CN109349051B - Bud-eye seedling raising and mechanical transplanting method for healthy sugarcane seedlings - Google Patents

Bud-eye seedling raising and mechanical transplanting method for healthy sugarcane seedlings Download PDF

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CN109349051B
CN109349051B CN201811372687.6A CN201811372687A CN109349051B CN 109349051 B CN109349051 B CN 109349051B CN 201811372687 A CN201811372687 A CN 201811372687A CN 109349051 B CN109349051 B CN 109349051B
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sugarcane
seedlings
bud
healthy
seedling
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CN109349051A (en
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范业赓
吴建明
丘立杭
陈荣发
黄杏
周慧文
卢星高
甘崇琨
翁梦苓
廖芬
张荣华
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Sugarcane Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/55Sugar cane

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for growing seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings. When the method is adopted to obtain the sugarcane seeds, the residual sugarcane stalks are also the whole sugarcane stalks, and the sugarcane seeds can continuously enter a sugar refinery for sugar pressing, so that the sugarcane stalks are greatly saved; the healthy sugarcane seedlings are cut, the seedlings are cultured in nutrition and then transplanted mechanically, the bud germination rate and the transplanting survival rate of the sugarcane are high, the sugarcane seedlings can be obtained quickly and are suitable for large-scale sugarcane planting, the sugarcane planting cost is greatly reduced, and the sugarcane planting efficiency is improved.

Description

Bud-eye seedling raising and mechanical transplanting method for healthy sugarcane seedlings
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant seedling raising and planting, and particularly relates to a method for raising the seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings.
Background
The sugarcane industry is one of the important dominant industries in Guangxi, and plays a key role in balancing the supply and demand of sugar in China. Since the 'eleven-five', the Guangxi sugar cane production is rapidly developed, the planting area, the single yield and the total yield are synchronously increased, the overall scale of the Guangxi sugar cane industry reaches the first level in China, and the dominance in China is increasingly highlighted. But the problems of insufficient supply of sugarcane seeds, single variety, deteriorated seed properties, low yield and the like of the sugarcane still remain the neck bottle problem which influences the development of the sucrose industry; the problems of low scale level of sugarcane planting, serious insufficient mechanization degree, weak infrastructure of sugarcane field and the like also exist in Guangxi. The problems that the supply of sugarcane seeds is rapidly increased, the new variety of the sugarcane is updated and updated quickly, the mechanization degree is improved, and the planting scale is enlarged are urgently needed to be solved in Guangxi sugarcane production.
Although the tissue culture sugarcane seedlings are rapidly popularized since the seedlings of the sugarcane are raised, and a certain relieving effect is achieved on serious shortage of sugarcane seeds, the cost of the tissue culture is high, and requirements on technology and conditions are high, so that most of the conventional sugarcane planting and breeding are carried out by planting the sugarcane seeds or sugarcane single buds or transplanting the sugarcane seedlings after the seedlings are grown. The sugarcane is planted by firstly taking whole sugarcane stems, cutting the whole sugarcane stems into two-bud stem sections, and then horizontally planting or obliquely planting the sugarcane. In order to reduce the cost of sugarcane seeds, double buds are changed into single buds by sugarcane farmers, but in order to ensure that the sugarcane seeds can provide enough nutrition for the germination and growth of the single buds, the stem segments of the single buds are still longer, the whole sugarcane is almost not left after the single buds are cut, the waste of sugarcane stems is still large, and the sugarcane factories do not like to buy the sugarcane stem segments which are left after seed cutting and are cut into small pieces. Therefore, when the sugarcane stalks are harvested every year, a part of the sugarcane stalks are reserved for separate planting, the income of sugarcane farmers is reduced as the part of the sugarcane stalks left for planting cannot be sold to sugar factories for sugar pressing, the more the income is reserved, the more the new seedlings are reserved, the less the new seedlings are bred, the perennial roots of a part of sugarcane fields are left for years and are not renewed, and the yield of the sugarcane is low and the performance is degraded.
Along with the expansion of the planting scale of the sugarcane, the mechanical seeding is realized for the sugarcane planting, the mechanization degree is slowly improved, but most of the sugarcane seeds are planted in the field directly by using the sugarcane seeds and the machinery, and the germination rate of the seed stems is low. The seedling is cultivated by the seed stem first and then mechanically sowed rarely, because the cultivated seedling is not suitable for mechanical sowing.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for growing the seedlings of the healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings of the healthy sugarcane seedlings.
