WO2004066715A1 - Planting arrangement - Google Patents

Planting arrangement Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2004066715A1
WO2004066715A1 PCT/AU2004/000097 AU2004000097W WO2004066715A1 WO 2004066715 A1 WO2004066715 A1 WO 2004066715A1 AU 2004000097 W AU2004000097 W AU 2004000097W WO 2004066715 A1 WO2004066715 A1 WO 2004066715A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
rows
arrangement according
plants
method layout
row
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/AU2004/000097
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michael John Panuccio
Original Assignee
Michael John Panuccio
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Michael John Panuccio filed Critical Michael John Panuccio
Priority to AU2004208443A priority Critical patent/AU2004208443A1/en
Publication of WO2004066715A1 publication Critical patent/WO2004066715A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/04Supports for hops, vines, or trees
    • A01G17/06Trellis-work

Definitions

  • the present invention relates generally to agriculture and, in particular, to methods and apparatus for the growing of plants, such as for example, plants bearing fruit, vegetables, herbs, flowers and the like. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method of planting fruit or the like, particularly plants having vines, canes or runners, such as grapes, raspberries, passion fruit, beans and the like, in a regular array which permits an increase in yield and/or quality and/or size of the produce.
  • the present invention relates to a more intensive planting layout or arrangement which allows more plants to be planted in a unit area so as to increase the quality and/or quantity of the produce, such as an increase in yield, quality and/or size of the harvest in which adjacent runners or canes of the plants are arranged to extend in alternate directions, preferably alternating oppositely facing directions to each other, so as to more effectively use the available space than does previously used planting arrangements.
  • the present invention finds particular application in a planting method, layout or arrangement for grapes, such as for example, table grapes, allowing a more intensive planting pattern in which the grape vines are planted closer together within rows so as to improve the yield, quality and/or size of the grapes per unit area of land under planting by having the canes of adjacent vines growing in alternating oppositely facing directions in order to more effectively use the available land space.
  • Another aspect of the present invention relates to the use of a greenhouse arrangement covering the planting arrangement of the present invention to permit better utilisation of land, more intensive growth of plants and/or produce, a greater yield of produce under more controlled conditions which conditions are conductive to producing produce having desirable characteristics, i.e. to produce more produce of better quality demanding premium prices when marketed.
  • the present invention will be described with particular reference to a new arrangement or layout of planting table grapes in which adjacent canes and/or vines are arranged to extend in alternating directions, it is to be noted that the present invention is not limited in scope to the described embodiment, but rather, the present invention is more extensive in scope so as to include other patterns, layouts or arrangements of planting and/or growing grapes and other plants and more intensive plantings for a wide range of crops or plants in a wide range of different environments for a variety of purposes optionally using a greenhouse or similar for providing controlled conditions to increase the productivity of the plants.
  • Another problem associated with existing methods of growing plants, including fruit, vegetables and the like, is that within a single region, the produce is generally available at the same time of the year so that at the height of the growing season, there is a plentiful supply of produce which results in the price obtained by the grower for the produce being reduced owing to the oversupply.
  • One way of addressing such problems is to provide a controlled environment and/or atmosphere, such as for example by providing an artificial or simulated environment or atmosphere by using a greenhouse or similar.
  • greenhouses have been used in the past, such greenhouses have not been entirely satisfactory for a variety of reasons. One reason is that the greenhouses are costly for large areas of land. Another reason is that some designs of greenhouse adversely affect the growing conditions so that the plants are not subjected to optimal conditions. Accordingly, there is a need for an improvement to greenhouse design to provide better growing conditions. Accordingly, it is a further aim of the present invention to provide a greenhouse, optionally in combination with an improved growing pattern, which results in produce having desirable characteristics.
  • a method or arrangement of planting plants characterized in that the plants are planted in which the spacing between adjacent plants within the row is substantially reduced, and in which the growing part of adjacent plants within the row are arranged to extend in substantially opposite directions from each other so that there is more efficient use of the available space which results in improvements to the produce produced by the plant.
  • the plants to which the present invention is applicable include fruit, vegetables, herbs, flowers, or the like, including trees, bushes, shrubs, vines, creepers or the like. More typically, the present invention relates to fruit and vegetables, preferably fruit and vegetables produced by vines, canes or runners, such as for example, grapes for wine, table grapes, beans, kiwi fruit, passion fruit, raspberries and the like. The present invention finds particular application in growing table grapes and other fruit and vegetables which are produced by the canes or runners of the plant, particularly where the fruit is more abundant closer to the vines or stem of the plant.
  • the plants are planted in rows. More typically, there are a plurality of substantially parallel rows. Even more typically, the rows are planted in pairs of rows in which the spacing between the two rows of the one pair of rows is signi icantly less than the distance between adjacent pairs of rows, particularly between the ⁇ enterlines of adjacent pairs.
  • the distance between adjacent plants within a single row is about lm. More typically, the distance between the two rows of a pair of rows is about lm. Typically, the distance between the centre line of adjacent pairs of rows is about 3m.
  • the distance from one row of one pair to a facing row or the closest row of an adjacent pair of rows is about 2m. Even more typically, the height of the vines is about 2 to 2.5m, even more typically the vines emanate from the stems at a height of about 2 to 2.5m.
  • the width of the canes or runners emanating from one vine is about 60cm with a space of about 40cm between the rows of one pair. Adjacent pairs are located about 1400cm apart from each other. Typically, the location of the plants within one of the rows of one pair of rows is offset or staggered with respect to the location of the plants of the other row of the same pair of rows. More typically, the plants of one row are located about or corresponding to about the midpoint between the plants of the other row of the pair.
  • substantially all of the plants within one row of the pair of rows are arranged so that the growing part of the plant, typically the canes or runners, extend in the same direction.
