JP5302096B2 - Photovoltaic power generation system and control method - Google Patents

Photovoltaic power generation system and control method Download PDF

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JP5302096B2
JP5302096B2 JP2009118424A JP2009118424A JP5302096B2 JP 5302096 B2 JP5302096 B2 JP 5302096B2 JP 2009118424 A JP2009118424 A JP 2009118424A JP 2009118424 A JP2009118424 A JP 2009118424A JP 5302096 B2 JP5302096 B2 JP 5302096B2
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solar cell
conversion unit
cell array
group
power generation
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JP2010267106A (en
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満 工藤
田中  良
将司 名倉
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株式会社Nttファシリティーズ
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/58Maximum power point tracking [MPPT] systems

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To relatively efficiently continue the operation of a power conditioner (PCS) even when the amounts of solar radiation are small, and the load rate of the PCS is small, or even under situations that power generation stops or decreases, by combining a chopper and/or inverter whose capacity is different. <P>SOLUTION: The output rate (generated power/rated capacity) of each solar battery is calculated, and the output rates of respective solar battery arrays 1 are compared, and when the difference is equal to or more than a prescribed rate, for example, 30%, the solar battery arrays 1 are divided into a group whose output rate is high and a group whose output rate is low. When the total output of the group whose output rate is low is within the control range (allowable capacity) of a small capacity chopper, the solar battery array 1 of the group whose output rate is low is controlled to be stored in the small chopper, and the solar battery array 1 of the group whose output rate is high is controlled to be stored in a large capacity chopper. The connection line of the solar battery array 1 and the chopper is switched according to a signal from a controller 5 by controlling each switch 21 in a switching device 2. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2011,JPO&amp;INPIT

Description

  The present invention relates to a photovoltaic power generation system and a control method for the photovoltaic power generation system.

The solar power generation system is mainly composed of solar cells and PCS (power conditioner). Solar cells convert solar energy into electricity, and PCS has a power conversion function corresponding to the supply conditions to the load and power system. (Buck-boost function, inverter function, maximum power follow-up function, etc.) About the capacity | capacitance of PCS, the thing of a capacity | capacitance equivalent to the rated capacity of a solar cell is generally installed. In recent years, a large-scale PCS having a capacity of several hundred kilowatts has been developed along with an increase in the scale of a photovoltaic power generation system, and a plurality of PCSs are installed in a photovoltaic power generation system of several megawatts. The PCS is composed of a power converter such as a DC / DC converter (chopper) or an AC / DC converter (inverter).
The conversion efficiency of the PCS changes depending on the output of the solar cell (load factor from the PCS viewpoint), and when the output of the solar cell is small, the conversion efficiency is low. Therefore, in a system that operates a plurality of PCSs in parallel, There are systems that generate power efficiently by increasing or decreasing the number of PCSs operating. Since the output of the solar cell varies depending on the solar radiation intensity and the solar cell surface temperature, the chopper of the PCS performs maximum power follow-up control (MPPT control) for extracting the maximum output from the solar cell by adjusting the DC operating voltage. As the capacity of PCS increases, the range of solar cells that can be accommodated per PCS increases, so there are PCSs that perform MPPT control in a distributed manner with a plurality of choppers.
As a conventional technique, for example, Patent Document 1 allows the number of connected solar battery modules and cells to be freely set, and enables a necessary solar battery to be installed in a place where the solar battery can be installed. A very excellent solar power generation device is described which is always highly efficient and also improves the utilization efficiency of the installation place such as the roof.
Moreover, for example, Patent Document 2 discloses a practical photovoltaic power generation device design support device and a photovoltaic power generation device for designing a photovoltaic power generation device that suppresses a decrease in output current due to variations in the amount of solar radiation for each solar cell module. A device design method is described.

JP 9-294340 A JP 2004-094660 A

In the conventional technology, control is performed by changing the number of PCSs that are operated, but when the number of PCSs is limited to one, or in the case of a system that is operated with only one PCS, the load on the PCS In a region where the rate is low, there may be a loss due to power conversion stoppage due to a decrease in conversion efficiency and a decrease in power consumption of the PCS below the output of the solar cell. In addition, when a shadow is generated on a part of the solar cell, there is a concern that the MPPT control becomes unstable and the power generation efficiency decreases.
In view of the above points, the present invention compares the PCS even when the load factor is small by controlling the number of choppers inside the PCS and combining choppers and / or inverters with different capacities inside the PCS. It is an object to provide a photovoltaic power generation system and a control method that can efficiently operate (generate power without waste).
In addition, the present invention detects solar cells that are partially affected by shadows, etc., and solar cells that stop or decrease power generation, and group solar cells without shadows and solar cells with shadows, respectively, with different choppers and / or Another object is to provide a photovoltaic power generation system and a control method capable of improving generated power by performing MPPT control with an inverter or the like.
The present invention not only switches to a chopper and / or an inverter corresponding to the total output of the solar cell array group, but also separates only the solar cell array that causes partial shadows and pulls the legs of the solar cell group into another chopper. Another object is to provide a photovoltaic power generation system and a control method that can efficiently generate power by switching to an inverter or the like.

In particular, in the photovoltaic power generation system according to the present invention, by controlling the number of choppers inside the PCS or by combining choppers and / or inverters having different capacities, when the amount of solar radiation is small and the load factor of the PCS is small, power generation is stopped. -It is a system and control method that keeps the PCS running relatively efficiently even under decreasing conditions.
In the case of a system with a small-capacity chopper and / or inverter and a large-capacity chopper and / or inverter, the output of the solar cell when the large-capacity chopper stops or is in a low-efficiency area (low power generation amount) Are collected in one small-capacity chopper, and the operation is continued with high efficiency.
Moreover, the output rate (power generation output (generated power) / rated output (rated capacity)) for each solar cell is calculated, the output rates of the solar cells are compared, and the difference is a predetermined rate, for example, 30% or more. For example, it is classified into a group with a high output rate and a group with a low output rate. When the total output of the low group is within the control range (allowable capacity) of the small capacity chopper, the low group solar cells are accommodated and controlled in the small capacity chopper, and the high group solar cells are accommodated and controlled in the large capacity chopper. By controlling each switch in the switching device, the connection line between the solar cell array and the chopper is switched by a signal from the control device.

