CN111587728A - Planting method of golden pears - Google Patents

Planting method of golden pears Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111587728A
CN111587728A CN202010402739.0A CN202010402739A CN111587728A CN 111587728 A CN111587728 A CN 111587728A CN 202010402739 A CN202010402739 A CN 202010402739A CN 111587728 A CN111587728 A CN 111587728A
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fertilizer
planting
months
fruit
golden
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王�忠
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Liangnong Jinli Professional Cooperative Daliu Town Nanqiao District Chuzhou City
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Liangnong Jinli Professional Cooperative Daliu Town Nanqiao District Chuzhou City
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H1/00Processes for modifying genotypes ; Plants characterised by associated natural traits
    • A01H1/02Methods or apparatus for hybridisation; Artificial pollination ; Fertility

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • General Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Genetics & Genomics (AREA)
  • Developmental Biology & Embryology (AREA)
  • Fertilizers (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a planting method of golden pears, which comprises the following steps: s1: selecting seedlings: the main root is complete and has no injury, no disease, relatively perfect fibrous root on the surface and more than six percent of conservation rate; s2: soil treatment: selecting soil and preparing soil; s3: fertilization management: fertilizing with a proper amount and watering at a proper time; s4: shaping and trimming: free spindle shaped trimming, trunk shaped trimming and winter trimming; s5: promoting flower and fruit growth: bud picking, core picking, fertilizer spraying in the flowering period, artificial pollination, flower thinning and fruit setting; the method mainly uses organic fertilizer as a main component during planting, little fertilizer is applied as far as possible, particularly nitrate nitrogen chemical fertilizer is not applied, the fertility of the soil in the pear orchard can be improved through effective management and fertilization, the physicochemical properties of the land are continuously improved, good conditions are created for the growth and development of the pear trees, nutrient elements necessary for the growth and development of the pear trees are supplied, and the early fruit, high yield and high quality of the golden pear trees are ensured.

Description

Planting method of golden pears
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of fruit tree planting, in particular to a golden pear planting method.
Background
Huangjin pear, a variety of pear, deciduous arbor, tender and juicy pulp, white, few stone cells and small core. The sugar content can reach 14.7%. The taste is fresh and sweet, and the fragrance is strong. Unique flavor and excellent quality. The flowers are easy to grow, and the fruits can be seen in the flowers grown in the next year after the cultivation. Cross pollination and high yield. Pear is known as "Baiguozong". Huangjin pear is one of pears. It is also called natural mineral water because of its fresh, tender and juicy nature and palatable sweet and sour taste.
The patent number CN201710321403.X discloses a golden pear planting method, which comprises the following steps: planting, shaping and trimming, illumination management, bagging management and moisture management. The phenomenon that the fertilization management of the golden pears is poor and the fruiting of the golden pears is affected can occur during planting. Therefore, there is a need to design a planting method of golden pear to solve the above problems.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the defects in the prior art and provides a golden pear planting method.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a golden pear planting method comprises the following steps:
s1: selecting seedlings: the main root is complete and has no injury, no disease, relatively perfect fibrous root on the surface and more than six percent of conservation rate;
s2: soil treatment: selecting soil and preparing soil;
s3: fertilization management: fertilizing with a proper amount and watering at a proper time;
s4: shaping and trimming: free spindle shaped trimming, trunk shaped trimming and winter trimming;
s5: promoting flower and fruit growth: bud picking, core picking, fertilizer spraying in the flowering period, artificial pollination, flower thinning and fruit setting.
Further, the fertilizer and water management comprises young orchard fertilization, fruiting orchard full-age orchard fertilization and foliar fertilization.
Furthermore, the foliar fertilization is combined with foliar fertilization during pesticide spraying, 0.2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium dioxygen phosphate can be added, 0.1% of borax is sprayed in a flowering phase, and the juvenile orchard fertilization adopts the principle of thin application and service application: nitrogen and phosphorus are taken as main materials in the first year, fertilizer is applied for the first time during germination after general field planting, clear water manure is matched with a proper amount of urea and phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer application is performed for 1-2 times per month until the end of 6 months, and the fertilizer application amount is gradually increased; stopping fertilizing at the bottom of 7-9 months to facilitate flower promotion, and applying autumn fertilizer once in the last 10 months, mainly using organic fertilizer and increasing the amount of fertilizer; and (4) pruning in the second and third years, flowering and fruit testing of plants, and applying 4-6 times of fertilizers in the middle of 2 months, the middle of 5 months, the middle of 7 months and the upper ten days of 10 months, applying phosphate fertilizers again in the middle of 2 months and applying potassium fertilizers additionally in the middle of 5 months.