  • the direction of extending of the growing part of the plants is away from the centreline between the two rows of the pair of plants so that the left hand side row grow in the left facing direction, and the right hand side row grow in the right facing direction.
  • the first part, section or portion of the growing part of the plant is arranged to grow in a first direction.
  • this first direction is substantially transversely to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows.
  • the second part, section or portion of the growing part of the plant extends in a second direction.
  • the second direction is transverse to the first direction, which is to say that the second direction is substantially parallel to the longitudinal direction of the rows. More typically, there are two lines of growth in the second direction both being substantially perpendicular to the first line of growth of the first part in the first direction. Even more typically, the first line of growth in the second direction is substantially opposite the second line of growth in the second direction.
  • the first line of growth is substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the row, whereas the second lines of growth are substantially parallel to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows, preferably in opposite directions to each other.
  • the direction of growth of the third portion is the same as or substantially parallel to the first part. More typically, there is a fourth section of growth, preferably in two opposite directions to each other. More typically, the fourth direction is the same as or substantially parallel to the second direction.
  • the plants are arranged to extend in a substantially H-shaped pattern. More typically, the H- shaped pattern is determined by guide wires. Even more typically, the H-shaped patterns of growth are alternately arranged to extend on different sides, preferably on opposite sides to one another. More typically, the second and fourth portions of growth form the sides of the W H" whereas the third section of growth forms the "cross bar" of the "H".
  • the space between the two rows within a single pair is the service area. More typically, the service area contains the centerline of the pair of rows. Even more typically, irrigation lines, support posts, and other structures or infrastructure for the growing pattern of the plant are provided in this centerline space or service area. Even more typically, the infrastructure includes additions, such as for example, a reticulated system for spraying the plants with water, chemical solutions or the like, using pressurised lines and the like. Such reticulation systems include nozzles, pumps, pipes and the like as well as metering devices for applying the correct concentration of chemicals.
  • a line or row of support posts is located in the service area or space between the two rows of plants of the one pair of plants. More typically, the support posts support wires. Typically, the wires are support wires. More typically, the support wires extend substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows of plants.
  • the guide wires typically extend substantially parallel to each other.
  • the guide wires extend substantially longitudinally along the lengthwise extending direction of the rows.
  • the guide wires are supported by the support wires. Even more typically, the guide wires extend substantially perpendicularly to the support wires.
  • the wires may be single stranded or multi- stranded or be cables or the like.
  • the support wires/guide wires are made in sections, optionally removable sections hinged together allowing selectively dismantling of the support structure.
  • the wire supports are provided with adjustable tensioning devices to selectively adjust the tension of the wire, cables or the like.
  • a greenhouse is provided over the rows of plants. More typically, the greenhouse is supported by the posts and support wires. Even more typically, the greenhouse is provided with a roof structure.
  • the roof structure is provided with a plurality of ridges. More typically, the ridges are arranged to extend substantially parallel to each other. More typically, the ridges extend substantially perpendicularly to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows of plants. Even more typically, the roof ridges and the support wires are substantially parallel to each other.
  • the ridges are provided with a pair of sloping side surfaces. More typically, the sloping side surfaces are interconnected forming a series of troughs and crests. Typically, the troughs and crests are angularily inclined to each other, preferably in the lengthwise extending direction of the rows.
  • openings are provided in the troughs or crests or other part of the roof structure to assist in controlling the environment or atmosphere within the greenhouse.
  • the greenhouse is provided with means for controlling the environment within the greenhouse.
  • the environment of the green house is selectively climate controlled, eg., to facilitate the production of the produce, such as for example, by having equipment to produce various environmental effects, such as coolers, misters, heat/light lamps or the like.
  • Figure 1 is a schematic top perspective view of one planting arrangement of the present invention located within one form of a greenhouse providing an overall view of one plot of land containing rows of plants in accordance with the present invention
  • Figure 2 is a schematic top plan view of a small section of the planting pattern of the plants of the embodiment of Figure 1 shown in more detail;
  • Figure 3 is a side top perspective schematic view of the planting pattern of Figure 2 showing how the vines of adjacent rows within the one pair of rows are staggered with respect to each other about a centerline between the rows;
  • Figure 4 is a schematic top plan view of one arrangement of the support wires and guide wires forming the support structure for the plants;
  • Figure 5 is a top side perspective view of the embodiment of Figure 4.
  • Figure 6 is a top plan view of one form of the planting pattern of the present invention being a generally H-shaped planting pattern;
  • Figure 7 is a top perspective view of the embodiment of Figure 6;
  • Figure 8 is a side perspective view in close up, showing in more detail the form of the planting arrangement of Figures 6 and 7;
  • Figure 9 is a side elevation schematic view of the arrangement of Figure 8.
  • FIG. 1 there is shown an overall perspective view of one planting arrangement comprising a plurality of substantially parallel rows and one greenhouse assembly in accordance with the present invention, generally denoted as 2.
  • Arrangement 2 includes a plot of land, generally denoted as 3, a greenhouse 4 covering the plot of land 3 and a planting arrangement of substantially spaced apart pairs of rows of plants 6.
  • Greenhouse 4 includes substantially vertically extending support posts 8 located at regularly spaced apart locations along both of the longitudinal perimeters of the plot of land 3 for providing support for the greenhouse 4.
  • a longitudinally extending cross member 10 spans between the tops of adjacent posts 8.
  • a sloping or gable roof arrangement having a ridge 12 is provided at the top of each section of the greenhouse.
  • each roof ridge 12 is arranged to extend substantially parallel to one another over the length of the plot of land 3.
  • the roof ridges 12 are arranged substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows 6 of plants.