According to the first solution of the present invention,
A plurality of solar cell arrays;
A measuring instrument for measuring the voltage and current of each of the solar cell arrays;
A power converter having a first rated capacity converter, a second rated capacity converter greater than the first rated capacity, and
A switching device including a plurality of switches for connecting each of the solar cell arrays to either the first or second conversion unit;
According to the measurement value of the measuring instrument, the control device for switching the switching device, performing MPPT control and outputting power,
A solar power generation system comprising:
The controller is
Corresponding to each solar cell array ID, a conversion unit designation table storing a group ID and the conversion unit ID of the first or second conversion unit connected to each solar cell array,
A power generation data table for storing generated power and output rate corresponding to each solar cell array ID;
Read data from the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, write data to the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, comprising an optimal control unit that supervises control processing,
The optimum control unit, based on the average value data of the current and voltage of each solar cell array obtained from the current value and voltage value of each solar cell array measured by the measuring instrument, Calculate the output rate, and store the generated power and the output rate in the power generation data table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
The optimal control unit is based on the generated power or the output rate, and based on the highest value of the generated power or output rate of the solar cell array, the generated power or output rate of the plurality of solar cell arrays is more than a predetermined ratio of the highest value. Sorting into a small first group and a large second group, storing a group ID in the conversion unit designation table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
The optimal control unit refers to the conversion unit designation table, determines whether it is grouped in a plurality,
When the optimal control unit is grouped into a plurality, the power generation data table is referred to, and the total generated power of the solar cell array for each group is calculated.
When the total generated power of the first group is less than or equal to the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimal control unit designates the solar cell array of the first group to be connected to the first conversion unit, and the second control unit Specify the connection of the solar cell array of the group to the second conversion unit, store the conversion unit ID specified corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit specification table,
On the other hand, when the total generated power of the first group is larger than the rated power of the first conversion unit, the optimum control unit designates connection of the solar cell arrays of the first and second groups to the second conversion unit. And storing the conversion unit ID designated corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit designation table,
The optimal control unit sends a connection switching command for each solar cell array to connect to the conversion unit specified in the conversion unit specification table to the switching device, and causes the switching device to execute a switch switching process. A solar power generation system is provided.

According to the second solution of the present invention,
A plurality of solar cell arrays;
A measuring instrument for measuring the voltage and current of each of the solar cell arrays;
A power converter having a first rated capacity converter, a second rated capacity converter greater than the first rated capacity, and
A switching device including a plurality of switches for connecting each of the solar cell arrays to either the first or second conversion unit;
According to the measurement value of the measuring instrument, the control device for switching the switching device, performing MPPT control and outputting power,
A solar power generation system comprising:

The controller is
Corresponding to each solar cell array ID, a conversion unit designation table storing a group ID and the conversion unit ID of the first or second conversion unit connected to each solar cell array,
A power generation data table for storing generated power and output rate corresponding to each solar cell array ID;
In the control method of the photovoltaic power generation system including an optimum control unit that reads data from the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, writes data to the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, and supervises control processing. ,

The optimum control unit, based on the average value data of the current and voltage of each solar cell array obtained from the current value and voltage value of each solar cell array measured by the measuring instrument, Calculate the output rate, and store the generated power and the output rate in the power generation data table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
The optimal control unit is based on the generated power or the output rate, and based on the highest value of the generated power or output rate of the solar cell array, the generated power or output rate of the plurality of solar cell arrays is more than a predetermined ratio of the highest value. Sorting into a small first group and a large second group, storing a group ID in the conversion unit designation table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
The optimal control unit refers to the conversion unit designation table, determines whether it is grouped in a plurality,
When the optimal control unit is grouped into a plurality, the power generation data table is referred to, and the total generated power of the solar cell array for each group is calculated.
When the total generated power of the first group is less than or equal to the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimal control unit designates the solar cell array of the first group to be connected to the first conversion unit, and the second control unit Specify the connection of the solar cell array of the group to the second conversion unit, store the conversion unit ID specified corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit specification table,
On the other hand, when the total generated power of the first group is larger than the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimum control unit designates connection of the first and second group solar cell arrays to the second conversion unit. And storing the conversion unit ID designated corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit designation table,
The optimal control unit sends a connection switching command for each solar cell array to connect to the conversion unit specified in the conversion unit specification table to the switching device, and causes the switching device to execute a switch switching process. A method for controlling a photovoltaic system is provided.

According to the present invention, by controlling the number of choppers inside the PCS, even if the amount of solar radiation is small and the load factor of the PCS is small, or even when power generation is stopped, the PCS can be operated relatively continuously to increase the amount of power generation. it can.
In addition, according to the present invention, the output of the solar cell is collected and supplied to the chopper even under weather conditions in which the PCS conversion efficiency (efficiency including conversion loss between the chopper and the inverter) is 80% or less, for example. Can be operated with an efficiency of, for example, about 95%.
Furthermore, according to the present invention, the conversion efficiency can be maintained by improving the load factor of the chopper, and the power consumption of the stopped chopper can be gained.
According to the present invention, the decrease in the MPPT effect due to the decrease in the number of choppers can be almost eliminated because the amount of solar radiation is small.
For example, when operating a solar power generation system composed of a 500 kW solar cell and a 500 kW PCS with a conversion efficiency of 95% at the rated output, the direct current output of the solar cell is 1/10 of the rated 50 kW, If the PCS conversion efficiency at 50 kW output is 80%, the power generation amount as the system is 40 kW. Here, if it can be operated with the conversion efficiency at the rated output, a power generation amount of 47.5 kW can be obtained, and therefore a gain of about 7.5 kW is expected due to the low efficiency operation of the inverter. In the above example, when the DC output of the solar cell is 1/10 of the rated value and the large-capacity inverter stops, there is a gain effect of about 47.5 kW. In particular, it is effective for the power generation output of solar cells in situations where the amount of solar radiation is small, such as at sunrise, sunset, cloudy weather, and winter.
In addition, when accommodating and controlling a solar cell including a partial shadow with the same chopper, the IV curve becomes stepped and a MPPT control mismatch occurs. However, according to the present invention, a solar cell including a partial shadow is separated and another By controlling with a chopper, a solar cell without a shadow can maintain an expected power generation output, and a solar cell including a partial shadow can be utilized to the maximum extent.

The block diagram (1) of a photovoltaic power generation system. The hardware detailed block diagram of a control system. The functional block diagram of an optimal control unit. The main flowchart in the whole process. The input process flowchart. A measurement processing flowchart. The 1st arithmetic processing flowchart. The 2nd arithmetic processing flowchart. Route switching process flowchart (1). Route switching process flowchart (2). Explanatory drawing of the conversion efficiency characteristic of PCS. The IV characteristic figure of a solar cell. IV characteristic diagram of a solar cell including a partial shadow and a solar cell in which power generation is stopped or reduced. Explanatory drawing of the specific example of group classification. Explanatory drawing of a power generation image. The block diagram of a data storage part. Explanatory drawing of a measurement data table. Explanatory drawing of a power generation data table. Explanatory drawing of a chopper designation | designated table. Explanatory drawing of a connection table. Explanatory drawing of a route setting table. Explanatory drawing about a 1st and 2nd calculation process and a route switching process. The block diagram (2) of a photovoltaic power generation system. The block diagram (3) of a photovoltaic power generation system.

Hereinafter, a preferred embodiment of a solar power generation system according to the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
1. Principle of Power Generation Control FIG. 11 is an explanatory diagram of PCS conversion efficiency characteristics.
As shown in the figure, the conversion efficiency characteristics of a PCS (power converter) such as a chopper or an inverter are characteristics in which the conversion efficiency decreases in a band where the output (load factor) of the solar cell is small.
In FIG. 11, the conversion efficiency is the conversion efficiency of the power converter, and the output is the output power of the solar cell normalized by the pu value. It becomes 1 pu when the output power of the solar cell is the rated capacity of the PCS. In this embodiment, for simplicity, the chopper and the inverter have the same efficiency characteristics, but are not limited thereto. The power generation efficiency gradually decreases from 0.2 pu, and at 0.1 pu, which is about 10% lower than the rated efficiency, the low efficiency state of the chopper in this embodiment is defined as 0.1 pu or less. . As a control method, when each output of the solar cell array is 20 kW or more, the chopper is individually operated, and when the output of the solar cell array is less than 20 kW, it becomes 0.1 pu or less with respect to the chopper and is in a low efficiency state. For this reason, the connection line is switched by the switching device so as to collect current in one chopper. In addition, the disconnected chopper stops.
In this embodiment, since the outputs of a plurality of solar cells are collected and accommodated and controlled in the same chopper, the same chopper and an inverter, it is possible to use a high conversion efficiency region of the PCS conversion efficiency characteristics. .

