CN109348770B - Method for planting alfalfa in saline-alkali soil - Google Patents

Method for planting alfalfa in saline-alkali soil Download PDF

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CN109348770B
CN109348770B CN201811427275.8A CN201811427275A CN109348770B CN 109348770 B CN109348770 B CN 109348770B CN 201811427275 A CN201811427275 A CN 201811427275A CN 109348770 B CN109348770 B CN 109348770B
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alfalfa
saline
alkali soil
throwing
sowing
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CN109348770A (en
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刘杰淋
朱瑞芬
韩微波
王牧野
韩俊
王建丽
申忠宝
刘凤歧
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Heilongjiang Wanjiabao Haoniu Ranch Co ltd
HEILONGJIANG GRASS INDUSTRY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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Heilongjiang Wanjiabao Haoniu Ranch Co ltd
HEILONGJIANG GRASS INDUSTRY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/40Fabaceae, e.g. beans or peas

Abstract

The embodiment of the invention discloses a method for planting alfalfa in a saline-alkali soil, and belongs to the technical field of alfalfa planting. The method comprises the following steps: 1) selecting a planting land; 2) improving saline-alkali soil; 3) sowing; 4) and (5) field management. According to the embodiment of the invention, the retted cow dung is adopted to improve the saline-alkali soil, so that the improved saline-alkali soil is suitable for planting the alfalfa, the biomass and quality of the alfalfa are improved, the emergence rate and the growth speed are increased, the yield increase effect is obvious, and the application prospect is good.

Description

Method for planting alfalfa in saline-alkali soil
Technical Field
The embodiment of the invention relates to the technical field of alfalfa planting, and particularly relates to a method for planting alfalfa in a saline-alkali soil.
Background
Salination laboratories in the united states early in 1954 classified saline-alkali soils into three major categories, saline-alkali soil, alkaline earth (soda soil) and saline-alkali soil, according to soil conductivity, exchangeable sodium and pH. At present, salinated soils are internationally generally defined as having an electrical conductivity of greater than 4dS/m (corresponding to 40mM NaCl or an osmotic potential of 0.2 MPa). The saline-alkali soil area all over the world is about 9.5 hundred million hm2Saline-alkali soil area of ChinaAbout 9913 kilohm2(wherein the modern saline-alkali soil is about 3693 kilohm2) Mainly distributed in arid and semiarid zones and coastal areas.
Because saline-alkali soil contains excessive salt segregants, the growth of plants is influenced, even the plants cannot survive, the biological productivity of saline-alkali areas is low, and the ecological environment is poor. With the increase of population and the reduction of cultivated land, the improvement and utilization of saline-alkali soil is particularly important as an important land resource, and has important significance for guaranteeing the food safety and meeting the demand of people for good life.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial herbaceous leguminous plant, is originally produced in the area of Xiaoyaya, Iran and Extra Gaucao, is the most widely distributed cultivated pasture in the world at present, has a cultivation history for more than two thousand years in China, and has main production areas in northwest, north China, northeast and Jianghuai river basin. The alfalfa has developed root system and strong nitrogen fixation capability, has the characteristics of cold resistance, drought resistance, barren resistance, salt and alkali resistance and the like, has rich nutritive value, is high-quality forage grass which is popular among various livestock and poultry, and is called as the king of the forage grass. The large-area planting can not only promote the development of animal husbandry, but also achieve the effect of improving the ecological environment.
Disclosure of Invention
Therefore, the embodiment of the invention provides a method for planting alfalfa in saline-alkali soil, which not only can promote the improvement and utilization of saline-alkali soil, but also can obtain high-quality feed alfalfa.