  • FIGs 2 to 4 there are shown close up, more detailed views of one section of the arrangement of plantings in rows 6 in accordance with the present invention.
  • the plantings are arranged in pairs of rows in which the plantings in one of the pairs of rows are spaced apart from each other over a distance of about lm in the longitudinal direction of the row.
  • the two rows are spaced apart from each other in a staggered pattern or arrangement in which one group of three plantings forms a substantially isosceles triangle A, as shown in phantom in Figure 2
  • the area between the two rows of the one pair of rows is a service area 16 with the provision of services, such as for example, irrigation lines supplying water to • the roots of the plants, support posts, control equipment, dispensers of nutrients, or the like.
  • the first row of vines which are longitudinally spaced apart from each other are individually designated as vines 14al,14a2,14a3 and so on.
  • the second row of vines, also spaced longitudinally from each other, is designated 14bl, 14b2, 14b3 and so on. Rows 14a and 14b form a single pair of rows.
  • row 14a is spaced from row 14b to a distance of about lm with each row 14a, 14b located on either side of centerline 18 which is located about midway between two roes 14a, 14b.
  • vine 14al is spaced about lm from vine 14a2 and 14a2 is spaced about lm from 14a3, and so on.
  • Centreline 18 is located about equidistant between row 14a and 14b. Other centrelines are located between each of the rows of the one pair of rows.
  • the first row of a second pair of rows of vines is designated as vines 14 ⁇ l,14c2, 14c3 and so on, and the second row of vines of this pair of rows is designated vines 14dl, 14d2, 14d3 and so on.
  • the second pair of rows 14c, 14d is located transversely spaced apart from the first pair of rows 14a, 14b to a distance of about 3m from centreline to centreline.
  • vine 14c2 is spaced about lm from vines 14cl and 14c3, as is vine 14d2 spaced from vines 14dl and 14d3 respectively, and so on down each row of vines in turn.
  • a longitudinally extending row of substantially vertical posts 30 are located at regularly spaced apart locations over the longitudinal length of the plot of land in the service space 16 between adjacent rows of plants of the one pair substantially along respective center lines 18.
  • Support wires 40 span transversely from one side of the plot to the other side of the plot of land. Main support wires 40 are retained in place by posts 30 located in the service area.
  • a plurality of longitudinally extending guide wires 50 are arranged to extend substantially perpendicular to main support wires 40 from one transverse side of the plot of land to the other transverse side.
  • the longitudinal guide wires 50 are for supporting the canes, runners, foliage, fruit and the like of the plants located at the various locations 14al, 14a2, 14a3 and so on.
  • the row of posts for one pair of rows of plants is located in the center of the service area between each individual row of the one pair in the service area.
  • any number of guide wires 50 may be present and in any suitable or convenient arrangement.
  • the spacing of the posts 30 is such that there are about three vines planted at about lm centers apart from each other located between two adjacent posts within the one row of vines so that one post 30 occurs after every 3 vines in the one row.
  • vines 14 to posts 30, main support wires 40 and guide wires 50, as well as to each other, including the runners or canes of the vines formed into a substantially "H" shaped growing pattern will now be described in detail.
  • vine 14 as a stem portion 58 from which extend canes or runners in a number of different growing sections.
  • the first growing section or portion denoted as 60 extends from at or towards the top of stem 58 of vine 14 towards a first guide wire 50a.
  • the first portion 60 is then trained so as to send off two second growing portions or canes 62 with one portion being trained to extend along the length wise extending direction of guide wire 50a in a first direction being denoted 62R indicating the right hand side direction whereas the second portion 62L extends in the opposite direction along guide wire 50a and is designated portion 62L to indicate growth to the left hand side as shown generally in Figure 6.
  • First portion 60 continues to extend growing in the transverse direction to form a third growing portion 64 which extends from first guide wire 50a to second guide wire 50b.
  • third growing portion 64 which extends from first guide wire 50a to second guide wire 50b.
  • this growing portion is trained to extend into two opposite directions along second guide wire 50b to form fourth growing portions 66.
  • the right hand side growing portion is denoted as 66R whereas the left hand side growing portion is denoted as growing portion 66L as shown particularly in Figure 6.
  • Any extra foliage or growth can be trained to grow to and to extend along guide wire 50c if required.
  • the second vine is arranged to grow in a pattern which is a mirror image to the growth of the first vine as shown in figures 7, 8 and 9.
  • a substantially H shaped pattern of growth is provided by the first row of vines 14al, 14a2 and 14a3 and so on growing in one direction away from the center line of the pair of rows whilst a second row of vines 14bl, 14b2, 14b3 and so on growing in the opposite direction away from the center line of the pair of rows.
  • the growing pattern of the present invention encourages fruit to appear on the canes at locations closer to the vine 14, such as for example in growing regions 60, 62L, 62R in particular. When it is time to harvest the grapes, the grapes may be easily picked from below as they are suspended above by guide wires 50.

Abstract

A planting arrangement having the growing portions of the plants (58) arranged in a generally H shaped pattern (62L, 62R, 64, 66L, 66R) extending on either side of a pair of rows (14) of plants (58). The plants (58) are supported on guide wires (50a, 50b, 50c) so that the fruit or produce depends downwardly from the plants (58) allowing easier harvesting of the plants (58) from below. The generally H shaped pattern (62L, 62R, 64, 66L, 66R) for the growing portion of the plants (58) are arranged alternatively to extend on opposite sides of the row (14) of plants (58), thereby allowing more plants (58) per unit area or length or land to be planted whilst still providing quality fruit in quantity.