A method for growing seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings comprises the following steps:
(1) cutting healthy sugarcane seedling buds from newly harvested sugarcane stems, soaking the healthy sugarcane seedling buds in clear water for 3-4 hours, taking out, draining, placing in a shade, and airing the surface water; the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings are cut off from sugarcane stalks with skins by a knife or a bud cutting machine, the skins are 0.6-1.2cm deep, the upper part and the lower part of the bud eyes are respectively reserved for 0.6-1.2cm, and the shapes of the bud eyes are triangular or elliptical, which is shown in figure 1.
(2) Mixing carbendazim with water to prepare 400-fold and 600-fold diluent, adding 8-12g thiamethoxam into every 100mL of diluent to obtain disinfectant, soaking the obtained healthy sugarcane seedling bud eyes in the disinfectant for 30 minutes, sterilizing, taking out the healthy sugarcane seedling bud eyes, draining water and drying the surface water.
(3) Uniformly mixing a seedling raising matrix containing 55% of outsourcing organic matter and humic acid with river sand according to the volume ratio of (1-3) to (1) to obtain nutrient soil, and filling the nutrient soil into a seedling raising tray, wherein the nutrient soil is flush with the upper surface of the seedling raising tray.
(4) And (3) transplanting the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings obtained in the step (2) into a seedling raising tray filled with nutrient soil in a bud-up mode, arranging the seedling raising trays closely, building a small arched shed on the seedling raising tray, covering a plastic film on the small arched shed to prevent wind and keep warm when the temperature is lower than 25 ℃, and covering black sun-shading cloth on the small arched shed to shade the sun when the temperature is higher than 25 ℃.
(5) Watering once a day after planting to keep the nutrient soil moist; after the sugarcane seedlings grow and have 3 leaves, the plastic film or the sun-shading cloth is detached, the first fertilization is started, the sulfur-based compound fertilizer (the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus to potassium is 17: 17: 17) is selected, the compound fertilizer is dissolved in water according to the mass ratio of 1 (500 plus materials 600), then the seedlings are sprayed or irrigated, and the fertilization is carried out once every 5-6 days later.
(6) Deeply ploughing the land by 45-55cm, leveling the land, then opening planting ditches according to the row spacing of 1.2m, applying 100 plus sugar cane formula fertilizer per mu for 150 kg/mu, covering fine soil, and covering with a glazing degradation weeding mulching film.
(7) Trimming the leaf tips of the sugarcane seedlings 5 days before transplanting, and cutting off 1/3-1/2 of the leaves to reduce transpiration and water loss of the leaves; any one of the 'sharp', 'abamectin' and 'bacillus thuringiensis' is used for spraying on the sugarcane seedlings to prevent and control insect pests and sterilize the sugarcane seedlings.
(8) When the young seedlings grow to 4-5 true leaves, the young sugarcane seedlings are taken off from the seedling culture plate with soil and are mechanically transplanted to the field, the young sugarcane seedlings are planted according to the plant spacing of 50-55 cm and the density is 1000-1100 strain/mu, and the young sugarcane seedlings transplanted to the field are mechanically and automatically watered during transplanting.
The sugarcane stem in the step (1) is the first generation healthy seed stem grown after the sugarcane tissue culture seedling is planted, the sugarcane stem still has excellent seed properties, the sugarcane bud quality is good, and the germination rate, tillering rate, growth speed, stem forming rate, leaf photosynthetic efficiency and the like are all superior to those of the sugarcane stem planted after the sugarcane root is left for many years.
The bud cutting machine comprises a base, a pressing structure, a pneumatic control structure, a supporting structure and a cutting structure; a pressing structure is arranged on the top surface of the base, a supporting structure is arranged on the side surface of the base, and a cutting structure is arranged at the front end of the upper part of the supporting structure; the pressing structure and the cutting structure are both connected with the pneumatic control structure; the electromagnetic valve is arranged on the bud cutting machine, the cutter is an annular cutter, and one sugarcane bud can be cut by one cutter when linkage is realized.
The sugarcane formula fertilizer is a sugarcane formula fertilizer in a new direction, is a long-acting nitrogen-controlling slow-release fertilizer scientifically prepared according to the characteristics of the demand of sugarcane on nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, calcium, magnesium and the like in each growth period, has the total nutrient of more than or equal to 51 percent, and can achieve the effect of one-time fertilization, no additional fertilization, economy and high yield.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the invention cuts the bud eyes with the breeding capability on the sugarcane from the sugarcane stalks as sugarcane seeds, and the rest sugarcane stalks are also the whole sugarcane stalks and can be continuously put into a sugar refinery for sugar pressing, thereby greatly saving the sugarcane stalks; by adopting the method, a sugarcane grower only needs to cut off bud eyes from partial sugarcane stalks when harvesting the sugarcane, and then sell the rest sugarcane stalks to a sugar refinery for sugar squeezing, so that not only can the sugarcane seeds be obtained, but also the sugarcane stalks can be sold to the sugar refinery for income at a price as much as the sugarcane without bud eyes being cut, the income of the sugarcane grower is greatly improved, and a large batch of sugarcane stalks are not needed to be reserved to be used as the sugarcane seeds when harvesting the sugarcane every year as before. And the number of the sugarcane seeds can be greatly increased only by taking bud eyes for planting, and the problem that in the past, sugarcane farmers cannot leave too many sugarcane stalks as the sugarcane seeds for selling more sugarcane stalks is solved. The sugar content of the sugarcane bud eyes is actually very low, and the sugar content per ton of the sugarcane stalks without the bud eyes is higher, namely the sugarcane stalks without the bud eyes are more suitable for sugar squeezing, and the removal of the bud eyes can reduce the amount of penetrating water in a squeezing workshop of a sugar mill and reduce energy consumption.