Further, the phosphate fertilizer comprises 10 g of urea, 20 g of calcium superphosphate, 2-5 kg of clear excrement water, 10 g of organic fertilizer urea, 50 g of calcium superphosphate and 10 kg of livestock excrement water.
Further, the orchard maturing and full age fertilization starts from the fourth year:
applying spring fertilizer in the middle of 2 months for the first time: the fertilizer is applied in the early stage and not in the late stage, 10-15 days before germination, quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer is applied in combination with organic fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer is applied once by 60% of the annual amount, the nitrogenous fertilizer accounts for about 25% of the annual amount, and generally 15 kg of urea, 15 kg of potassium sulfate, 40 kg of calcium superphosphate and 2000 kg of livestock manure water are applied per mu;
applying fruit-strengthening fertilizer in the middle ten days and in the last 5 months: at the moment, the positive pear leaves are in a large forming period, young fruits begin to expand, 1/3 nitrogen fertilizer, 1/5 phosphate fertilizer and 1/3 potassium fertilizer are applied all the year round, and 20: 5: 20 kg of potassium sulfate formula fertilizer;
the third fertilization is that after fruit picking, the amount of autumn fertilizer is about 25 percent of the whole year, generally 15 kg of urea, 30 kg of calcium superphosphate and 3000 kg of livestock manure water are applied per mu;
before autumn begins winter, base fertilizer is applied for the fourth time, decomposed farmyard manure is used as the main fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer is used in a matching mode, the quantity of nitrogen fertilizer applied to each mu of land in one year after fruiting period is generally 15-20 kg calculated by pure nitrogen according to the size of a tree body, the quantity of individual land blocks with high yield and fertilizer requirement can be increased to 25 kg, and the application ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is generally 1: 0.5: 1, applying base fertilizer and increasing the dosage of organic fertilizer.
Furthermore, the common fertilizing method for the pear trees for fertilizing management comprises annular ditch fertilizing, strip ditch fertilizing and radiation ditch fertilizing, wherein the width of an annular ditch is 25 cm, the depth of the annular ditch is 20cm, the width of a strip ditch is 30cm, the depth of the strip ditch is 25-30 cm, the length of the strip ditch is more than 1m, the depth of a radiation ditch is 25 cm, and the length of the radiation ditch is 50-60 cm.
Furthermore, sandy loam or loam which has a deep soil layer, rich soil, rich organic matters, good irrigation and drainage performance and a pH value of 5.0-8.5 is selected in the soil treatment, the planting density of the plant row spacing is 2m multiplied by 3m, 3m multiplied by 1m, 2m multiplied by 1m, 2.0m multiplied by 0.7m and 1.5m multiplied by 0.7m, and the planting period is as follows: planting can be carried out from 9 months to 3 months of the second year, the planting is best in 10-11 months, planting furrows with the depth and the width of 1m are required to be dug before planting, the average application amount of high-quality base fertilizer is more than 45t/hm2, a proper amount of phosphate fertilizer is mixed and then applied to the bottom of a cave, golden pears are planted after covering soil, strong seedlings without diseases, insect pests and mechanical damage are selected for the golden pears, and water is irrigated after planting.
Further, the free spindle pruning: under the planting density of 2m multiplied by 3m or 3m multiplied by 1m, the free spindle shape is preferably adopted; keeping a fixed trunk of 70-80cm in the current year of field planting, selecting 3-4 buds with proper direction and interval of about 10cm under a cut for eye injury, and slowly releasing branches germinated on main branches; pruning the trunk shape: setting 1 support column after planting in 2m × 1m, 2.0m × 0.7m and 1.5m × 0.7m plantation; leveling all the seedlings in the same direction when the seedlings sprout in early spring of 1 year, and strengthening the seedlings when the branches on the back are more than 15-20cm long; when the young shoots grow to 20cm, 7-8 lateral branch fruiting branch groups are reserved; and (3) winter pruning: cutting off upright and dense big branches and bare branches, and pest-infected branches and ineffective branches, and reserving auxiliary cultivating branches.