Description

PLANTING ARRANGEMENT
The present invention relates generally to agriculture and, in particular, to methods and apparatus for the growing of plants, such as for example, plants bearing fruit, vegetables, herbs, flowers and the like. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method of planting fruit or the like, particularly plants having vines, canes or runners, such as grapes, raspberries, passion fruit, beans and the like, in a regular array which permits an increase in yield and/or quality and/or size of the produce. Even more particularly, the present invention relates to a more intensive planting layout or arrangement which allows more plants to be planted in a unit area so as to increase the quality and/or quantity of the produce, such as an increase in yield, quality and/or size of the harvest in which adjacent runners or canes of the plants are arranged to extend in alternate directions, preferably alternating oppositely facing directions to each other, so as to more effectively use the available space than does previously used planting arrangements. The present invention finds particular application in a planting method, layout or arrangement for grapes, such as for example, table grapes, allowing a more intensive planting pattern in which the grape vines are planted closer together within rows so as to improve the yield, quality and/or size of the grapes per unit area of land under planting by having the canes of adjacent vines growing in alternating oppositely facing directions in order to more effectively use the available land space.
Another aspect of the present invention relates to the use of a greenhouse arrangement covering the planting arrangement of the present invention to permit better utilisation of land, more intensive growth of plants and/or produce, a greater yield of produce under more controlled conditions which conditions are conductive to producing produce having desirable characteristics, i.e. to produce more produce of better quality demanding premium prices when marketed.
Although the present invention will be described with particular reference to a new arrangement or layout of planting table grapes in which adjacent canes and/or vines are arranged to extend in alternating directions, it is to be noted that the present invention is not limited in scope to the described embodiment, but rather, the present invention is more extensive in scope so as to include other patterns, layouts or arrangements of planting and/or growing grapes and other plants and more intensive plantings for a wide range of crops or plants in a wide range of different environments for a variety of purposes optionally using a greenhouse or similar for providing controlled conditions to increase the productivity of the plants.
There is an increasing demand for better utilisation of available space, including agricultural land, so that the land can be farmed more intensively and/or efficiently. The more intensive farming allows greater yield per hectare, and results in a reduction in the amount of land which must be used for farming, thereby reducing the need for and amount of infrastructure and services needed to tend the land, as well as the need to convert natural land into farming land by clearing the land and the like, and in the reduction in the waste of natural resources, such as for example, water, fertiliser, agricultural and horticultural preparations and the like. Previous attempts at more intensive farming have not been entirely successful, particularly when planting grapes, such as table grapes, for a variety of reasons. One reason for the reduction in improvement of yield of the grapes is that the growing pattern or layout of the canes, vines and leaves were not optimised, in that the vines were planted too far apart from each other, forcing the canes to grow over longer lengths in order to provide adequate foliage resulting in bunches of grapes. As the canes became longer, the plant became less productive and produced less fruit as more of the "energy" of the plant was utilised in growing the plant and producing foliage rather than in producing fruit, particularly fruit of the quality that could be sold for a premium price. Therefore, there is a need to provide different planting and/or growing patterns, layouts and/or arrangements for growing grapes that allow an improvement in the yield, quality and/or size of the grapes without having to use further land to increase the harvest of grapes.
Accordingly, it is one aim of the present invention to provide a method of planting and a planting arrangement in which grape vines are planted closer together than is usual, and in which the pattern of the canes emanating from the vines are arranged in a more optimum configuration that is more conducive to producing more fruit of a better quality and also fruit having desirable properties such as color, firmness, taste, appearance and the like. Another problem associated with existing methods of growing plants, including fruit, vegetables and the like, is that within a single region, the produce is generally available at the same time of the year so that at the height of the growing season, there is a plentiful supply of produce which results in the price obtained by the grower for the produce being reduced owing to the oversupply. At other times, when the produce is in short supply usually out of the growing season, the price is increased in accordance with the prevailing demand being greater than the supply. Therefore, there is a need to be able to supply produce either before or a ter the main growing season and/or marketing season of a particular variety or species of plant or the like. If, for example, grapes having desirable characteristics were available 5-6 weeks before the normal marketing period for grapes, the grower would be able to command a premium price for the grapes, as the supply at that time would be limited since other growers would have to wait until their grapes ripened naturally before being able to pick, transport and sell the grapes to market. Thus, there is a need to alter growing conditions to accelerate or delay the production of plants being sent to market to satisfy the demand for the produce out of peak supply periods.
Accordingly, it is another aim of the present invention to provide a planting arrangement and growing conditions which accelerates or retards the growth of the plants so that the produce can be early-harvested or late- harvested to enable the produce to command premitim prices outside the peak supply period.
Another problem with existing growing methods, particularly for plants grown in the field, is that the growing periods are at the mercy of the elements. One way of addressing such problems is to provide a controlled environment and/or atmosphere, such as for example by providing an artificial or simulated environment or atmosphere by using a greenhouse or similar. Although greenhouses have been used in the past, such greenhouses have not been entirely satisfactory for a variety of reasons. One reason is that the greenhouses are costly for large areas of land. Another reason is that some designs of greenhouse adversely affect the growing conditions so that the plants are not subjected to optimal conditions. Accordingly, there is a need for an improvement to greenhouse design to provide better growing conditions. Accordingly, it is a further aim of the present invention to provide a greenhouse, optionally in combination with an improved growing pattern, which results in produce having desirable characteristics.
According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method or arrangement of planting plants characterized in that the plants are planted in which the spacing between adjacent plants within the row is substantially reduced, and in which the growing part of adjacent plants within the row are arranged to extend in substantially opposite directions from each other so that there is more efficient use of the available space which results in improvements to the produce produced by the plant.
Typically, the plants to which the present invention is applicable include fruit, vegetables, herbs, flowers, or the like, including trees, bushes, shrubs, vines, creepers or the like. More typically, the present invention relates to fruit and vegetables, preferably fruit and vegetables produced by vines, canes or runners, such as for example, grapes for wine, table grapes, beans, kiwi fruit, passion fruit, raspberries and the like. The present invention finds particular application in growing table grapes and other fruit and vegetables which are produced by the canes or runners of the plant, particularly where the fruit is more abundant closer to the vines or stem of the plant.