2. The sugarcane bud eyes can be cut manually by a knife or automatically by a bud cutting machine, the manual cutting by the knife has better flexibility, and cane stems which are seriously bent, too dense or too sparse in bud eyes and the like and are not suitable for machine cutting can be cut; the bud cutting machine can cut the buds automatically, the bud cutting speed is high, the labor is saved, and the cut sugarcane buds are uniform in specification, good in quality and high in emergence rate.
3. The bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings are from healthy sugarcane stems, the healthy sugarcane stems are the first-generation healthy seed stems grown after the tissue culture seedlings of the sugarcane are planted, the sugarcane stems still have excellent properties, the bud eyes of the sugarcane are good in quality, the germination rate, the tillering rate, the growth speed, the stem forming rate, the leaf photosynthetic efficiency and the like are superior to those of the sugarcane stems planted after the roots of the sugarcane are left for many years, the obtained healthy sugarcane seedlings are used as sugarcane seeds, the properties are good, and the quality of the cultivated sugarcane seedlings is excellent.
4. Because the bud eyes of the sugarcane contain less nutrient components, the bud eyes of the sugarcane are not enough to provide enough nutrition for the germination and growth of the sugarcane, the emergence rate of the seedlings is very low when the seedlings are directly sown and planted in the field, and the survival rate of the seedlings is also very low. The sulfur-based compound fertilizer is selected when the seedlings in the seedling raising tray are fertilized, does not burn roots and seedlings, contains a large amount of sulfur elements, has a good absorption effect, and is not easy to cause adverse phenomena such as soil hardening, salinization and alkalization. The sugarcane seedlings are cultivated by the seedling cultivation plate, the using amount of nutrient soil is small, the seedlings can be easily taken off from the seedling cultivation plate when the seedlings are transplanted to a field, the transplanting with the soil can also be suitable for mechanical transplanting, the roots of the seedlings are concentrated, and the damage to the roots in the transplanting process can be reduced. The sugarcane transplanter adopts mechanical transplanting during transplanting, has high degree of mechanization, can greatly save labor force, is suitable for large-scale planting of sugarcane, greatly reduces the planting cost of the sugarcane, and improves the planting efficiency of the sugarcane.
5. According to the method, when soil preparation is carried out before sugarcane transplanting and planting, sugarcane is planted in a mode that a new direction of sugarcane formula fertilizer is applied at one time without top dressing, nutrient elements required by growth of the sugarcane in each period are met by applying at one time, management of sugarcane planting is simplified, and planting cost is saved. The novel sugarcane formula fertilizer is scientifically prepared according to the characteristics of the sugarcane in each growth period for nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, calcium, magnesium and the like, fully meets different requirements of the sugarcane on nutrients in a tillering stage, an elongation stage and a mature stage, and solves the problem of unreasonable collocation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the growth of the sugarcane. The novel sugarcane formula fertilizer contains the original crop nutrient absorption accelerant and the soil active substance, can obviously enhance the capability and the speed of the fertilizer entering sugarcane bodies, promotes the sugarcane to absorb and utilize various nutrient components, further effectively improves the photosynthesis efficiency, improves the absorption efficiency of the sugarcane to various nutrient components, improves the cold resistance, wind resistance, stress resistance and disease and insect resistance of the sugarcane, and the added soil active substance can effectively regulate the growth activity of sugarcane root systems, enhances the activity of the root systems, reduces the loss of water, soil and nutrient elements, fertilizes soil, protects the ecological environment, thereby achieving the purposes of quality improvement, yield increase and high efficiency.