FIG. 12 shows an IV characteristic diagram of the solar cell.
The output value of a solar cell is generally expressed in watts (W = work rate), which is the product of voltage (V) and current (I). In order to extract the maximum power from the solar cell, it is necessary to control the voltage so that the product of the current and the voltage is maximized. In the IV (current-voltage) characteristics of the solar cell, the operating point at which this output is maximized is referred to as a maximum power point. The maximum power point of the solar cell is shifted depending on the voltage actually required by the connected load. Since the IV characteristics change depending on the solar radiation intensity, the module temperature, the state, etc. (especially, I rises and falls according to the irradiation amount, especially V rises and falls according to the temperature). Or the current must be automatically followed. Therefore, the control in which the solar cell is operated between the solar cell and the load so as to operate at the maximum power point and the both are balanced and operated at a point convenient for both is referred to as MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control.

FIG. 13 shows an IV characteristic diagram of a solar cell including a partial shadow and a solar cell in which power generation is stopped or reduced.
When a solar cell including a partial shadow or a solar cell whose power generation is stopped / reduced is controlled by the same chopper, the same chopper, and an inverter, the IV curve has a plurality of steps (steps). For this reason, it may be difficult to determine the maximum power point, or it may be difficult to perform control so that a mismatch in MPPT control (a state in which the rated output characteristics inherent to the solar cell cannot be sufficiently extracted) does not occur. .
Therefore, in the present embodiment, the solar cell including a partial shadow or the solar cell that stops or reduces power generation is separated and controlled by another chopper, another chopper, and an inverter, so that the IV shown in FIG. A plurality of characteristics are controlled separately, and appropriate MPPT control is facilitated.
As described above, solar cells without shadows, solar cells that stop or decrease power generation, and other solar cells can maintain the expected power output, and solar cells that contain partial shadows and solar that stops or decreases power generation. You can use multiple batteries to the maximum.

2. System Configuration FIG. 1 shows a configuration diagram of a photovoltaic power generation system. FIG. 2 shows a detailed hardware configuration diagram of the control system.
1, the present photovoltaic power generation system includes a plurality of solar cell arrays 1 (for example, five solar cell arrays 1 having a rated capacity of 50 kW) and a PCS (power conversion device) 3 (for example, a rated capacity as a conversion unit). A 250 kW chopper (buck-boost converter), a rated capacity 50 kW chopper, a rated capacity 250 kW commercial interconnection inverter), a switching device 2 that switches connection lines between each solar cell array 1 and each chopper, and a control device 5. Power is supplied to the commercial system 6. In the switching device 2, a switch 21 capable of switching connection lines is provided. A measuring instrument (voltage / current) 4 is provided at the power generation end of each solar cell array 1, each chopper, and the input of the inverter. The control device 5 is connected to each measuring instrument 4, each switch 21, each chopper, an inverter and a control line (analog I / O signal: 4-20 mA, digital I / O signal: 0-5V contact).

Hereinafter, FIG. 1 will be described in detail.
As shown in FIG. 1, this solar power generation system constitutes a solar power generation system including a plurality of choppers. That is, this solar power generation system includes, for example, five solar cell arrays 1 having the same rated capacity, two choppers having different rated capacities, and a PCS 3 including one commercial linkage inverter therein. Each solar cell array 1 and the chopper are physically connected so as to be switched without interruption through the switching device 2 in a state separated by a distance. The control of the switching device 2 is executed by a control command from the control device 5, for example. The solar cell array 1 and the switching device 2 are connected via a measuring instrument 4 that measures physical characteristics of the solar cell array 1.
Each of the solar cell arrays 1 is installed at a predetermined interval so that, for example, the solar cell array 1 is appropriately irradiated with sunlight. In the illustrated example, the rated capacities are all the same, and for example, are constituted by a solar cell array 1 of 50 kw. Although not shown, the measuring instrument 4 includes a general voltmeter, ammeter, thermometer, and the like. These measuring instruments 4 are used for measuring physical characteristics of the solar cell array 1 and the like.
A wiring for connecting to the switching device 2 is drawn out to a connection terminal side for connecting a wiring for transmitting the output of the solar cell array 1 to the outside. In the middle of these wirings, a measuring instrument 4 for measuring the physical characteristics of the solar cell array 1 is appropriately installed as described above. These measuring instruments 4 appropriately transfer measurement results to the control device 5 at a predetermined timing. Therefore, by using these measuring instruments 4, a chopper corresponding to the total output of the solar cell array 1 group described later can be selected, and as a result, the photovoltaic power generation system can be efficiently generated.

Next, the switching device 2 will be described. With regard to the outside of the switching device 2, for example, one external terminal of the switching device 2 is connected to a wiring drawn from the solar cell array 1, and another external terminal is connected to a wiring connected to a PCS 3 described later. It is. With respect to the inside of the switching device 2, for example, a plurality of switches 21 for switching the wiring connection path are arranged inside the switching device 2. The plurality of switches 21 only need to be able to switch connection paths, and include, for example, relays. These relays appropriately switch connection paths when a command from the control device 5 installed outside the switching device 2 arrives. Note that the arrival of these commands is based on commands from the control device 5, but in addition to the normal wired connection, there may be a wireless connection, etc. It can be appropriately selected depending on the situation.
Next, PCS3 will be described. The wiring from the switching device 2 is connected to one external terminal of the PCS 3, and the wiring connected to the commercial system 6 is drawn out to the other external terminal. The PCS 3 includes a plurality of choppers having different capacities and an inverter for connection to the commercial system 6.
In the illustrated example, a chopper with a rated capacity of 250 kw and a chopper with a rated capacity of 50 kw are provided inside the PCS 3. Each of the input terminals of the chopper is provided with a measuring instrument 4 having the same configuration as the measuring instrument 4 described above, and uses physical characteristics measured by the measuring instrument 4, such as current value and voltage value. Thus, a predetermined calculation is appropriately performed on the control device 5 side. As a result, it is possible to select a wiring route with good power generation efficiency. The chopper referred to here is a converter having a function of performing step-up / step-down. By setting these choppers to have different capacities, it becomes possible to appropriately select a chopper corresponding to the total output of the solar cell array 1 group from an external command, and to realize efficient power generation. . Furthermore, by changing the capacity of the chopper, the solar cell array 1 that does not contribute to efficient power generation of the solar cell array 1 group can be appropriately switched to another chopper. Thereby, the solar cell array 1 that contributes to efficient power generation of the solar cell array 1 group can be effectively used, and as a result, the solar power generation system can generate power efficiently. The output of each chopper is connected to an inverter described below.

