connected to the lower layer, the generator 4, the high efficiency intensive storage battery 51, the low efficiency intensive storage battery 52, the high output intensive PV device 31, and the low output intensive In addition to the PV device 32, the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 directly connected to them are also controlled.

  Specifically, in the second tier type supply and demand control device 8B, calculation is performed for the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 to control the high-efficiency integrated storage battery 51 and the low-efficiency integrated storage battery 52 in the lower layer. In the third tier type supply and demand control device 8C, the storage battery / PV control processing unit 82 controls the lower-layer high-efficiency aggregate storage battery 51, the low-efficiency aggregate storage battery 52, the high-output aggregate PV device 31 and the low-output aggregate PV device 32. An operation for performing is performed.

As described above, according to the present embodiment, the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 is based on an index indicating the performance of the distributed power source, such as the charging efficiency or remaining capacity of the storage battery 5 or the rated output of the PV device 3. Thus, the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 which are distributed power sources are collected. Therefore, as in the reference embodiment and the first embodiment described above, the mid-supply 2 and the hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 are limited by the physical hierarchical structure such as the installation position of the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3. In addition, the entire power system including a large number of storage batteries 5 and PV devices 3 can be easily controlled.

  Further, by providing such a hierarchical supply and demand control device 8 together with the mid-supply 2, a large number of storage batteries 5 and PV devices are not limited by the physical hierarchical structure such as the installation positions of the storage batteries 5 and PV devices 3. 3, the power system control system 102 that can easily control the entire power system including the power system 3 can be realized.

Moreover, according to this Embodiment, it is possible to collect and control the storage battery 5 and the PV apparatus 3 together. Therefore, in addition to the same effects as those of the reference embodiment and the first embodiment described above, it is possible to control the entire power system so as to improve the evaluation value by coordinating the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3. An effect is obtained.

< Third Embodiment>
The medium supply control processing unit 22 shown in the above-described reference form and the first and second embodiments is configured such that the operator selects an index to be used for aggregation of the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3. However, it may be configured such that the operator does not make a selection but makes a determination by the own apparatus. The power system control system according to the third embodiment of the present invention has the same configuration as that of the power system control system 102 according to the above-described second embodiment shown in FIG. A reference numeral is attached, and illustration and common description are omitted.

  In the present embodiment, the mid-supply control processing unit 22 aggregates the storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 using a preset index and set value. The index and set value used in the mid-supply control processing unit 22 are not selected by the operator, but are selected by the mid-supply control processing unit 22 based on a judgment criterion predetermined in the mid-supply control processing unit 22 Is done. The storage battery 5 and the PV device 3 are collected using the index and the set value selected in this way.

  For example, when the storage batteries 5 are aggregated, the mid-supply control processing unit 22 normally uses the charging efficiency as an aggregation index, and controls the aggregated storage battery information aggregated by the charging efficiency, that is, the storage battery charging efficiency aggregation information. Use as When the remaining capacity of any of the storage batteries 5 approaches a fully charged or empty state, the mid-supply control processing unit 22 changes the index used for aggregation to the remaining capacity, and changes the index used for control to the remaining capacity. Is changed to the information of the aggregate storage battery aggregated by the above, that is, the storage battery remaining capacity aggregation information. When the fully charged or empty storage battery 5 is exhausted, the mid-supply control processing unit 22 returns the index used for aggregation to the charging efficiency again, and aggregates the index used for control again by the charging efficiency. It returns to the storage battery charging efficiency aggregation information which is the information of the collected storage battery.

  When there is no fully charged or empty storage battery 5, it is not affected by the remaining capacity restriction, and therefore the aggregate storage battery can be controlled by aggregation using the charging efficiency. On the other hand, when there is a storage battery 5 that is nearly fully charged or empty, the storage battery 5 that cannot be charged / discharged is generated because it is affected by restrictions on the remaining capacity. In such a case, by collecting the remaining capacity as an index, the fully charged or empty storage battery 5 and the other storage batteries 5 are distinguished and used. As a result, appropriate control is possible.

  In this way, the index used in the mid-supply control processing unit 22 is changed by the judgment of the mid-supply control processing unit 22, and the fully charged storage battery 5 is discharged preferentially, or the empty storage battery 5 is prioritized. By charging the battery, it is possible to eliminate the state affected by the remaining capacity restriction.

As described above, according to the present embodiment, since the index used for aggregation of the storage batteries 5 is changed according to the remaining capacity of the storage batteries 5, it is possible to perform appropriate control while suppressing the influence of the remaining capacity. it can. Moreover, the index used for aggregation of the storage batteries 5 is not selected and changed by the operator, but is changed according to the remaining capacity of the storage battery 5 by, for example, the mid-supply control processing unit 22. As a result, in addition to the effects of the reference embodiment and the first and second embodiments described above, there is an effect that the operator can control the entire power system without performing an operation of selecting an index. It is done.

  1, 6, 8 Hierarchical supply and demand control device, 2 Central power supply command device (medium supply), 3 Photovoltaic power generation (PV) device, 4 Generator, 5 Storage battery, 11 PV aggregation processing unit, 12 PV control processing unit, 13 Upper layer interface, 14 Lower layer interface, 21 Medium power communication interface, 22 Medium power control processing unit, 31 High output aggregate PV device, 32 Low output aggregate PV device, 51 High efficiency aggregate storage battery, 52 Low efficiency aggregate storage battery, 53 Large capacity storage battery, 54 Medium capacity storage battery, 55 Small capacity storage battery, 61 Storage battery aggregation processing section, 62 Storage battery control processing section, 81 Storage battery / PV aggregation processing section, 82 Storage battery / PV control processing section, 100, 101 , 102 Power system control system.

Claims (3)

  1. A hierarchical supply and demand control device that hierarchically aggregates and controls a plurality of distributed power sources connected to an electric power system,
    Based on a predetermined index, an aggregation processing unit that aggregates distributed power sources,
    A control processing unit for controlling the distributed power source for each set of distributed power sources aggregated by the aggregation processing unit,
    The plurality of distributed power sources includes a storage battery,
    The index, Ri index der showing the performance of the distributed power supply includes at least one of the charging efficiency and residual capacity of the storage battery,
    There are a plurality of types of indicators for the distributed power source, and when the remaining capacity of any of the storage batteries approaches a fully charged or empty state, the indicator used for aggregation of the distributed power sources, hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus according to claim be subject to change the remaining capacity.
  2. A hierarchical supply and demand control device that hierarchically aggregates and controls a plurality of distributed power sources connected to an electric power system,
    Based on a predetermined index, an aggregation processing unit that aggregates distributed power sources,
    A control processing unit for controlling the distributed power source for each set of distributed power sources aggregated by the aggregation processing unit,
    The plurality of distributed power sources includes a solar power generation device and a storage battery ,
    The index is an index indicating the performance of the distributed power supply, and the rated output of the photovoltaic device, viewed contains at least one of the charging efficiency and residual capacity of the storage battery,
    There are a plurality of types of indicators for the distributed power source, and when the remaining capacity of any of the storage batteries approaches a fully charged or empty state, the indicator used for aggregation of the distributed power sources, tiered supply and demand control device you characterized in that it is changed to the remaining capacity.
  3. And hierarchical supply and demand control apparatus according to Motomeko 1 or 2,
    A plurality of distributed power sources connected to a power system and controlled by the hierarchical supply and demand control device;
    Based on the information on the distributed power source aggregated by the aggregation processing unit of the hierarchical supply and demand control device, the distributed power source is provided with control information for controlling the distributed power source to the hierarchical demand and supply control device. And a central power supply command device that controls the entire power system including the power system control system .
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