In order to achieve the above object, an embodiment of the present invention provides the following:
in a first aspect of embodiments of the present invention, there is provided a method of growing alfalfa in a saline-alkali soil, the method comprising the steps of:
1) selection of a planting land: selecting saline-alkali soil with good drainage as a planting field under the climate conditions of warm and semi-arid climate, the average daily temperature of 15-20 ℃ and the annual precipitation of 300-;
2) saline-alkali soil improvement: removing weeds and sundries, deeply ploughing by 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, applying retted mature cow dung, and leveling the land for 2-3 times by using a disc harrow;
3) sowing:
3-1) sowing time: the soil temperature of the seeding layer is stabilized above 10 ℃, and the seeding is carried out in time according to local climatic conditions;
3-2) variety: selecting alfalfa seeds with germination rate not less than 85% and cleanliness not less than 95% in a non-dormancy stage;
3-3) sowing: sowing by using a special alfalfa sowing machine;
4) field management: weeding, fertilizing, irrigation and drainage, pest control and cutting management.
Further, in the step 1), the pH value of the saline-alkali soil is 8.5-9.0, and the salt content is 0.68-0.79 g/kg.
Further, in the step 2), uniformly throwing the retted mature cow dung on the ground surface by using a turning and throwing machine, wherein the throwing thickness is 10-15cm, and the throwing amount is 10-15t/667m2
The cow dung contains 83.3 percent of water, 14.5 percent of organic matters, 0.32 percent of nitrogen, 0.25 percent of phosphorus and 0.16 percent of potassium. Because the cow dung has high moisture content, low nitrogen content, slow decomposition, low fermentation temperature and slow fertilizer efficiency, in order to improve the quality of the cow dung, the embodiment of the invention obtains the high-quality organic fertilizer by fermenting the cow dung.
Further, the manufacturing method of the retted cattle manure comprises the following steps:
1) preparing a bacterial liquid: 100g of leavening agent, 1 kg of brown sugar and 10 kg of water are put into a container and sealed, and the container is kept stand for 3 to 5 days;
2) composting and fermenting: diluting the prepared bacterial liquid with clear water, then uniformly mixing with 2-3 tons of cow dung to obtain a fermentation material, wherein the moisture content of the fermentation material is 40-70%, piling, covering a layer of film or straw mat on the fermentation material, and fermenting for 5-7 days in summer.
In a preferred embodiment, the leavening agent is a commercially available farmofuk biological bacterial manure leavening agent which is a compound microorganism raw bacterium compounded by a plurality of single bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria, bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, enterococcus faecalis and the like.
The retted cattle manure prepared by the method is detected by a soil fertilizer detection center of agriculture academy of sciences of Heilongjiang province, and has the organic matter content of 75.7-82.6%, the total nitrogen content of 2.63-2.75%, the total phosphorus content of 0.89-0.99%, the total potassium content of 0.64-0.69% and the water content of 66.45-70.0%.
Further, in the step 3), the seeding row spacing is 20-30cm, the seeding depth is 2-3cm, and the seeding rate is 14-16kg per hectare.
Further, in the step 4), in the fertilization stage of field management, uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a turning and throwing machine, wherein the throwing thickness is 10-15cm, and the throwing amount is 10-15t/667m2
Further, in the step 4), cutting management is carried out every year from the first year after the alfalfa is successfully planted, cutting is carried out when flowering is 10%, cutting is carried out for the last time before overwintering for 30-40d, and stubble height is 5-6 cm.
The method disclosed by the embodiment of the invention is suitable for various alfalfa varieties, preferably, the varieties adopted by the embodiment of the invention are the agricultural cyanine 1 alfalfa, the agricultural cyanine 8 alfalfa and the agricultural cyanine 10 alfalfa which are bred by the agricultural academy of sciences in Heilongjiang province, and the three varieties have the characteristics of strong cold resistance, high quality and high yield through continuous years of systematic breeding.
Further, in step 4), weeding: weeds are prevented and removed in time after the seedlings are harvested in the seedling stage and summer; draining and irrigating water: draining water in rainy season, and dying the alfalfa after 24 hours of water flooding; and (3) pest control: the pesticide is applied, and the pesticide comprises 233.3-333.3mg/L of chlorfluazuron missible oil and 10-20mg/L of abamectin missible oil.