As the inverter in the PCS 3, for example, an inverter for commercial linkage is provided. In the illustrated example, by using an inverter having a rated capacity of 250 kw, it is possible to transmit the output of the solar cell array 1 group to the commercial system 6 by converting outputs from a plurality of choppers. In the inverter shown in the figure, the output from each chopper is input, and the measuring instrument 4 described above is provided between the chopper and the inverter. Here again, the measuring instrument 4 measures the physical characteristics and transfers the measurement result to the control device 5 at an arbitrary timing as appropriate. In addition, as described above, the output of the inverter is transmitted to the commercial system 6, and the switch 21 and the like as described above are provided between the inverter and the commercial system 6. A return or the like becomes possible.
Next, the control device 5 will be described. Although the electrical hardware configuration of the control device 5 will be described in detail later, in short, the control device 5 manages the plurality of measuring instruments 4, the switching device 2, the PCS 3, etc. in an integrated manner. The acquired physical characteristics and the calculation results are transferred to an external terminal or the like as appropriate. That is, based on various physical characteristics transferred from the measuring instrument 4, for example, a current value, a voltage value, etc., a predetermined calculation described in detail later is performed, and a connection path is determined according to the calculation result, By issuing a command to the switching device 2 at the timing, the connection path between each solar cell array 1 and each chopper is appropriately changed.
Therefore, with such a solar power generation system, the output of the solar cell array 1 is always output without minimizing the influence caused by the environment such as a partial shadow such as a cloud that has suddenly occurred without human intervention. It can be used as much as possible. As a result, the usage efficiency of each chopper included in the PCS 3 can be increased, and furthermore, a large amount of power can be supplied to the commercial system 6, so that the total power generation amount on the commercial system 6 side can be reduced. it can. Therefore, since the amount of power generated by fossil fuels can be easily reduced, harmful substances released on the earth can be reduced, which can contribute to the reduction of global environmental pollution.

Hereinafter, FIG. 2 will be described in detail.
2, as an apparatus added to the power generation system of FIG. 1, for example, a CPU that processes various operations / commands, an I / O unit that serves as various input / output ports, a communication unit that manages and communicates communication protocols, There is a server that performs backup processing of setting data and operational data, and an optimal control unit 50 that controls the control processing of the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 2, this solar power generation system includes, for example, a control device 5 including a CPU, a communication unit, an I / O unit, and an optimum control unit 50, a server, a measuring instrument 4 as described above, and the like. Measuring instrument 4, PCS3, switching device 2, solar cell array group 1, and commercial system 6, and another control device 5 including a CPU, a communication unit, and an I / O unit. The control device 5, the measuring instrument 4, the PCS 3, and the switching device 2 are connected via a control line, and the control line is drawn from an I / O unit inside the control device 5. The I / O unit can be connected to an analog I / O unit, a digital I / O unit, or the like, for example, a 4 to 20 mA analog I / O signal, a 0 to 5 V contact digital I / O. Each can correspond to a signal.
In the illustrated example, the control device 5 is configured as a building block type. In this example, the control device 5 manages a communication protocol and performs communication processing with a CPU unit that controls various operations and commands. It includes a communication unit that performs data communication with the outside, an input device that serves as various input / output ports or an I / O unit that connects output effects, and an optimum control unit 50 that controls the control processing of the present embodiment. These units are connected by a bus via a backplane board, for example.
As is well known to those skilled in the art, the CPU unit includes a microprocessor that executes general processing, a program memory that stores user programs, an I / O memory that stores so-called I / O data, and data Built-in memory. The built-in microprocessor of the CPU unit executes the I / O refresh process, the user program execution process, and the peripheral service process as appropriate by executing a predetermined program.

The I / O unit is connected to the measuring instrument 4, the PCS 3, and the switching device 2, and has a memory for storing data corresponding to each device. Then, input data (including data such as current value and voltage value) is periodically taken from the measuring instrument 4 and stored at predetermined intervals. Further, output data (including data that is a user program execution result) calculated by the optimum control unit 50 under the control of the CPU is sent to the external switching device 2 or the like.
The optimum control unit 50 has a built-in processor, appropriately calculates data collected from the measuring instrument 4 and the like according to instructions from the CPU, and accumulates and stores the results in the memory in the optimum control unit 50. In addition, the optimal control unit 50 sends a command based on the calculation result to the switching device 2, and the switching device 2 changes the connection path as appropriate based on the received command. Moreover, the optimal control unit 50 transmits the data acquired from the measuring instrument 4 etc., the data of a calculation result, etc. to an external server at arbitrary timings, and a server accumulate | stores those data. Thus, the server acquires various data from the optimal control unit 50 by communicating with the optimal control unit 50 at an appropriate timing. The data acquired in this way is appropriately processed on the server side, and the server performs remote monitoring on the server side by displaying the data of the measuring instrument 4 on the screen or displaying the current connection path. Will be able to. In addition, the server can have various initial setting data, backup operation data, etc., and the server manages these data to quickly respond to failures. Will be able to.

3. Optimal Control Unit FIG. 3 shows a functional configuration diagram of the optimal control unit.
The measurement unit 51 has functions related to measurement intervals, measurement ranges, and data transmission / reception for measurement of the power generation end of the solar cell array 1. The external interface is an expansion unit for remote setting change. The MPPT control unit is related to chopper control, and the power conversion unit is related to inverter control.
Hereinafter, FIG. 3 will be described in detail.
As shown in FIG. 3, the optimum control unit 50 includes, for example, a measurement unit 51, an external interface, an MPPT control unit, a power conversion unit, and an overall control unit 52.
The external interface has a function for connecting to a server and other units. Specifically, data is exchanged between an external server, an internal CPU unit, a communication unit, and an I / O unit. It has a function to perform communication.
The measurement unit 51 has a function of processing physical characteristic measurement results such as wiring, and includes a storage unit 55 for storing a measurement interval of a power generation end of the solar cell array 1, a so-called sampling frequency and a measurement range, and a voltage value. A voltage measurement unit for processing data, a current measurement unit for processing current value data, a data transmission / reception unit for processing data such as physical characteristics, and a control signal transmission / reception unit for communicating with the measuring instrument 4 side Including. Needless to say, the analog data acquired on the measuring instrument 4 side is converted into digital data, that is, encoded, and the encoded data is processed by the measuring unit 51.
The MPPT control unit has a function of controlling a chopper built in the PCS 3, and includes a control signal transmission / reception unit, a chopper switching unit, and a data transmission / reception unit. The MPPT control unit sends a chopper switching command based on the result calculated in the overall control unit 52 described later, and the appropriate switching device 2 and the solar cell array 1 are connected appropriately by the external switching device 2.