Drawings
FIG. 1 shows the bud of a freshly cut healthy sugarcane seedling;
FIG. 2 shows the cane stems remaining after cutting the bud eyes of healthy sugarcane seedlings;
in FIG. 3, the sugarcane grower is planting the sterilized healthy sugarcane seedlings with bud eyes into a seedling tray;
in FIG. 4, the sprouts germinated from partial eyes on the seedling-raising tray emerge from the nutrient soil surface, and vigorous sprouts can be seen;
FIG. 5 is a young sugarcane seedling still on the seedling tray but after 4-5 true leaves have grown and the tips of the leaves have been trimmed and ready for transplantation to the field;
FIG. 6 shows a soil-carrying sugarcane plantlet taken from a nursery tray, which has been loaded into a basket for transplantation;
in FIGS. 7 and 8, sugarcane plantlets are transplanted to a field by sugarcane farmers through machinery;
FIG. 9 is a sugarcane seedling that survives transplanting to a field;
FIG. 10 is a schematic view of the main structure of the bud cutter;
FIG. 11 is a diagram of an electrical control system of the sprout cutter, in which the following are labeled: 5. the device comprises a cutting cylinder, 9, an electromagnetic valve, 10, an air inlet flow dividing valve, 11, an air outlet flow dividing valve, 12, a pedal valve, 13, an air source adjusting device, 14, a position sensor, 15, a pressing cylinder, 17, a motor, 18 and a control circuit board;
FIG. 12 is a front, left and top view of the pressing mechanism of the bud cutter;
fig. 13 is a front view, a left side view and a top view of the sprout cutter base.
Detailed Description
In order to describe the present invention in more detail, the present invention will be further described with reference to the following examples.
Example 1
A method for growing seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings comprises the following steps:
(1) cutting healthy sugarcane seedling buds from newly harvested sugarcane stems, soaking the healthy sugarcane seedling buds in clear water for 3 hours, fishing out, draining, and airing the seedlings in a shade; the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings are cut off from sugarcane stalks with skins by using a bud cutting machine, the skins are 0.6-1.2cm deep, the upper part and the lower part of the bud eyes are respectively reserved for 0.6-1.2cm, and the shapes of the bud eyes are triangular or elliptical.
(2) Adding carbendazim into water to prepare 600 times of diluent, adding 8g of thiamethoxam into every 100mL of diluent, mixing to obtain a disinfectant, soaking the bud eyes of the obtained healthy sugarcane seedlings in the disinfectant for 30 minutes, taking out the seedlings after sterilization, draining water, and drying the surface water.
(3) Uniformly mixing a seedling culture medium which is purchased from Changchun Hai peat science and technology Limited and contains not less than 55% of organic matter and humic acid with river sand in a volume ratio of 3:1 to obtain nutrient soil, and filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture disc, wherein the nutrient soil is flush with the upper surface of the seedling culture disc.
(4) And (3) transplanting the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings obtained in the step (2) into a seedling raising tray filled with nutrient soil in a bud-up mode, arranging the seedling raising trays closely, building a small arched shed on the seedling raising tray, covering a plastic film on the small arched shed to prevent wind and keep warm when the temperature is lower than 25 ℃, and covering black sun-shading cloth on the small arched shed to shade the sun when the temperature is higher than 25 ℃.
(5) Watering once a day after planting to keep the nutrient soil moist; after sugarcane seedlings grow and 3 leaves exist, removing the plastic film or the sun-shading cloth, starting fertilization for the first time, selecting a sulfur-based compound fertilizer (the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ratio is 17: 17: 17), dissolving the compound fertilizer in water according to the mass ratio of 1:500, spraying or irrigating the seedlings, and then irrigating once every 6 days.
(6) Deeply ploughing the land by 45-55cm, leveling the land, then making planting ditches according to the row spacing of 1.2m, applying 100 kg/mu of sugarcane formula fertilizer, covering with fine soil, and covering with a glazing degradation weeding mulching film.
(7) Trimming the leaf tips of the sugarcane seedlings 5 days before transplanting, cutting off 1/3-1/2 of the leaves, spraying a 1000-time acute diluent to the sugarcane seedlings to prevent insect damage and sterilize the sugarcane seedlings.
(8) When the seedlings grow to 4-5 true leaves, the sugarcane seedlings are taken down from the seedling culture plate with soil and loaded into a basket, machinery for sowing the sugarcane seedlings is loaded, the sugarcane seedlings are planted in the field according to the plant spacing of 50-55 cm and the density is 1000 & lt 1100 & gtstrain/mu, and the sugarcane seedlings transplanted to the field are automatically watered by the machinery during transplanting.
The sugarcane stem in the step (1) is the first generation healthy seed stem grown after the sugarcane tissue culture seedling is planted, the sugarcane stem still has excellent seed properties, the sugarcane bud quality is good, and the germination rate, tillering rate, growth speed, stem forming rate, leaf photosynthetic efficiency and the like are all superior to those of the sugarcane stem planted after the sugarcane root is left for many years.