Further, the flower and fruit promoting comprises the following steps: bud picking and pinching: repeatedly pinching when the young shoots reach 30 cm; when young sprout is half lignified in the early 6 months, spray 0.8-1.0g/L15% paclobutrazol at the bottom of the month or spray 1 time PBO250 times solution in the first 6 th and the first 8 th of the month; spraying fertilizer and artificial pollination in the flowering period: spraying 0.3% of urea and 0.2% of borax when flower buds just sprout, spraying most fruits for 5 days and 15 days after the flower, spraying 1g/L15% paclobutrazol for 1 time after 3 weeks after the flower, carrying out artificial pollination, and alternately selecting other matched varieties for pollination, wherein the matched proportion is about one to three; flower thinning and fruit setting: and (3) timely thinning flowers in the inflorescence separation period and the initial flowering period, reserving 1 inflorescence at an interval of 20cm, finishing thinning fruits within 25 days after the flowers, and reserving 1 fruit at an interval of 20 cm.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the method mainly uses organic fertilizer as a main component during planting, little fertilizer is applied as far as possible, particularly nitrate nitrogen chemical fertilizer is not applied, the fertility of the soil in the pear orchard can be improved through effective management and fertilization, the physicochemical properties of the land are continuously improved, good conditions are created for the growth and development of the pear trees, nutrient elements necessary for the growth and development of the pear trees are supplied, and the early fruit, high yield and high quality of the golden pear trees are ensured.
2. The invention selects the seedling to protect the root system in the planting process, requires that the main root of the root system is complete without injury and disease, the fibrous root on the surface is more perfect, the preservation rate is more than six, and can effectively ensure better survival rate.
3. According to the invention, when the golden pear is planted for pollination, other matched varieties are alternately selected for pollination, and the matched proportion is approximately one to three, so that the phenomenon of degradation and quality reduction of the varieties is prevented.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram of a planting method of golden pear provided by the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
It will be understood that when an element is referred to as being "secured to" another element, it can be directly on the other element or intervening elements may also be present. When a component is referred to as being "connected" to another component, it can be directly connected to the other component or intervening components may also be present. When a component is referred to as being "disposed on" another component, it can be directly on the other component or intervening components may also be present. The terms "vertical," "horizontal," "left," "right," and the like as used herein are for illustrative purposes only.
Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. The terminology used in the description of the invention herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the term "and/or" includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.
Referring to fig. 1, a planting method of golden pears comprises the following steps:
s1: selecting seedlings: the main root is complete and has no injury, no disease, relatively perfect fibrous root on the surface, and the preservation rate is more than six percent, thereby effectively ensuring better survival rate;
s2, soil treatment, wherein sandy loam or loam which is deep in soil layer, fertile in soil, rich in organic matters, good in irrigation and drainage performance and has a pH value of 6 is selected in the soil treatment, the planting density of the row spacing is 2m × 3m, the planting period is 10 months, the planting is optimal, planting furrows with the depth and the width of each 1m are required to be dug before planting, and the average application amount of high-quality base fertilizer is 45t/hm2Mixing proper amount of phosphate fertilizer, applying to the bottom of the cave, covering soil, planting golden pear, and watering thoroughly after planting;
s3: fertilization management: fertilizing in young orchards, fertilizing in fruiting orchard full age orchards and fertilizing on leaf surfaces:
the fertilization in the young orchard adopts the principle of thin application and service: nitrogen and phosphorus are taken as main materials in the first year to increase the growth amount of branch tips, a first fertilizer is applied during sprouting after general field planting, clear water manure is matched with a proper amount of urea and phosphate fertilizer, the fertilizer is applied for 2 times per month till the end of 6 months, and the fertilizer amount is gradually increased; the fertilization is stopped at the bottom of 9 months to facilitate the flower growth, and autumn fertilizer is applied once in the last ten days of 10 months, organic fertilizer is taken as the main material, and the using amount is increased properly; pruning in the second and third years, and testing the flowering and fruit of the plants with certain yield, wherein 6 times of fertilizer can be applied in the middle of 2 months, the middle of 5 months, the middle of 7 months and the last ten days of 10 months, the phosphate fertilizer is applied in the middle of 2 months, and the potassium fertilizer is added in the middle of 5 months;