The power conversion unit has a function of controlling an inverter built in the PCS 3, and includes a control signal transmission / reception unit, a power conversion processing unit, and a data transmission / reception unit. The power conversion unit sends a control command to the inverter based on a result calculated in the overall control unit 52 described later, and appropriately supplies power to the commercial system 6.
Next, the overall control unit 52 will be described. The overall control unit 52 performs a predetermined calculation based on the data from the measurement unit 51, and appropriately controls the PCS 3 and the switching device 2 based on the calculation result. As a result, it is possible to quickly cope with the output fluctuation of the solar cell array 1 according to the external environment, and the power generation efficiency of the solar power generation system is increased. The overall control unit 52 includes a data transmission / reception unit, a control signal output unit, a storage unit 53, a data sampling interval determination unit, a processing type determination unit, an arithmetic processing unit, a chopper selection processing unit, and a route determination unit.
The data transmission / reception unit is a so-called interface, and has a function of transmitting data calculated by the overall control unit 52 to the other and receiving data transmitted to the overall control unit 52.
The control signal output unit has a function of outputting a command based on the result calculated by the overall control unit 52. For example, the control signal output unit transmits connection path data for switching the chopper to the MPPT control unit.
The storage unit 53 has a function of storing predetermined data for carrying out the present embodiment, and is an initial setting storage unit 56 in which the rated capacity of the solar cell array 1 and the like are stored, and the overall control unit 52. A primary storage unit 57 for temporarily storing the calculation data and the like, and a data storage unit 58 for storing a connection table composed of data such as a connection route pattern. The overall control unit 52 obtains data from the storage unit 53 as appropriate, and performs an operation for determining a connection path.

The data sampling interval determination unit has a function of transmitting data such as a sampling frequency that is a so-called measurement interval to the measurement unit 51. The sampling frequency may be determined by an external dip switch or the like (not shown), or may be determined by transmitting data from the outside such as a server.
The process type determination unit performs a first calculation process of an operation example described later, and includes an output rate calculation unit, an output comparison unit, and a classification calculation unit. Specifically, the processing type determination unit performs grouping of the solar cell arrays 1 having similar output characteristics. That is, the actual generated power and output rate of the solar cell array 1 are calculated based on the measurement results, the output rates of the solar cell arrays 1 are compared, and the comparison results are sorted based on a predetermined threshold value. Thus, the solar cell arrays 1 having similar output rates are designated as one group. In short, the processing type determination unit performs the sorting process of the solar cell array 1 which is a previous stage for selecting a chopper according to the output rate.
The arithmetic processing unit performs second arithmetic processing of an operation example described later, and includes a batch processing unit including a batch calculation unit and a batch data comparison unit, and a group processing unit including a group calculation unit and a group data comparison unit. Is provided. Specifically, the arithmetic processing unit selects one chopper from a plurality of choppers built in the PCS 3 so as to make maximum use of a preinstalled chopper based on the classification result calculated in the first arithmetic processing. And a group of solar cell arrays 1 having similar output rates.
The chopper selection processing unit is a processing unit appropriately called from the above-described batch data comparison unit and group data comparison unit, and includes a condition determination unit, a batch chopper selection processing unit, and a group chopper selection processing unit. Specifically, the chopper selection processing unit has a batch process and a group process depending on whether or not there are two or more groups, and when there are no more than two groups, In the process, the solar cell array 1 group is associated with the corresponding chopper, and when there are two or more groups, the chopper is tied for each group of the solar cell array 1 in the group process. Let it be attached.

The route determination unit is a process of determining a connection route so that the chopper can be used to the maximum extent by comparing the processing result described above with a connection route table stored in advance, and the table comparison unit, route determination process A part. Specifically, the route determination unit includes a connection table in which data of all route patterns is stored, a chopper specification table in which data specified in the second calculation process is stored, and a connection that is currently operating. By comparing various connection route data such as a route setting table in which route data is stored, a connection switching command is transmitted at a predetermined interval.
In this way, by performing a predetermined calculation in the overall control unit 52, an appropriate connection path between the solar cell array 1 and the chopper is determined. As a result, the output of the solar cell array 1 can always be utilized to the maximum while minimizing the influence caused by the environment such as a partial shadow such as a cloud that suddenly occurs without the need for human intervention.

FIG. 16 shows a configuration diagram of the data storage unit.
The data storage unit 58 includes, for example, a measurement data table 581, a power generation data table 582, a chopper designation table (conversion unit designation table) 583, a connection table 584, and a route setting table 585.

FIG. 17 is an explanatory diagram of the measurement data table.
The measurement data table 581 includes, for example, a current value and a voltage value, an average value of the current value, and an average value of the voltage value corresponding to the measurement time for each solar cell array ID.

FIG. 18 is an explanatory diagram of the power generation data table.
The power generation data table 582 includes, for example, generated power and output rate corresponding to the solar cell array ID (identification information) for identifying each solar cell array 1.

FIG. 19 is an explanatory diagram of the chopper designation table.
The chopper designation table 583 is, for example, for identifying a group ID for identifying a group and a conversion unit such as a chopper and / or an inverter connected to each solar cell array 1 corresponding to each solar cell array ID. Includes chopper ID (conversion unit ID).

FIG. 20 is an explanatory diagram of the connection table.
The connection table 584 includes, for example, a chopper ID (conversion unit ID) that accommodates each solar cell array 1 (A to E in this example) corresponding to the connection pattern number.

FIG. 21 is an explanatory diagram of the route setting table.
The route setting table 585 is, for example, a switching device 2 for turning on / off each solar cell array 1 corresponding to a connection pattern number of a conversion unit such as a chopper and / or an inverter connected to each solar cell array 1. ON / OFF combination information of each switch 21 is included.

4). Control Flow Next, the operation of the photovoltaic power generation system will be described.
As the control flow, the following processing flow is sequentially executed.
FIG. 4 shows a main flowchart for the overall processing.
As this processing main flow, after the system of the optimum control unit 50 is started, input processing (S100), measurement processing (S200), first calculation processing (S300), second calculation processing (S400), route switching processing (S600). Are executed sequentially. However, after the second calculation process (S400), the necessity of the route switching process (S600) is determined based on the difference between the route plan and the connected route (S500). In step S500, it is determined whether or not the output rate has fluctuated by a predetermined threshold or more after a certain period (sampling interval × difference detection interval). If it has not fluctuated more than the threshold, the optimal control unit 50 returns to step S200 and repeats the subsequent processing. On the other hand, when it fluctuates more than a threshold value, the optimal control unit 50 performs route switching processing (S600). Further, the optimal control unit 50 may execute a determination process for giving hysteresis to the route switching process (S600). The optimal control unit 50 executes a determination process (S700) associated with a change in the initial setting of the system after the route switching process (S600). In step S700, the optimal control unit 50 determines whether or not the solar power generation system has been changed. When the solar power generation system is changed, the optimal control unit 50 returns to step S100 and repeats the subsequent processes. On the other hand, when the photovoltaic power generation system has not been changed, the optimal control unit 50 returns to step S200 and repeats the subsequent processing.

FIG. 5 shows an input processing flowchart.
The input processing flow is an initial setting input and update processing flow.
A photovoltaic power generation system such as the number of solar cell arrays 1 and PCS3 by the overall control unit 52 in accordance with an input (S103) such as pressing down a hard switch such as a button in the control device 5 based on the standby state (S101). The connection table 584 such as the short circuit opening of each switch 21 corresponding to the connection route, the chopper activation stop, etc. is input, stored in the cache memory (S105), and transferred to the initial setting storage unit 56 ( S107). As input data, for example, sampling interval, difference detection interval, PCS3 number, PCS3 capacity, chopper number, chopper capacity, number of solar cell arrays 1, capacity of solar cell array 1, connection table 584 (solar cell array 1, switch 21, chopper, inverter) and other parameters are transferred. If no parameter is input in step S103, the overall control unit 52 returns to step S101 and repeats the subsequent processing.