The bud cutting machine comprises a base, a pressing structure, a pneumatic control structure, a supporting structure and a cutting structure; a pressing structure is arranged on the top surface of the base, a supporting structure is arranged on the side surface of the base, and a cutting structure is arranged at the front end of the upper part of the supporting structure; the pressing structure and the cutting structure are both connected with the pneumatic control structure; the electromagnetic valve is arranged on the bud cutting machine, the cutter is an annular cutter, and one sugarcane bud can be cut by one cutter when linkage is realized.
The sugarcane formula fertilizer is a new-direction sugarcane formula fertilizer, is a long-acting nitrogen-control slow-release fertilizer scientifically prepared according to the requirement characteristics of the sugarcane to nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, calcium, magnesium and the like in each growth period, has the total nutrient of more than or equal to 51 percent and the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium content ratio of =26-10-15, can achieve the effects of one-time fertilization, no additional fertilization, economy and high yield, is purchased from Guangxi new-direction chemical industry Limited company, and is researched and developed by Guangxi new-direction chemical industry Limited company and south China cultivation position expert Taskyscraper model team of the national sugarcane industry system for a long time; website address:
Figure DEST_PATH_IMAGE001
example 2
A method for growing seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings comprises the following steps:
(1) cutting healthy sugarcane seedling buds from newly harvested sugarcane stems, soaking the healthy sugarcane seedling buds in clear water for 3.5 hours, fishing out, draining, and placing in a shade place to dry the surface water; the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings are cut off from sugarcane stalks with skins by using a bud cutting machine, the skins are 0.6-1.2cm deep, the upper part and the lower part of the bud eyes are respectively reserved for 0.6-1.2cm, and the shapes of the bud eyes are triangular or elliptical.
(2) And (2) preparing 500 times of diluent by adding carbendazim into water, adding 10g of thiamethoxam into every 100mL of the diluent, mixing to obtain a disinfectant, soaking the bud eyes of the obtained healthy sugarcane seedlings in the disinfectant for 30 minutes, and fishing out the seedlings after sterilization and disinfection, draining water and drying the surface water.
(3) Uniformly mixing a seedling culture medium which is purchased from Changchun Hai peat science and technology Limited and contains not less than 55% of organic matter and humic acid with river sand in a volume ratio of 2:1 to obtain nutrient soil, and filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture disc, wherein the nutrient soil is flush with the upper surface of the seedling culture disc.
(4) And (3) transplanting the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings obtained in the step (2) into a seedling raising tray filled with nutrient soil in a bud-up mode, arranging the seedling raising trays closely, building a small arched shed on the seedling raising tray, covering a plastic film on the small arched shed to prevent wind and keep warm when the temperature is lower than 25 ℃, and covering black sun-shading cloth on the small arched shed to shade the sun when the temperature is higher than 25 ℃.
(5) Watering once a day after planting to keep the nutrient soil moist; after sugarcane seedlings grow and 3 leaves exist, removing the plastic film or the sun-shading cloth, starting fertilization for the first time, selecting a sulfur-based compound fertilizer (the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus to potassium is 17: 17: 17), dissolving the compound fertilizer in water according to the mass ratio of 1:600, spraying or irrigating the seedlings, and then irrigating once every 5 days.
(6) Deeply ploughing the land by 45-55cm, leveling the land, then making planting ditches according to the row spacing of 1.2m, applying 125 kg/mu of sugarcane formula fertilizer, covering with fine soil, and covering with a glazing degradation weeding mulching film.
(7) Trimming the leaf tips of the sugarcane seedlings 5 days before transplanting, cutting off 1/3-1/2 of the leaves, spraying 1000 times of diluent of abamectin on the sugarcane seedlings to prevent insect pests and sterilizing.
(8) When the seedlings grow to 4-5 true leaves, the sugarcane seedlings are taken down from the seedling culture plate with soil and loaded into a basket, machinery for sowing the sugarcane seedlings is loaded, the sugarcane seedlings are planted in the field according to the plant spacing of 50-55 cm and the density is 1000 & lt 1100 & gtstrain/mu, and the sugarcane seedlings transplanted to the field are automatically watered by the machinery during transplanting.
The sugarcane stem in the step (1) is the first generation healthy seed stem grown after the sugarcane tissue culture seedling is planted, the sugarcane stem still has excellent seed properties, the sugarcane bud quality is good, and the germination rate, tillering rate, growth speed, stem forming rate, leaf photosynthetic efficiency and the like are all superior to those of the sugarcane stem planted after the sugarcane root is left for many years.
The bud cutting machine comprises a base, a pressing structure, a pneumatic control structure, a supporting structure and a cutting structure; a pressing structure is arranged on the top surface of the base, a supporting structure is arranged on the side surface of the base, and a cutting structure is arranged at the front end of the upper part of the supporting structure; the pressing structure and the cutting structure are both connected with the pneumatic control structure; the electromagnetic valve is arranged on the bud cutting machine, the cutter is an annular cutter, and one sugarcane bud can be cut by one cutter when linkage is realized.