the orchard full-age fertilization starts from the fourth year, a pear orchard cultivated in high density is adopted, fruits are tried in the second and third years, and the high yield period is reached in the fourth year, so that the fertilization frequency is reduced, the fertilization amount is increased, fertilizers are applied for three times in the middle and last ten days of 2 months, the middle and middle ten days of 5 months and the last ten days of 8 months each year, and 1 kg of urea, 1.5 kg of calcium superphosphate and 0.8 kg of potassium sulfate can be applied according to the proportion of 100 kg of fruits produced:
applying spring fertilizer in the middle of 2 months for the first time: the fertilizer is applied in the early stage but not in the late stage, 15 days (in the middle and late days of 2 months) before germination, quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer is applied in combination with organic fertilizer, 60% of the annual amount of the phosphate fertilizer is applied at one time, the nitrogenous fertilizer accounts for about 25% of the whole year, 15 kg of urea, 15 kg of potassium sulfate, 40 kg of calcium superphosphate and 2000 kg of livestock manure water are applied per mu generally;
applying fruit-strengthening fertilizer in the middle ten days and in the last 5 months: at the moment, the positive pear leaves are in a large forming period, young fruits begin to expand, 1/3 nitrogen fertilizer, 1/5 phosphate fertilizer and 1/3 potassium fertilizer are applied all the year round, and 20: 5: 20 kg of potassium sulfate formula fertilizer;
and (3) applying autumn fertilizer after fruit picking for the third time (the middle and late-maturing variety should be applied before fruit picking): the fertilizer is mainly used for protecting leaves and improving the quality of flower buds, and for the high yield and accumulation of nutrients in the next year, the fertilizing amount accounts for about 25 percent of the whole year, 15 kilograms of urea, 30 kilograms of calcium superphosphate and 3000 kilograms of livestock and poultry manure water are generally applied to each mu;
before autumn begins winter, base fertilizer is applied for the fourth time, decomposed farmyard manure is used as the main fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer is used in a matching mode, the quantity of nitrogen fertilizer applied to each mu of land in one year after fruiting period is generally calculated as 20 kg of pure nitrogen according to the size of a tree body, the quantity of individual land blocks with high yield and fertilizer requirement can be increased to 25 kg, and the application ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is generally 1: 0.5: 1, applying base fertilizer to increase the use amount of organic fertilizer;
s4: shaping and trimming: free spindle pruning: under the planting density of 2m multiplied by 3m, the free spindle shape is adopted; and (3) reserving 70 fixed trunks in the current year of field planting, selecting 3 buds with proper directions and intervals of about 10cm under a cut for carrying out eye injury, and slowly releasing the branches germinated on the main branches. Pruning the trunk shape: in a 2m multiplied by 3m plantation, 1 strut is arranged after the nursery stock is planted; when the seedlings sprout in early spring of 1 year, flattening all the seedlings in the same direction, and after the branches on the back grow more than 15%, strengthening the seedlings; when the young shoots grow to 20cm, 7 lateral branch fruiting branch groups are reserved. And (3) winter pruning: pruning erect and dense big branches and bare branches as well as insect-infected branches and ineffective branches, and reserving auxiliary culture branches;
s5: promoting flower and fruit growth: bud picking and pinching: repeatedly pinching when the young shoots reach 30 cm; when young sprout is half lignified in the early 6 months, spray 1.0g/L15% paclobutrazol at the bottom of the month or spray 1 PBO250 times of liquid in the first 6 th and the first 8 th of the month respectively, which is beneficial to the high yield of the Huangjin pears; spraying fertilizer and artificial pollination in the flowering period: spraying 0.3% of urea and 0.2% of borax when flower buds just sprout, spraying most fruits for 5 days and 15 days after the flower, spraying 1g/L15% paclobutrazol for 1 time after 3 weeks after the flower, carrying out artificial pollination, and alternately selecting other matched varieties for pollination, wherein the matched proportion is about one to three; flower thinning and fruit setting: and (3) timely thinning flowers in the inflorescence separation period and the initial flowering period, reserving 1 inflorescence at an interval of 20cm, finishing thinning fruits within 25 days after the flowers, reserving 1 fruit at an interval of 20cm, and reserving a proper amount of fruits on the vigorous branches of the vigorous trees.