FIG. 6 shows a measurement processing flowchart.
The measurement processing flow is a processing flow of data collection of the measuring instrument 4 and data transfer to the overall control unit 52 (for example, an arithmetic processing unit).
First, the measurement unit 51 measures a current value and a voltage value (S203) based on the storage unit 55 (predetermined sampling cycle) (S201), and stores the measurement data in the cache memory. (S205). Thereafter, the measurement unit 51 calculates an average value of measurement values (current / voltage values) of measurement data within a predetermined period, stores the calculated average value in the cache memory, and transfers it to the overall control unit 52 (S207). ~ S213). In the case of the present embodiment, for example, it is realistic to store a one-minute average at a sampling period of 6 seconds. The overall control unit 52 stores the average value of the transferred measurement data in the measurement data table 581 of the data storage unit 58.

FIG. 22 is an explanatory diagram for the first and second calculation processes and the route switching process. 22, the connection table and the route setting table respectively correspond to the connection table 584 in FIG. 20 and the route setting table 585 in FIG.

Hereinafter, the first and second calculation processes and the route switching process will be described.
FIG. 7 shows a first arithmetic processing flowchart.
The first calculation processing flow is a processing flow for calculating the power generation amount and the output rate of each solar cell array 1 and separating a group with a large output from a group with a small output based on the output rate.
The overall control unit 52 reads the rated capacity of each solar cell array 1 from the initial setting storage unit 56 (S301), and reads the corresponding average value data from the measurement data table 581 of the data storage unit 58 (S303). Thereafter, the overall control unit 52 calculates the generated power and output rate of each solar cell array 1 and stores them in the generated power data table 582 (S305). The generated power can be calculated, for example, by multiplying the voltage value and the current value, and the output rate can be calculated as a percentage while dividing the generated power by the rated capacity. Next, the overall control unit 52 calculates the total number of average value data (S307). The overall control unit 52 sets the calculated number of data to M (S309), rearranges the M data into generated power and the output rate in descending order (S311), the solar cell array 1 with the highest output rate, and other solar cells When the output rates of the battery arrays 1 are sequentially compared (S313 to S323), and there is a difference of 30% or more between the highest output rate and the Nth output rate (S323: Yes), the Nth and subsequent solar cells Array 1 is designated as group B “small” (S325). On the other hand, if there is no difference of 30% or more (S323: No), the overall control unit 52 sets N = N-1 (S327), returns to step S317, and repeats the subsequent processing.
Further, if N = 1 in step S317, the overall control unit 52 designates the other solar cell array 1 as group A “large” (S329). If the number of solar cell arrays 1 and the number of choppers are large, they may be separated into two or more groups.

FIG. 14 is an explanatory diagram of a specific example of group classification.
In this example, (a) shows an example with group separation. In this example, an example in which the output rate difference between the solar cell arrays 1 is 30% or more (there is a partial shadow or the like) is shown. Moreover, (b) shows an example without group separation. In this example, an example in which the output rate difference between the solar cell arrays 1 is 30% or less (no partial shadow or the like) is shown.

In step S331, if the total output of group B is 0, the overall control unit 52 sets the group A to the group “large”, sets the number of groups to “1”, and sets the group classification data to the chopper of the data storage unit 58. The data is stored in the designation table 583 (S341). On the other hand, when the total output of group B is not 0 (S331), the overall control unit 52 designates the number of groups as “2” (S333), and compares the output of group A with the output of group B (S335). ). When the output of the group A is equal to or higher than the output of the group B, the overall control unit 52 sets the group A as the group “large”, the group B as the group “small”, and the group classification data as the chopper designation table 583 of the data storage unit 58. (S337). On the other hand, when the output of the group B is larger than the output of the group A, the overall control unit 52 sets the group A as the group “small”, the group B as the group “large”, and the group classification data as the chopper of the data storage unit 58. The data is stored in the designation table 583 (S339). In the example of the chopper designation table 583 in FIGS. 19 and 22, the group “large” is designated as the group ID “2”, and the group “small” is designated as the group ID “1”.

FIG. 8 shows a second arithmetic processing flowchart.
The second calculation processing flow determines whether the chopper can be accommodated for each distributed group, and if possible, performs processing for each group by a plurality of choppers, and if not, performs batch processing by one chopper. This is a processing flow for determining that the connection route corresponds to the determination result.
First, the overall control unit 52 refers to the chopper designation table 583 and determines whether or not two or more groups are grouped in the first calculation flow (S401). The process proceeds to batch processing of S407 to S411. The batch processing is processing for connecting all the solar cell arrays 1 to one chopper. The overall control unit 52 refers to the power generation data table 582, reads the values of all the generated power into the primary storage unit 57, and calculates the total generated power C. If the total generated power C is in the range of 50 kW <C (≦ 260 kW) (S407: Yes), the overall control unit 52 sets all the solar cell arrays 1 (corresponding to the group “large”) to the chopper “large”. On the other hand, if C ≦ 50 kW (S407: No), all the solar cell arrays 1 (corresponding to the group “large”) are designated to be connected to the chopper “small” (S411). The overall control unit 52 stores this designation result in the chopper designation table 583 (S417). In the example of the chopper designation table 583 of FIGS. 19 and 22, the chopper “large” is designated as the chopper “2”, and the chopper “small” is designated as the chopper “1”.
On the other hand, in step S <b> 401, the overall control unit 52 refers to the chopper designation table 583, and if grouped, calculates the total generated power of each group based on the power generation data table 582 and reads it into the primary storage unit 57. Thereafter, if the total generated power of the group “small” is 50 kW or less (S403) and the total generated power of the group “large” and the group “small” is 50 kW or more (S413), the overall control unit 52 The solar cell array 1 corresponding to the group “small” is designated to be connected to the chopper “small”, and the solar cell array 1 corresponding to the group “large” is designated to be connected to the chopper “large” (S415).
On the other hand, if the total generated power of the group “small” is larger than 50 kW in step S403, the overall control unit 52 discards the grouping and changes to the above-described batch processing (S405). Even if the total generated power of the group “small” is 50 kW or less (S403), if the total generated power of the group “large” and the group “small” is smaller than 50 kW (S413), the overall control unit 52 Is discarded and changed to the above-described batch processing (S405). Then, the overall control unit 52 stores the chopper designation result in the chopper designation table 583 (S417) (refer to the column of “output destination chopper” in the chopper designation table 583 in FIG. 22). ).