The sugarcane formula fertilizer is a new-direction sugarcane formula fertilizer, is a long-acting nitrogen-control slow-release fertilizer scientifically prepared according to the requirement characteristics of the sugarcane to nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, calcium, magnesium and the like in each growth period, has the total nutrient of more than or equal to 51 percent and the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium content ratio of =26-10-15, can achieve the effects of one-time fertilization, no additional fertilization, economy and high yield, is purchased from Guangxi new-direction chemical industry Limited company, and is researched and developed by Guangxi new-direction chemical industry Limited company and south China cultivation position expert Taskyscraper model team of the national sugarcane industry system for a long time; website address:
Figure 735302DEST_PATH_IMAGE001
example 3
A method for growing seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes and mechanically transplanting the seedlings comprises the following steps:
(1) cutting healthy sugarcane seedling buds from newly harvested sugarcane stems, soaking the healthy sugarcane seedling buds in clear water for 4 hours, fishing out, draining, and airing the surface water in a shade; the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings are cut off from the sugarcane stalks with skins by a curved knife, the skins are 0.6-1.2cm deep, the upper part and the lower part of the bud eyes are respectively kept 0.6-1.2cm, and the shapes of the bud eyes are triangular or elliptical.
(2) Adding carbendazim into water to prepare a diluent of 400 times, adding 12g of thiamethoxam into every 100mL of the diluent, mixing to obtain a disinfectant, soaking the bud eyes of the obtained healthy sugarcane seedlings in the disinfectant for 30 minutes, taking out the seedlings after sterilization, draining water, and drying the surface water.
(3) Uniformly mixing a seedling culture medium which is purchased from Changchun Hai peat science and technology Limited and contains not less than 55% of organic matter and humic acid with river sand in a volume ratio of 1:1 to obtain nutrient soil, and filling the nutrient soil into a seedling culture disc, wherein the nutrient soil is flush with the upper surface of the seedling culture disc.
(4) And (3) transplanting the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings obtained in the step (2) into a seedling raising tray filled with nutrient soil in a bud-up mode, arranging the seedling raising trays closely, building a small arched shed on the seedling raising tray, covering a plastic film on the small arched shed to prevent wind and keep warm when the temperature is lower than 25 ℃, and covering black sun-shading cloth on the small arched shed to shade the sun when the temperature is higher than 25 ℃.
(5) Watering once a day after planting to keep the nutrient soil moist; after sugarcane seedlings grow and 3 leaves exist, removing the plastic film or the sun-shading cloth, starting fertilization for the first time, selecting a sulfur-based compound fertilizer (the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus to potassium is 17: 17: 17), dissolving the compound fertilizer in water according to the mass ratio of 1:600, spraying or irrigating the seedlings, and then irrigating once every 5 days.
(6) Deeply ploughing the land by 45-55cm, leveling the land, then making planting ditches according to the row spacing of 1.2m, applying 150 kg/mu of sugarcane formula fertilizer, covering with fine soil, and covering with a glazing degradation weeding mulching film.
(7) And trimming the leaf tips of the sugarcane seedlings 5 days before transplanting, cutting off 1/3-1/2 of the leaves, and spraying a 1000-time diluent of bacillus thuringiensis to the sugarcane seedlings to prevent insect pests and sterilize the sugarcane seedlings.
(8) When the seedlings grow to 4-5 true leaves, the sugarcane seedlings are taken down from the seedling culture plate with soil and loaded into a basket, machinery for sowing the sugarcane seedlings is loaded, the sugarcane seedlings are planted in the field according to the plant spacing of 50-55 cm and the density is 1000 & lt 1100 & gtstrain/mu, and the sugarcane seedlings transplanted to the field are automatically watered by the machinery during transplanting.
The sugarcane stem in the step (1) is the first generation healthy seed stem grown after the sugarcane tissue culture seedling is planted, the sugarcane stem still has excellent seed properties, the sugarcane bud quality is good, and the germination rate, tillering rate, growth speed, stem forming rate, leaf photosynthetic efficiency and the like are all superior to those of the sugarcane stem planted after the sugarcane root is left for many years.