Furthermore, the foliar fertilization is combined with foliar fertilization during pesticide spraying, 0.2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium dioxyphosphate can be added, and 0.1% of borax is sprayed in the flowering phase.
Further, the phosphate fertilizer comprises 10 g of urea, 20 g of calcium superphosphate, 2-5 kg of clear excrement water, 10 g of organic fertilizer urea, 50 g of calcium superphosphate and 10 kg of livestock excrement water.
Furthermore, the common fertilizing method for the pear trees for fertilizing management comprises annular ditch fertilizing, strip ditch fertilizing and radial ditch fertilizing, wherein the annular ditch is 25 cm wide and 20cm deep, the strip ditch is 30cm wide and 25 cm deep and is more than 1m long, the radial ditch is 25 cm deep and is 50 cm long, the young trees are commonly fertilized in the annular ditch and the strip ditch, the radial ditch fertilizing and the strip ditch fertilizing can be adopted for the adult trees, the positions of each fertilizing and the last fertilizing are staggered, and the fertilizing positions of the adult trees are symmetrical.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art should be considered to be within the technical scope of the present invention, and the technical solutions and the inventive concepts thereof according to the present invention should be equivalent or changed within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. The golden pear planting method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1: selecting seedlings: the main root is complete and has no injury, no disease, relatively perfect fibrous root on the surface and more than six percent of conservation rate;
s2: soil treatment: selecting soil and preparing soil;
s3: fertilization management: fertilizing with a proper amount and watering at a proper time;
s4: shaping and trimming: free spindle shaped trimming, trunk shaped trimming and winter trimming;
s5: promoting flower and fruit growth: bud picking, core picking, fertilizer spraying in the flowering period, artificial pollination, flower thinning and fruit setting.
2. The method for planting golden pears according to claim 1, wherein the fertilizer and water management comprises juvenile orchard fertilization, orchard full-age orchard fertilization, and foliar fertilization.
3. The golden pear planting method according to claim 2, wherein the foliar fertilization is combined with foliar fertilization during pesticide spraying, 0.2% of urea and 0.2% of potassium dioxygen phosphate can be added, 0.1% of borax is sprayed during flowering phase, and the young orchard fertilizer application adopts the principle of low-cost application: nitrogen and phosphorus are taken as main materials in the first year, fertilizer is applied for the first time during germination after general field planting, clear water manure is matched with a proper amount of urea and phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer application is performed for 1-2 times per month until the end of 6 months, and the fertilizer application amount is gradually increased; stopping fertilizing at the bottom of 7-9 months to facilitate flower promotion, and applying autumn fertilizer once in the last 10 months, mainly using organic fertilizer and increasing the amount of fertilizer; and (4) pruning in the second and third years, flowering and fruit testing of plants, and applying 4-6 times of fertilizers in the middle of 2 months, the middle of 5 months, the middle of 7 months and the upper ten days of 10 months, applying phosphate fertilizers again in the middle of 2 months and applying potassium fertilizers additionally in the middle of 5 months.
4. The planting method of golden pears, according to claim 3, wherein the phosphate fertilizer comprises 10 g of urea, 20 g of calcium superphosphate, 2-5 kg of clear excrement water, 10 g of organic fertilizer urea, 50 g of calcium superphosphate and 10 kg of livestock excrement water.