9 and 10 show a route switching process flowchart.
The route switching processing flow is a processing flow for operating the switch 21 in order to switch the connection route between the solar cell array 1 and the chopper, which is determined by the second calculation processing (S400) described above.
The overall control unit 52 reads the connection table 584, the chopper designation table 583, and the route setting table 585 into the primary storage unit 57 (S601 to S605). The overall control unit 52 refers to the connection table 584 and the chopper designation table 583, obtains a connection pattern number that matches each chopper ID designated in the chopper designation table 583, and is the same as the connection pattern number set previously. Is determined (S607 to S613). If they are the same (S613: Yes), the overall control unit 52 waits for a predetermined time and ends the process. On the other hand, if they are different (S613: No), the overall control unit 52 searches the connection table 584 for the same pattern number in the connection table 584 according to the chopper designation table 583. Is transmitted to the switching device 2 (S615 to S623). If the predetermined time has not elapsed in step S619, the overall control unit 52 ends the process and repeats the process.

In the route switching process, the control device can also start and stop each chopper and switch the wiring by the switch. Further, in determining whether or not to switch, a certain degree of hysteresis may be set such that switching control is not performed for several minutes after switching.

5. Although the present embodiment has been described above, the present invention is not necessarily limited to the above-described means and methods, and can be appropriately changed within the scope of achieving the object of the present invention and having the effects of the present invention. It is possible to implement.
FIG. 23 shows a configuration diagram (2) of the photovoltaic power generation system.
This is, for example, a solar power generation system including a PCS provided with a small-capacity chopper and a small-capacity inverter that are 1/10 of the capacities of the chopper and the inverter, and choppers having different capacities.
As in such a system, a system using a PCS including a conversion unit composed of a chopper and an inverter having different capacities is also a chopper and an inverter having a small current collection destination. Specifically, the same control is performed. In this system, the inverter can always maintain a higher load factor than the system shown in FIG.
As other embodiments, for example, a chopper and an inverter can be operated as an integrated configuration.

Further, FIG. 24 shows a configuration diagram (3) of the photovoltaic power generation system.
As shown in the figure, the present embodiment is applicable to a system that omits an inverter and supplies DC power.

6). Power Generation Characteristics FIG. 15 is an explanatory diagram of a power generation image.
The solid line in FIG. 15 indicates the power generation characteristics of the conventional system, and the dotted line indicates the power generation characteristics of the solar power generation system of the present embodiment.
In this example, it is shown that the generated electric power is increasing particularly when there is an influence of shade in the morning and evening.

The present invention is applicable to AC and DC solar power generation systems.
In addition, as a configuration of the PCS conversion unit, a configuration including a large-capacity and a small-capacity chopper, a configuration including a large-capacity and a small-capacity inverter, or both a large-capacity and a small-capacity chopper and an inverter A structure having the above function can be used as appropriate. Further, in addition to dividing into two groups, a conversion unit such as a chopper and / or an inverter having three or more rated capacities is provided, and the solar cell array is divided into groups of appropriate capacities to be switched and connected. It can also be controlled.
Further, in the above description, mainly based on the generated power, based on the highest value of the generated power of the solar cell array, the generated power of the plurality of solar cell arrays is divided into a group smaller than a predetermined ratio of the highest value and a larger group. Sorted, but not limited to this, based on the output rate, based on the maximum output rate of the solar cell array, the output rate of multiple solar cell arrays is divided into groups smaller and larger than the predetermined ratio of the maximum value You may make it do.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Solar cell array 2 Switching apparatus 3 PCS (power converter device)
4 Measuring instrument 5 Control device 6 Commercial system 21 Switch 50 Optimal control unit 51 Measuring unit 52 General control unit 53 Storage unit 55 Storage unit (Sampling frequency)
56 Initial Setting Storage Unit 57 Primary Storage Unit 58 Data Storage Unit

Claims (18)

  1. A plurality of solar cell arrays;
    A measuring instrument for measuring the voltage and current of each of the solar cell arrays;
    A power converter having a first rated capacity converter, a second rated capacity converter greater than the first rated capacity, and
    A switching device including a plurality of switches for connecting each of the solar cell arrays to either the first or second conversion unit;
    According to the measurement value of the measuring instrument, the control device for switching the switching device, performing MPPT control and outputting power,
    A solar power generation system comprising:

    The controller is
    Corresponding to each solar cell array ID, a conversion unit designation table storing a group ID and the conversion unit ID of the first or second conversion unit connected to each solar cell array,
    A power generation data table for storing generated power and output rate corresponding to each solar cell array ID;
    Read data from the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, write data to the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, comprising an optimal control unit that supervises control processing,