The sugarcane formula fertilizer is a new-direction sugarcane formula fertilizer, is a long-acting nitrogen-control slow-release fertilizer scientifically prepared according to the requirement characteristics of the sugarcane to nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, calcium, magnesium and the like in each growth period, has the total nutrient of more than or equal to 51 percent and the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium content ratio of =26-10-15, can achieve the effects of one-time fertilization, no additional fertilization, economy and high yield, is purchased from Guangxi new-direction chemical industry Limited company, and is researched and developed by Guangxi new-direction chemical industry Limited company and south China cultivation position expert Taskyscraper model team of the national sugarcane industry system for a long time; website address:
Figure 262230DEST_PATH_IMAGE001
in order to more visually represent the whole process, the partial process and the step products of the seedling raising and mechanical transplanting process are shown by pictures in the invention, and the pictures are shown in figures 1 to 9. FIG. 1 shows the bud of a freshly cut healthy sugarcane seedling; FIG. 2 shows the cane stems remaining after cutting the bud eyes of healthy sugarcane seedlings; in FIG. 3, the sugarcane grower is planting the sterilized healthy sugarcane seedlings with bud eyes into a seedling tray; in FIG. 4, the sprouts germinated from partial eyes on the seedling-raising tray emerge from the nutrient soil surface, and vigorous sprouts can be seen; FIG. 5 is a young sugarcane seedling still on the seedling tray but after 4-5 true leaves have grown and the tips of the leaves have been trimmed and ready for transplantation to the field; FIG. 6 shows a soil-carrying sugarcane plantlet taken from a nursery tray, which has been loaded into a basket for transplantation; in FIGS. 7 and 8, sugarcane plantlets are transplanted to a field by sugarcane farmers through machinery; fig. 9 is a sugarcane seedling surviving the transplantation into the field.
The structure of the bud cutting machine is shown in FIGS. 10-13, and is described in detail as follows:
the bud cutting machine comprises a base, a pressing structure, a pneumatic control structure, a supporting structure and a cutting structure; a pressing structure is arranged on the top surface of the base, a supporting structure is arranged on the side surface of the base, and a cutting structure is arranged at the front end of the upper part of the supporting structure; the pressing structure and the cutting structure are both connected with the pneumatic control structure; the compressing structure, the pneumatic control structure and the cutting structure are connected with the control circuit board 18 through circuits.
The pressing structure comprises a pressing piece 2, a pressing cylinder 15 and a motor 17; the pressing piece 2 is connected with a motor 17 through a screw 16, and a pressing cylinder 15 is arranged on the top surface of the pressing piece 2 above the screw 16; the pressing cylinder 15 is provided with a position sensor 14. A piston rod of the pressing cylinder 15 is provided with a rear pressing plate 3, and the rear pressing plate 3 is arc-shaped. The pressing structure drives the screw 16 to move back and forth on the bottom plate through the forward and reverse rotation of the motor 17, so that the front and back movement is realized.
The screw can also be replaced by a worm gear.
Two sides of the front end of the pressing piece 2 are provided with a front pressing plate 2-1, and the front pressing plate 2-1 and the rear pressing plate 3 are arcs corresponding to each other; an inward sunken U-shaped groove 2-2 is formed in the center of the front end of the pressing piece 2.
The cutting structure comprises an annular cutter 4 and a cutting cylinder 5, and a push-out rod of the cutting cylinder 5 is connected with the annular cutter 4; the annular cutter 4 is matched with the U-shaped groove 2-2. The cutting cylinder 5 is longitudinally fixed on fixing plates 7 at two sides of the supporting structure by a cutting cylinder fixing plate 6.
The pneumatic control structure comprises an air source adjusting device 13, a foot valve 12, an air inlet flow divider valve 10 and an air outlet flow divider valve 11, wherein the air source adjusting device 13 is connected with the foot valve 12, the foot valve 12 is respectively connected with an inlet of the air inlet flow divider valve 10 and an outlet of the air outlet flow divider valve 11, one outlet of the air inlet flow divider valve 10 is connected with one air hole in a pressing air cylinder 15 through an air pipe, the other outlet of the air inlet flow divider valve 10 is connected with one end of an electromagnetic valve 9 through an air pipe, the other end of the electromagnetic valve 9 is connected with one air hole in a cutting air cylinder 5, the other air hole of the cutting air cylinder 5 is connected with one inlet of the air outlet flow divider valve 11.
And three interfaces of the control circuit board 18 are respectively connected with the motor 17, the position sensor 14 and the electromagnetic valve 9.
The base comprises two parallel bottom plates 1.
The supporting structure comprises two side fixing plates 7 and a supporting plate 8, the bottom ends of the two side fixing plates 7 are respectively connected with the two parallel bottom plates 1 of the base to be fixed, and the upper ends of the two side fixing plates 7 are connected with the supporting plate 8 to be fixed.
The electromagnetic valve is arranged on the bud cutting machine, the electromagnetic valve is used for controlling the cutting cylinder to act, so that time difference can be formed, and cutting after compaction is guaranteed. When the sugarcane harvester is used, the foot valve is pressed down, the pressing cylinder drives the rear pressing plate to push out and press sugarcane stalks, when the magnet arranged in the push rod of the cylinder is detected by the position sensor, the push rod of the cutting cylinder is pushed out, the annular cutter cuts sugarcane bud eyes, the foot valve is loosened, and the pressing cylinder and the cutting cylinder return simultaneously.