The embodiment of the invention has the following advantages:
1. according to the embodiment of the invention, the saline-alkali soil is improved by the high-quality retting mature cow dung, so that the saline-alkali soil is improved, and the high-quality alfalfa can be obtained as a substrate, so that the purpose of combining planting and breeding cycles is achieved.
2. The saline-alkali soil is improved by using organic materials (retting mature cow dung), agricultural solid wastes can be recycled, soil nutrients can be effectively increased, the soil structure can be improved, the yield can be improved, and meanwhile, the method is a new way for adjusting the regional industrial structure of the saline-alkali soil and increasing income and richness of farmers.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples, which, however, are to be construed as merely illustrative, and not limitative of the remainder of the disclosure in any way whatsoever.
This section generally describes the materials used in the testing of the present invention, as well as the testing methods. Although many materials and methods of operation are known in the art for the purpose of carrying out the invention, the invention is nevertheless described herein in as detail as possible. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the materials and methods of operation used in the present invention are well within the skill of the art, provided that they are not specifically illustrated.
Example 1
The method for preparing retted cow dung comprises the following steps:
1) preparing a bacterial liquid: 100g of the Nonfukang biological bacterial manure starter, 1 kg of brown sugar and 10 kg of water are put into a container, sealed and kept stand for 5 days;
2) composting and fermenting: diluting the prepared bacterial liquid with clear water, then uniformly mixing with 2.5 tons of cow dung to obtain a fermentation material, wherein the water content of the fermentation material is 55%, piling, covering a layer of film or straw mat on the fermentation material, and fermenting for 5-7 days in summer.
Through detection, the content (weight percentage) of each substance in the prepared retted cattle manure is as follows: 82.6% of organic matters, 2.63% of total nitrogen, 0.89% of total phosphorus, 0.64% of total potassium and 66.45% of water.
The method for planting the alfalfa in the saline-alkali soil comprises the following steps:
1) selection of a planting land: selecting saline-alkali soil with good drainage, pH value of 8.5-9.0 and salt content of 0.68-0.79g/kg as a planting field under the climate conditions of warm and semi-arid land with the daily average temperature of 15-20 ℃ and annual precipitation of 300-;
2) saline-alkali soil improvement: removing weeds and sundries, deeply turning for 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a Danish turning and throwing machine, wherein the throwing thickness is 10-12cm, and the throwing amount is 12t/667m2Then, howeverThen leveling the land for 2 times by using a disc harrow;
3) sowing:
3-1) sowing time: the soil temperature of the seeding layer is stabilized above 10 ℃, and the seeding is carried out in time according to local climatic conditions;
3-2) variety: selecting the alfalfa seeds of agricultural cyanine No. 10 in the non-dormancy stage with the germination rate not less than 85 percent and the purity not less than 95 percent;
3-3) sowing: sowing by using a special alfalfa sowing machine, wherein the sowing row spacing is 25cm, the sowing depth is 2-3cm, and the sowing amount is 14kg per hectare;
4) field management: weeding: weeds are prevented and removed in time after the seedlings are harvested in the seedling stage and summer; fertilizing: uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a turner, wherein the throwing thickness is 10-12cm, and the throwing amount is 12t/667m2(ii) a Draining and irrigating water: draining water in rainy season, and dying the alfalfa after 24 hours of water flooding; and (3) pest control: applying an insecticide, wherein the insecticide comprises 268mg/L of chlorfluazuron missible oil and 15mg/L of abamectin benzoate missible oil; and (3) beginning the first year after the alfalfa is successfully planted, carrying out mowing management every year, mowing when flowering is 10%, keeping the last mowing for 30-40d before overwintering, and keeping the stubble height to be 5 cm.
Example 2
The method for preparing the retted cow dung is the same as that of the embodiment 1.