    The optimum control unit, based on the average value data of the current and voltage of each solar cell array obtained from the current value and voltage value of each solar cell array measured by the measuring instrument, Calculate the output rate, and store the generated power and the output rate in the power generation data table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
    The optimal control unit is based on the generated power or the output rate, and based on the highest value of the generated power or output rate of the solar cell array, the generated power or output rate of the plurality of solar cell arrays is more than a predetermined ratio of the highest value. Sorting into a small first group and a large second group, storing a group ID in the conversion unit designation table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
    The optimal control unit refers to the conversion unit designation table, determines whether it is grouped in a plurality,
    When the optimal control unit is grouped into a plurality, the power generation data table is referred to, and the total generated power of the solar cell array for each group is calculated.
    When the total generated power of the first group is less than or equal to the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimal control unit designates the solar cell array of the first group to be connected to the first conversion unit, and the second control unit Specify the connection of the solar cell array of the group to the second conversion unit, store the conversion unit ID specified corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit specification table,
    On the other hand, when the total generated power of the first group is larger than the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimum control unit designates connection of the first and second group solar cell arrays to the second conversion unit. And storing the conversion unit ID designated corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit designation table,
    The optimal control unit sends a connection switching command for each solar cell array to connect to the conversion unit specified in the conversion unit specification table to the switching device, and causes the switching device to execute a switch switching process. Solar power system.
  2. Basic configuration of the system including the rated capacity and number of solar cell arrays from the input device and the rated capacities of the first and second converters of the power converter, initial setting of the connection table and / or the route setting table 2. The photovoltaic power generation system according to claim 1, wherein an input process for inputting and storing a value is executed.
  3. The photovoltaic power generation system according to claim 2, wherein the input process associated with a change in the initial setting of the system is executed after the switching process.
  4. The optimal control unit further includes:
    A measurement data table for storing an average value of current values and an average value of voltage values for each solar cell array ID is provided,
    The optimal control unit measures a current value and a voltage value with the measuring instrument based on a pre-stored sampling period, calculates an average value of the measured values of the current value and the voltage value within a predetermined period, and 4. The photovoltaic power generation system according to claim 1, wherein the photovoltaic power generation system is stored in a measurement data table corresponding to the array ID.
  5. A first group that is smaller when the generated power or output rate of all the solar cell arrays is greater than a predetermined ratio of the highest value of the generated power or output rate, respectively, and is less than or equal to the capacity of the first converter. 5, if it is larger, the second group is designated as a larger second group, and a group ID corresponding to each solar cell array ID is stored in the conversion unit designation table. The described solar power generation system.
  6. 6. The solar light according to claim 1, wherein the generated power is calculated by multiplying a voltage value and a current value, and the output rate is calculated by dividing the generated power by a rated capacity and as a percentage. Power generation system.
  7. In the optimal control unit, the total generated power of the first group is equal to or lower than the rated capacity of the first converter, and the total generated power of the first and second groups is the rated capacity of the first converter. If smaller, the first and second groups of solar cell arrays are designated to be connected to the first conversion unit, and the designated conversion unit ID is stored in the conversion unit designation table corresponding to the solar cell array ID. The photovoltaic power generation system according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein
  8. The optimal control unit refers to the conversion unit designation table, and when the solar cell array is not grouped into a plurality, reads the value of the generated power of all the solar cell arrays from the generated data table, and calculates the total generated power. If the total generated power is greater than the capacity of the first converter, the connection is specified for the second converter. If the total generated power is less than the capacity of the first converter, the connection is specified for the first converter. The conversion unit ID specified corresponding to the solar cell array ID is stored in the conversion unit specification table.
  9. The optimum control unit further includes a connection table corresponding to a connection pattern number, storing a conversion unit ID of the first or second conversion unit that accommodates each solar cell array,
    The optimum control unit refers to the connection table and the conversion unit specification table, obtains a connection pattern number that matches each conversion unit ID specified in the conversion unit specification table, and sets a connection pattern number set previously. Determine if they are the same,
    The optimum control unit waits for a predetermined time if they are the same, while if different, sends a connection switching command for operating each switch in accordance with the designation content of the conversion unit designation table to the switching device,
    The photovoltaic power generation system according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the switching device switches a switch in accordance with the connection switching command.
  10. The optimal control unit further includes:
    A route setting table that stores ON / OFF combinations of the switches of the switching device corresponding to connection pattern numbers of conversion units connected to the solar cell arrays,
    Have
    The optimum control unit obtains an ON / OFF combination of each switch of the switching device specified in the route setting table according to a connection pattern number, and transmits the connection switching command to the switching device according to the ON / OFF combination. A solar power generation system according to any one of claims 1 to 9.
  11. The sunlight according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the optimal control unit maintains a connection state if a connection result and a route being connected are the same, and executes the switching process if they are different. Power generation system.
  12. The solar power generation system according to any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the optimum control unit gives hysteresis to the switching process.
  13. The first conversion unit includes a first chopper having a first rated capacity,
    The second conversion unit includes a second chopper having a second rated capacity larger than the first rated capacity,
    The photovoltaic power generation system according to any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the first and second conversion units have a common inverter.
  14. The first conversion unit includes a first chopper having a first rated capacity and a first inverter having a first rated capacity,
    The second converter includes a second chopper having a second rated capacity larger than the first rated capacity, and a second inverter having a second rated capacity larger than the first rated capacity. Item 14. The solar power generation system according to any one of Items 1 to 13.
  15. The first conversion unit includes a first chopper having a first rated capacity,
    The second conversion unit includes a second chopper having a second rated capacity larger than the first rated capacity,
    The solar power generation system according to claim 1, wherein the power conversion device outputs direct current power.
  16. A plurality of solar cell arrays;
    A measuring instrument for measuring the voltage and current of each of the solar cell arrays;
    A power converter having a first rated capacity converter, a second rated capacity converter greater than the first rated capacity, and
    A switching device including a plurality of switches for connecting each of the solar cell arrays to either the first or second conversion unit;
    According to the measurement value of the measuring instrument, the control device for switching the switching device, performing MPPT control and outputting power,
    A solar power generation system comprising:

    The controller is
    Corresponding to each solar cell array ID, a conversion unit designation table storing a group ID and the conversion unit ID of the first or second conversion unit connected to each solar cell array,
    A power generation data table for storing generated power and output rate corresponding to each solar cell array ID;
    In the control method of the photovoltaic power generation system including an optimum control unit that reads data from the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, writes data to the conversion unit designation table and the power generation data table, and supervises control processing. ,

    The optimum control unit, based on the average value data of the current and voltage of each solar cell array obtained from the current value and voltage value of each solar cell array measured by the measuring instrument, Calculate the output rate, and store the generated power and the output rate in the power generation data table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
    The optimal control unit is based on the generated power or the output rate, and based on the highest value of the generated power or output rate of the solar cell array, the generated power or output rate of the plurality of solar cell arrays is more than a predetermined ratio of the highest value. Sorting into a small first group and a large second group, storing a group ID in the conversion unit designation table corresponding to each solar cell array ID,
    The optimal control unit refers to the conversion unit designation table, determines whether it is grouped in a plurality,
    When the optimal control unit is grouped into a plurality, the power generation data table is referred to, and the total generated power of the solar cell array for each group is calculated.
    When the total generated power of the first group is less than or equal to the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimal control unit designates the solar cell array of the first group to be connected to the first conversion unit, and the second control unit Specify the connection of the solar cell array of the group to the second conversion unit, store the conversion unit ID specified corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit specification table,
    On the other hand, when the total generated power of the first group is larger than the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the optimum control unit designates connection of the first and second group solar cell arrays to the second conversion unit. And storing the conversion unit ID designated corresponding to the solar cell array ID in the conversion unit designation table,
    The optimal control unit sends a connection switching command for each solar cell array to connect to the conversion unit specified in the conversion unit specification table to the switching device, and causes the switching device to execute a switch switching process. Control method of solar power generation system.
  17. A plurality of solar cell arrays;
    A power converter having a first rated capacity converter, a second rated capacity converter greater than the first rated capacity, and
    A control device for performing MPPT control and outputting power;
    A solar power generation system comprising:

    The control device, based on the generated power or output rate of each solar cell array, based on the highest value of the generated power or output rate of the solar cell array, the generated power or output rate of a plurality of solar cell arrays is the highest value A first group that is smaller than a predetermined ratio and a second group that is larger than
    When the plurality of solar cell arrays are grouped into a plurality, the control device calculates the total generated power of the solar cell array for each group,
    When the total generated power of the first group is less than or equal to the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the control device designates connection of the first group of solar cell arrays to the first conversion unit, and the second group Designated to connect the solar cell array to the second converter,
    On the other hand, when the total generated power of the first group is larger than the rated capacity of the first converter, the control device designates the first and second groups of solar cell arrays to be connected to the second converter. ,
    The said control apparatus is the said photovoltaic power generation system which connects each solar cell array to the designated conversion part based on the said connection designation | designated.
  18. A plurality of solar cell arrays;
    A power converter having a first rated capacity converter, a second rated capacity converter greater than the first rated capacity, and
    A control device for performing MPPT control and outputting power;
    A solar power generation system control method comprising:

    The control device, based on the generated power or output rate of each solar cell array, based on the highest value of the generated power or output rate of the solar cell array, the generated power or output rate of a plurality of solar cell arrays is the highest value A first group that is smaller than a predetermined ratio and a second group that is larger than
    When the plurality of solar cell arrays are grouped into a plurality, the control device calculates the total generated power of the solar cell array for each group,
    When the total generated power of the first group is less than or equal to the rated capacity of the first conversion unit, the control device designates connection of the first group of solar cell arrays to the first conversion unit, and the second group Designated to connect the solar cell array to the second converter,
    On the other hand, when the total generated power of the first group is larger than the rated capacity of the first converter, the control device designates the first and second groups of solar cell arrays to be connected to the second converter. ,
    The said control apparatus is a control method of the said photovoltaic power generation system which connects each solar cell array to the designated conversion part based on the said connection designation | designated.
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