Claims (4)

1. A method for growing healthy sugarcane seedlings by bud eyes is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) cutting healthy sugarcane seedling buds from newly harvested sugarcane stems, soaking the healthy sugarcane seedling buds in clear water for 3-4 hours, taking out, draining, placing in a shade, and airing the surface water;
(2) preparing 400-fold and 600-fold diluent by adding water into carbendazim, adding 8-12g of thiamethoxam into every 100mL of the diluent to obtain a disinfectant, soaking the obtained healthy sugarcane seedling bud eyes in the disinfectant for 30 minutes, and fishing out the healthy sugarcane seedling bud eyes after sterilization and disinfection to drain water and dry the surface water;
(3) uniformly mixing a seedling raising matrix containing 55% of outsourcing organic matter and humic acid with river sand according to the volume ratio of (1-3) to (1) to serve as nutrient soil, and loading the nutrient soil into a seedling raising tray, wherein the nutrient soil is flush with the upper surface of the seedling raising tray;
(4) planting the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings obtained in the step (2) into seedling culture trays filled with nutrient soil in a bud-up mode, arranging the seedling culture trays closely, building a small arched shed on the seedling culture trays, covering a plastic film on the small arched shed to prevent wind and keep warm when the temperature is lower than 25 ℃, and covering black sun-shading cloth on the small arched shed to shade the sun when the temperature is higher than 25 ℃;
(5) watering once a day after planting to keep the nutrient soil moist; after sugarcane seedlings grow and 3 leaves exist, removing the plastic film or the sun-shading cloth, starting fertilization for the first time, selecting a sulfur-based compound fertilizer, dissolving the sulfur-based compound fertilizer in water according to the mass ratio of 1 (500-;
(6) transplanting the young seedlings to a field when the young seedlings grow to 4-5 true leaves;
the sugarcane stalks in the step (1) are first-generation healthy seed stalks grown after the sugarcane tissue culture seedlings are planted;
the bud eyes of the healthy sugarcane seedlings are cut off from sugarcane stalks with skins by a knife or a bud cutting machine, the skins are 0.6-1.2cm deep, the upper part and the lower part of the bud eyes are respectively reserved for 0.6-1.2cm, and the shapes of the bud eyes are triangular or elliptical.
2. The method for growing the healthy sugarcane seedlings through the bud eyes according to claim 1, wherein the bud cutting machine comprises a base, a pressing structure, a pneumatic control structure, a supporting structure and a cutting structure; a pressing structure is arranged on the top surface of the base, a supporting structure is arranged on the side surface of the base, and a cutting structure is arranged at the front end of the upper part of the supporting structure; the pressing structure and the cutting structure are both connected with the pneumatic control structure; the electromagnetic valve is arranged on the bud cutting machine, the cutter is an annular cutter, and one sugarcane bud can be cut by one cutter when linkage is realized.
3. The method for growing the sugarcane healthy seedlings through the bud eyes according to claim 1, wherein the young seedling transplanting field is to transplant the young seedlings with soil mechanically, and the method specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) deeply ploughing the land by 45-55cm, leveling the land, then opening planting ditches at a row spacing of 1.2m, applying 100 plus sugar cane formula fertilizer per mu for 150 kg/mu, covering fine soil, and covering with a glazing degradation weeding mulching film;
(2) trimming the leaf tips of the sugarcane seedlings 5 days before transplanting, cutting off 1/3-1/2 of the leaves, and spraying any one of acute degree, abamectin and bacillus thuringiensis to the sugarcane seedlings for preventing and treating insect pests and sterilizing;
(3) the sugarcane seedlings with 4-5 true leaves are taken down from the seedling culture plate with soil and are mechanically transplanted to the field, the seedlings are planted according to the plant spacing of 50-55 cm and the density is 1000 & lt & gtand 1100 & ltmu & gt/mu & gt, and the sugarcane seedlings transplanted to the field are mechanically and automatically watered during transplanting.
4. The method for growing seedlings of healthy sugarcane seedlings through bud eyes according to claim 3, wherein the sugarcane formula fertilizer is a new sugarcane formula fertilizer, is a long-acting slow release fertilizer scientifically prepared according to the characteristics of the sugarcane in each growth period, such as requirements on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, calcium and magnesium nutrients, the total nutrient is not less than 51%, and the effect of one-time fertilization and topdressing-free economic high yield can be achieved.
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CN111165302B (en) * 2020-01-13 2021-08-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Cost-saving sugarcane planting method suitable for mechanical planting
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