Typically, the plants are planted in rows. More typically, there are a plurality of substantially parallel rows. Even more typically, the rows are planted in pairs of rows in which the spacing between the two rows of the one pair of rows is signi icantly less than the distance between adjacent pairs of rows, particularly between the σenterlines of adjacent pairs.
Typically, in one embodiment, the distance between adjacent plants within a single row is about lm. More typically, the distance between the two rows of a pair of rows is about lm. Typically, the distance between the centre line of adjacent pairs of rows is about 3m.
More typically, the distance from one row of one pair to a facing row or the closest row of an adjacent pair of rows is about 2m. Even more typically, the height of the vines is about 2 to 2.5m, even more typically the vines emanate from the stems at a height of about 2 to 2.5m.
In another embodiment, the width of the canes or runners emanating from one vine is about 60cm with a space of about 40cm between the rows of one pair. Adjacent pairs are located about 1400cm apart from each other. Typically, the location of the plants within one of the rows of one pair of rows is offset or staggered with respect to the location of the plants of the other row of the same pair of rows. More typically, the plants of one row are located about or corresponding to about the midpoint between the plants of the other row of the pair. More typically, there is a lesser number of plants in one of the rows of the pair of rows than in the other row caused by the offset or staggering of the plants from each other within the one pair or rows, preferably because of the spacing of the plants at the ends of the rows from the perimeter of the plot of land. More typically, there are about 100 plants in one row and about 99 plants in the other row of the one pair of rows.
Typically, substantially all of the plants within one row of the pair of rows are arranged so that the growing part of the plant, typically the canes or runners, extend in the same direction. Typically, the direction of extending of the growing part of the plants is away from the centreline between the two rows of the pair of plants so that the left hand side row grow in the left facing direction, and the right hand side row grow in the right facing direction. More typically, the first part, section or portion of the growing part of the plant is arranged to grow in a first direction. Typically, this first direction is substantially transversely to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows. Typically, the second part, section or portion of the growing part of the plant extends in a second direction. Typically, the second direction is transverse to the first direction, which is to say that the second direction is substantially parallel to the longitudinal direction of the rows. More typically, there are two lines of growth in the second direction both being substantially perpendicular to the first line of growth of the first part in the first direction. Even more typically, the first line of growth in the second direction is substantially opposite the second line of growth in the second direction.
Typically, the first line of growth is substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the row, whereas the second lines of growth are substantially parallel to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows, preferably in opposite directions to each other.
Typically, there is a third part, section or portion of growth. Typically, the direction of growth of the third portion is the same as or substantially parallel to the first part. More typically, there is a fourth section of growth, preferably in two opposite directions to each other. More typically, the fourth direction is the same as or substantially parallel to the second direction.
Typically, the plants are arranged to extend in a substantially H-shaped pattern. More typically, the H- shaped pattern is determined by guide wires. Even more typically, the H-shaped patterns of growth are alternately arranged to extend on different sides, preferably on opposite sides to one another. More typically, the second and fourth portions of growth form the sides of the WH" whereas the third section of growth forms the "cross bar" of the "H".
Typically, the space between the two rows within a single pair is the service area. More typically, the service area contains the centerline of the pair of rows. Even more typically, irrigation lines, support posts, and other structures or infrastructure for the growing pattern of the plant are provided in this centerline space or service area. Even more typically, the infrastructure includes additions, such as for example, a reticulated system for spraying the plants with water, chemical solutions or the like, using pressurised lines and the like. Such reticulation systems include nozzles, pumps, pipes and the like as well as metering devices for applying the correct concentration of chemicals. Typically, a line or row of support posts is located in the service area or space between the two rows of plants of the one pair of plants. More typically, the support posts support wires. Typically, the wires are support wires. More typically, the support wires extend substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows of plants.
Typically, there are one or more lines of guide wires arranged to extend substantially parallel to each other. Typically, the guide wires extend substantially longitudinally along the lengthwise extending direction of the rows. Typically, the guide wires are supported by the support wires. Even more typically, the guide wires extend substantially perpendicularly to the support wires. Typically, there are two, three, four or more guide wires associated with each row. More typically, there are three guide wires associated with each row. Even more typically, there are three guide wires on one side of one of the rows of the pair and three guide wires on the other side of the other row of the pair.
Typically, the wires may be single stranded or multi- stranded or be cables or the like. More typically, the support wires/guide wires are made in sections, optionally removable sections hinged together allowing selectively dismantling of the support structure. Even more typically, the wire supports are provided with adjustable tensioning devices to selectively adjust the tension of the wire, cables or the like.
Typically, a greenhouse is provided over the rows of plants. More typically, the greenhouse is supported by the posts and support wires. Even more typically, the greenhouse is provided with a roof structure.
Typically, the roof structure is provided with a plurality of ridges. More typically, the ridges are arranged to extend substantially parallel to each other. More typically, the ridges extend substantially perpendicularly to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows of plants. Even more typically, the roof ridges and the support wires are substantially parallel to each other.
Typically, the ridges are provided with a pair of sloping side surfaces. More typically, the sloping side surfaces are interconnected forming a series of troughs and crests. Typically, the troughs and crests are angularily inclined to each other, preferably in the lengthwise extending direction of the rows.
Typically, openings, preferably adjustably controllable openings, are provided in the troughs or crests or other part of the roof structure to assist in controlling the environment or atmosphere within the greenhouse. More typically, the greenhouse is provided with means for controlling the environment within the greenhouse. Even more typically, the environment of the green house is selectively climate controlled, eg., to facilitate the production of the produce, such as for example, by having equipment to produce various environmental effects, such as coolers, misters, heat/light lamps or the like.