5. The planting method of golden pears, according to claim 2, wherein the fertilization of the orchard with the full age of the bearing orchard starts from the fourth year:
applying spring fertilizer in the middle of 2 months for the first time: the fertilizer is applied in the early stage and not in the late stage, 10-15 days before germination, quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer is applied in combination with organic fertilizer, the phosphate fertilizer is applied once by 60% of the annual amount, the nitrogenous fertilizer accounts for about 25% of the annual amount, and generally 15 kg of urea, 15 kg of potassium sulfate, 40 kg of calcium superphosphate and 2000 kg of livestock manure water are applied per mu;
applying fruit-strengthening fertilizer in the middle ten days and in the last 5 months: at the moment, the positive pear leaves are in a large forming period, young fruits begin to expand, 1/3 nitrogen fertilizer, 1/5 phosphate fertilizer and 1/3 potassium fertilizer are applied all the year round, and 20: 5: 20 kg of potassium sulfate formula fertilizer;
the third fertilization is that after fruit picking, the amount of autumn fertilizer is about 25 percent of the whole year, generally 15 kg of urea, 30 kg of calcium superphosphate and 3000 kg of livestock manure water are applied per mu;
before autumn begins winter, base fertilizer is applied for the fourth time, decomposed farmyard manure is used as the main fertilizer, quick-acting fertilizer is used in a matching mode, the quantity of nitrogen fertilizer applied to each mu of land in one year after fruiting period is generally 15-20 kg calculated by pure nitrogen according to the size of a tree body, the quantity of individual land blocks with high yield and fertilizer requirement can be increased to 25 kg, and the application ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is generally 1: 0.5: 1, applying base fertilizer and increasing the dosage of organic fertilizer.
6. The planting method of the golden pears, according to claim 1, is characterized in that the common fertilizing methods for pear trees in fertilizing management comprise annular ditch fertilizing, strip ditch fertilizing and radial ditch fertilizing, wherein the annular ditch is 25 cm wide and 20cm deep, the strip ditch is 30cm wide and 25-30 cm deep and 1m long, and the radial ditch is 25 cm deep and 50-60 cm long.
7. The method for planting Huangjin pear according to claim 1, wherein the soil treatment is selected from sandy loam or loam with deep soil layer, rich soil, rich organic matter, good irrigation and drainage performance and pH value between 5.0-8.5, planting density of plant row spacing is 2m x 3m, 3m x 1m, 2m x 1m, 2.0m x 0.7m, 1.5m x 0.7m, planting period: planting can be carried out from 9 months to 3 months of the second year, the planting is best in 10-11 months, planting furrows with the depth and the width of 1m are required to be dug before planting, the average application amount of high-quality base fertilizer is more than 45t/hm2, a proper amount of phosphate fertilizer is mixed and then applied to the bottom of a cave, golden pears are planted after covering soil, strong seedlings without diseases, insect pests and mechanical damage are selected for the golden pears, and water is irrigated after planting.
8. The golden pear growing method according to claim 1, wherein the free spindle pruning: under the planting density of 2m multiplied by 3m or 3m multiplied by 1m, the free spindle shape is preferably adopted; keeping a fixed trunk of 70-80cm in the current year of field planting, selecting 3-4 buds with proper direction and interval of about 10cm under a cut for eye injury, and slowly releasing branches germinated on main branches; pruning the trunk shape: setting 1 support column after planting in 2m × 1m, 2.0m × 0.7m and 1.5m × 0.7m plantation; leveling all the seedlings in the same direction when the seedlings sprout in early spring of 1 year, and strengthening the seedlings when the branches on the back are more than 15-20cm long; when the young shoots grow to 20cm, 7-8 lateral branch fruiting branch groups are reserved; and (3) winter pruning: cutting off upright and dense big branches and bare branches, and pest-infected branches and ineffective branches, and reserving auxiliary cultivating branches.
9. The golden pear planting method according to claim 1, wherein the flower and fruit promoting comprises: bud picking and pinching: repeatedly pinching when the young shoots reach 30 cm; when young sprout is half lignified in the early 6 months, spray 0.8-1.0g/L15% paclobutrazol at the bottom of the month or spray 1 time PBO250 times solution in the first 6 th and the first 8 th of the month; spraying fertilizer and artificial pollination in the flowering period: spraying 0.3% of urea and 0.2% of borax when flower buds just sprout, spraying most fruits for 5 days and 15 days after the flower, spraying 1g/L15% paclobutrazol for 1 time after 3 weeks after the flower, carrying out artificial pollination, and alternately selecting other matched varieties for pollination, wherein the matched proportion is about one to three; flower thinning and fruit setting: and (3) timely thinning flowers in the inflorescence separation period and the initial flowering period, reserving 1 inflorescence at an interval of 20cm, finishing thinning fruits within 25 days after the flowers, and reserving 1 fruit at an interval of 20 cm.
CN202010402739.0A 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 Planting method of golden pears Pending CN111587728A (en)

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