The present invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a schematic top perspective view of one planting arrangement of the present invention located within one form of a greenhouse providing an overall view of one plot of land containing rows of plants in accordance with the present invention; Figure 2 is a schematic top plan view of a small section of the planting pattern of the plants of the embodiment of Figure 1 shown in more detail;
Figure 3 is a side top perspective schematic view of the planting pattern of Figure 2 showing how the vines of adjacent rows within the one pair of rows are staggered with respect to each other about a centerline between the rows;
Figure 4 is a schematic top plan view of one arrangement of the support wires and guide wires forming the support structure for the plants;
Figure 5 is a top side perspective view of the embodiment of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a top plan view of one form of the planting pattern of the present invention being a generally H-shaped planting pattern;
Figure 7 is a top perspective view of the embodiment of Figure 6;
Figure 8 is a side perspective view in close up, showing in more detail the form of the planting arrangement of Figures 6 and 7; and
Figure 9 is a side elevation schematic view of the arrangement of Figure 8.
In Figure 1, there is shown an overall perspective view of one planting arrangement comprising a plurality of substantially parallel rows and one greenhouse assembly in accordance with the present invention, generally denoted as 2. Arrangement 2 includes a plot of land, generally denoted as 3, a greenhouse 4 covering the plot of land 3 and a planting arrangement of substantially spaced apart pairs of rows of plants 6. Greenhouse 4 includes substantially vertically extending support posts 8 located at regularly spaced apart locations along both of the longitudinal perimeters of the plot of land 3 for providing support for the greenhouse 4. A longitudinally extending cross member 10 spans between the tops of adjacent posts 8. A sloping or gable roof arrangement having a ridge 12 is provided at the top of each section of the greenhouse. An adjustably controllable opening (not shown) is provided in the roof structure at a desired or convenient location. It is to be noted that each roof ridge 12 is arranged to extend substantially parallel to one another over the length of the plot of land 3. The roof ridges 12 are arranged substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows 6 of plants.
The remaining figures show a small section of the plot 3 in more detail.
In Figures 2 to 4 there are shown close up, more detailed views of one section of the arrangement of plantings in rows 6 in accordance with the present invention. The plantings are arranged in pairs of rows in which the plantings in one of the pairs of rows are spaced apart from each other over a distance of about lm in the longitudinal direction of the row. The two rows are spaced apart from each other in a staggered pattern or arrangement in which one group of three plantings forms a substantially isosceles triangle A, as shown in phantom in Figure 2
The area between the two rows of the one pair of rows is a service area 16 with the provision of services, such as for example, irrigation lines supplying water to • the roots of the plants, support posts, control equipment, dispensers of nutrients, or the like. The first row of vines which are longitudinally spaced apart from each other are individually designated as vines 14al,14a2,14a3 and so on. The second row of vines, also spaced longitudinally from each other, is designated 14bl, 14b2, 14b3 and so on. Rows 14a and 14b form a single pair of rows. Typically, row 14a is spaced from row 14b to a distance of about lm with each row 14a, 14b located on either side of centerline 18 which is located about midway between two roes 14a, 14b. Typically, vine 14al is spaced about lm from vine 14a2 and 14a2 is spaced about lm from 14a3, and so on. Centreline 18 is located about equidistant between row 14a and 14b. Other centrelines are located between each of the rows of the one pair of rows. The first row of a second pair of rows of vines is designated as vines 14σl,14c2, 14c3 and so on, and the second row of vines of this pair of rows is designated vines 14dl, 14d2, 14d3 and so on. The second pair of rows 14c, 14d is located transversely spaced apart from the first pair of rows 14a, 14b to a distance of about 3m from centreline to centreline.
Similarly, vine 14c2 is spaced about lm from vines 14cl and 14c3, as is vine 14d2 spaced from vines 14dl and 14d3 respectively, and so on down each row of vines in turn.
A longitudinally extending row of substantially vertical posts 30 are located at regularly spaced apart locations over the longitudinal length of the plot of land in the service space 16 between adjacent rows of plants of the one pair substantially along respective center lines 18. Support wires 40 span transversely from one side of the plot to the other side of the plot of land. Main support wires 40 are retained in place by posts 30 located in the service area.
With particular reference to Figures 5 to 9, there is shown a plurality of longitudinally extending guide wires 50 are arranged to extend substantially perpendicular to main support wires 40 from one transverse side of the plot of land to the other transverse side. The longitudinal guide wires 50 are for supporting the canes, runners, foliage, fruit and the like of the plants located at the various locations 14al, 14a2, 14a3 and so on. It is to be noted that the row of posts for one pair of rows of plants is located in the center of the service area between each individual row of the one pair in the service area. Further it is to be noted that in one embodiment there are three longitudinal extending guide wires 50 denoted as 50a, 50b, 50c, located towards each side of the one pair of rows as shown in Figure 4. However, any number of guide wires 50 may be present and in any suitable or convenient arrangement.
The spacing of the posts 30 is such that there are about three vines planted at about lm centers apart from each other located between two adjacent posts within the one row of vines so that one post 30 occurs after every 3 vines in the one row.
With particular reference to figures 6 to 9, one form of the planting arrangement of the present invention will now be described in which the arrangement of vines 14 to posts 30, main support wires 40 and guide wires 50, as well as to each other, including the runners or canes of the vines formed into a substantially "H" shaped growing pattern will now be described in detail. Taking one vine 14 of one row of vines, it can be seen that vine 14 as a stem portion 58 from which extend canes or runners in a number of different growing sections. The first growing section or portion denoted as 60 extends from at or towards the top of stem 58 of vine 14 towards a first guide wire 50a. The first portion 60 is then trained so as to send off two second growing portions or canes 62 with one portion being trained to extend along the length wise extending direction of guide wire 50a in a first direction being denoted 62R indicating the right hand side direction whereas the second portion 62L extends in the opposite direction along guide wire 50a and is designated portion 62L to indicate growth to the left hand side as shown generally in Figure 6.
First portion 60 continues to extend growing in the transverse direction to form a third growing portion 64 which extends from first guide wire 50a to second guide wire 50b. When the second growing portion 64 encounters second guide wire 50b this growing portion is trained to extend into two opposite directions along second guide wire 50b to form fourth growing portions 66. The right hand side growing portion is denoted as 66R whereas the left hand side growing portion is denoted as growing portion 66L as shown particularly in Figure 6.
Any extra foliage or growth can be trained to grow to and to extend along guide wire 50c if required.
The second vine is arranged to grow in a pattern which is a mirror image to the growth of the first vine as shown in figures 7, 8 and 9.
Thus, a substantially H shaped pattern of growth is provided by the first row of vines 14al, 14a2 and 14a3 and so on growing in one direction away from the center line of the pair of rows whilst a second row of vines 14bl, 14b2, 14b3 and so on growing in the opposite direction away from the center line of the pair of rows. Further it is to be noted that the growing pattern of the present invention encourages fruit to appear on the canes at locations closer to the vine 14, such as for example in growing regions 60, 62L, 62R in particular. When it is time to harvest the grapes, the grapes may be easily picked from below as they are suspended above by guide wires 50. As the grapes are suspended from the canes or growing portions it is a simple matter for the grapes to be removed from the vines from underneath. Advantages of the present invention include that more vines can be planed per unit area of land. Also, more produce is produced by the plants. As the fruit of the plants hangs down it is easier to pick the fruit from below. The described arrangement has been advanced by explanation and many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which includes every novel feature and novel combination of features herein disclosed. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the invention described herein is susceptible to variations and modifications other than those specifically described. It is understood that the invention includes all such variations and modifications which fall within the spirit and scope.

Claims

THE CLAIMS DEFINING THE INVENTION ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1. A method, layer or arrangement of planting plants characterised in that the plants are planted in at least one row, preferably in at least a pair of rows in which the spacing between adjacent plants within the row or the pair of rows is substantially reduced, said plant having a growing part arranged so that the growing part of adjacent plants within the row or rows are arranged to extend in substantially opposite directions from each other so that there is more efficient use of available space and/or such arrangement results in improvements to the produce produced by the plant.
2. A method layout or arrangement according to claim 1 characterized in that the plants include fruit, vegetables, herbs, flowers, trees, bushes, shrubs, vines, creepers or the like.
3. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the fruit and or vegetables are produced by vines, canes, or runners.
. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the fruit and vegetables include grapes for wine, table grapes, beans, kiwi fruit, passion fruit, raspberries and the like.
5. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which there are a plurality of substantially parallel rows arranged in pairs of rows in which the spacing between two rows of a single pair of rows is less than the distance between adjacent pairs of rows, particularly between the centerlines of adjacent pairs of rows.
6. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which the distance between adjacent plants within a single row is about 1 meter, and in that the distance between two rows of a single pair of rows is about 1 meter.
7. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the distance between the center line of adjacent pairs of rows is about 3 meter.
8. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the distance from one row of one pair to a facing row or the closer row of an adjacent pair of rows is about 2 meter.
9. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the location of the plants within one of the rows of one pair of rows is offset or staggered with respect to the location of the plants of the other row of the same pair of rows.
10. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the plants of one row are located about or corresponding to about the mid point between the plants of the other row of the pair.
11. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that there is a lesser number of plants in one of the rows of the pair of rows than in the other row of the pair of rows caused by the offset or staggering of the plants from each other within the one pair or rows.
12. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that substantially all of the plants within one row of a pair of rows are arranged so that the growing part of the plant, typically the canes or runners, extend in the same direction.
13. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the direction of extending the growing part of the plants is away from the center line, located between the two rows of the pair of rows so that the left hand side row grows in a left facing direction and the right hand side row grows in the right facing direction.
14. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the first part section or portion of the growing part of the plant is arranged to grow in a first direction.
15. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the first direction is in a direction substantially transverse to the lengthwise extending direction of the row or rows.
16. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which the growing plant has a second part section or portion wherein the second part section or portion of the growing part of the plant extends in a second direction.
17. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterised in that the second direction is in a direction transverse to the first direction which is to say that the second direction is substantially parallel to the longitudinal direction of the row or rows.
18. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which there are two lines of growth in the second direction both being substantially perpendicular to the first line of growth of the first part in the first direction.
19. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the first line of growth in the second direction is substantially opposite the second line of growth in the second direction.
20. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the first line of growth is substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the row whereas the second lines of growth are substantially parallel to the lengthwise extending directions of the rows.
21. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the second lines of growth extend substantially in opposite directions to each other.
22. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the growing part of the plant includes a third part, section or portion of growth wherein the direction of growth of the third portion is the same as or substantially parallel to the first part.
23. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the growing part of the plant has a fourth section part or portion of growth wherein the fourth section of growth has two growing parts wherein the two growing parts extend in substantially opposite directions to each other.
2 . A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the fourth direction of growth is the same as or substantially parallel to the second direction of growth.
25. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the plants are arranged to extend in a substantially H shaped pattern wherein in the H shaped pattern includes the two directions of growth of the second part, the direction of growth of the third part and the two directions of growth of the fourth part of the growing part of the plant.
26. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that there are guide wires wherein the growing part of the plant is supported on the guide wire and thus the guide wires determine the direction of growth of the growing part.
27. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the H shaped pattern of growth are alternatively arranged to extend on different sides to one another, preferably on opposite sides to one another.
28. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the second and fourth portions of growth form the sides of the WH" whereas the third section of growth forms the "cross bar" of the "H".
29. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that a space is defined between the two rows of a single pair of rows wherein the space between the two rows is a service area.
30. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the service area contains the center line or the pair of rows and is provided to receive irrigation lines, support posts, and other structure or infrastructure required to support growing of the plants.
31. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that there is a line or row of support posts located in the service area or space between the two rows of plants of a single pair of rows.
32. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the support posts provide support for support wires or the like.
33. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the support wires extend substantially perpendicular to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows of plants.
34. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that there are one or more lines of guide wires arranged to extend substantially parallel to each other.
35. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the guide wires extend substantially longitudinally along the lengthwise extending direction of the rows.
36. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the guide wires are supported by the support wires and extend substantially perpendicularly to the direction of extension of the support wires.
37. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which there are two, three, four or more guide wires associated with each row of a pair of rows.
38. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that there are three guide wires on one side of one of the rows of the pair of rows and three guide wires on the other side of the other row of the pair of rows.
39. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the support wires and or guide wires are made in sections such that sections are removeable from the wire.
40. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the removable sections are hinged together allowing selective dismantling of the support structure.
41. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim further comprising a green house provided over the rows of plants.
42. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the green house is supported by the support posts and support wires.
43. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the green house is provided with a roof structure having a plurality of ridges.
44. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the ridges are arranged to extend substantially parallel to each other.
45. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the ridges extend substantially perpendicularly to the lengthwise extending direction of the rows of plants.
46. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the roof ridges and the support wires are substantially parallel to each other.
47. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the ridges are provided with a pair of slopping side surfaces which are interconnected so as to form a series of troughs and crests which are angularly inclined to each other, preferably in the lengthwise extending direction of the rows.
48. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim characterized in that the greenhouse is provided with openings, preferably adjustably controllable openings.
49. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which the openings are provided in the troughs or crests or other part of the roof structure to assist in controlling the environment or atmosphere within the greenhouse.
50. A method layout or arrangement according to any preceding claim in which the greenhouse is provided with a controllable environment provided by equipment to simulate the natural environment such as coolers, misters, heat and light, lamps or the like.
51. A method layout or arrangement substantially as herein before described with reference to the accompanying drawings .
PCT/AU2004/000097 2003-01-28 2004-01-28 Planting arrangement WO2004066715A1 (en)

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CN103404404A (en) * 2013-08-19 2013-11-27 张星敏 Grape culture method
CN103477936A (en) * 2013-09-29 2014-01-01 刘轩华 Cultivation method capable of enabling passion fruit to mature batch by batch and realize high yield
CN103907499A (en) * 2014-04-01 2014-07-09 新疆农垦科学院 Trellis viticulture method suitable for alpine region
CN105145233A (en) * 2015-07-29 2015-12-16 句容市白兔镇白枝山生态果园 Excellent and labor-saving train culturing method for passion fruit
CN105145253A (en) * 2015-09-10 2015-12-16 南宁市马山县福源生态农业发展有限公司 Method for planting organic passion fruit trees
CN107155654A (en) * 2017-06-28 2017-09-15 赣州乐致农业发展有限公司 A kind of passion fruit implantation methods
CN107258439A (en) * 2017-06-28 2017-10-20 赣州乐致农业发展有限公司 A kind of passion fruit implantation methods
CN109362501A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-02-22 广西贺州市正丰现代农业股份有限公司 The penetrating frame shape cultural method of passion fruit
CN110140606A (en) * 2019-05-10 2019-08-20 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of breeding method of passion fruit rootstock seedling
CN110663445A (en) * 2019-11-22 2020-01-10 南方葡萄沟酒庄有限公司 Vitis davidii planting method
CN112790062A (en) * 2021-02-26 2021-05-14 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Multi-stage pruning method for passion fruit seedlings

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103404404A (en) * 2013-08-19 2013-11-27 张星敏 Grape culture method
CN103477936A (en) * 2013-09-29 2014-01-01 刘轩华 Cultivation method capable of enabling passion fruit to mature batch by batch and realize high yield
CN103477936B (en) * 2013-09-29 2015-09-23 刘轩华 A kind of cultivation method that can make passion fruit batch maturation high yield again
CN103907499A (en) * 2014-04-01 2014-07-09 新疆农垦科学院 Trellis viticulture method suitable for alpine region
CN105145233A (en) * 2015-07-29 2015-12-16 句容市白兔镇白枝山生态果园 Excellent and labor-saving train culturing method for passion fruit
CN105145253A (en) * 2015-09-10 2015-12-16 南宁市马山县福源生态农业发展有限公司 Method for planting organic passion fruit trees
CN107155654A (en) * 2017-06-28 2017-09-15 赣州乐致农业发展有限公司 A kind of passion fruit implantation methods
CN107258439A (en) * 2017-06-28 2017-10-20 赣州乐致农业发展有限公司 A kind of passion fruit implantation methods
CN109362501A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-02-22 广西贺州市正丰现代农业股份有限公司 The penetrating frame shape cultural method of passion fruit
CN110140606A (en) * 2019-05-10 2019-08-20 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of breeding method of passion fruit rootstock seedling
CN110663445A (en) * 2019-11-22 2020-01-10 南方葡萄沟酒庄有限公司 Vitis davidii planting method
CN112790062A (en) * 2021-02-26 2021-05-14 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Multi-stage pruning method for passion fruit seedlings
CN112790062B (en) * 2021-02-26 2022-03-29 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Multi-stage pruning method for passion fruit seedlings

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