The method for planting the alfalfa in the saline-alkali soil comprises the following steps:
1) selection of a planting land: selecting saline-alkali soil with good drainage, pH value of 8.5-9.0 and salt content of 0.68-0.79g/kg as a planting field under the climate conditions of warm and semi-arid land with the daily average temperature of 15-20 ℃ and annual precipitation of 300-;
2) saline-alkali soil improvement: removing weeds and sundries, deeply turning for 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a Danish turning and throwing machine, wherein the throwing thickness is 12-14cm, and the throwing amount is 13.5t/667m2Then, leveling the land for 3 times by using a disc harrow;
3) sowing:
3-1) sowing time: the soil temperature of the seeding layer is stabilized above 10 ℃, and the seeding is carried out in time according to local climatic conditions;
3-2) variety: selecting the alfalfa seeds of agricultural cyanine 8 with the germination rate not lower than 85 percent and the purity not lower than 95 percent in the non-dormancy stage;
3-3) sowing: sowing by using a special alfalfa sowing machine, wherein the sowing row spacing is 22cm, the sowing depth is 2-3cm, and the sowing amount is 16kg per hectare;
4) field management: weeding: weeds are prevented and removed in time after the seedlings are harvested in the seedling stage and summer; fertilizing: uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a turner, wherein the throwing thickness is 12-14cm, and the throwing amount is 13.5t/667m2(ii) a Draining and irrigating water: draining water in rainy season, and dying the alfalfa after 24 hours of water flooding; and (3) pest control: applying an insecticide, wherein the insecticide comprises 245mg/L of chlorfluazuron missible oil and 18mg/L of abamectin benzoate missible oil; and (3) beginning the first year after the alfalfa is successfully planted, carrying out mowing management every year, mowing when flowering is 10%, keeping the last mowing for 30-40d before overwintering, and keeping the stubble height to be 5 cm.
Example 3
The method for preparing the retted cow dung is the same as that of the embodiment 1.
The method for planting the alfalfa in the saline-alkali soil comprises the following steps:
1) selection of a planting land: selecting saline-alkali soil with good drainage, pH value of 8.5-9.0 and salt content of 0.68-0.79g/kg as a planting field under the climate conditions of warm and semi-arid land with the daily average temperature of 15-20 ℃ and annual precipitation of 300-;
2) saline-alkali soil improvement: removing weeds and sundries, deeply turning for 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a Danish turning and throwing machine, wherein the throwing thickness is 14-15cm, and the throwing amount is 15t/667m2Then, leveling the land for 3 times by using a disc harrow;
3) sowing:
3-1) sowing time: the soil temperature of the seeding layer is stabilized above 10 ℃, and the seeding is carried out in time according to local climatic conditions;
3-2) variety: selecting the alfalfa seeds of agricultural cyanine No. 1 with the germination rate not lower than 85 percent and the purity not lower than 95 percent in the non-dormancy stage;
3-3) sowing: sowing by using a special alfalfa sowing machine, wherein the sowing row spacing is 30cm, the sowing depth is 2-3cm, and the sowing amount is 14kg per hectare;
4) field management: weeding: weeds are prevented and removed in time after the seedlings are harvested in the seedling stage and summer; fertilizing: uniformly throwing the retted and cooked cow dung onto the ground surface by using a turner, wherein the throwing thickness is 14-15cm, and the throwing amount is 15t/667m2(ii) a Draining and irrigating water: draining water in rainy season, and dying the alfalfa after 24 hours of water flooding; and (3) pest control: applying an insecticide, wherein the insecticide comprises chlorfluazuron missible oil 318mg/L and abamectin benzoate missible oil 12 mg/L; and (3) beginning the first year after the alfalfa is successfully planted, carrying out mowing management every year, mowing when flowering is 10%, keeping the last mowing for 30-40d before overwintering, and keeping the stubble height to be 5 cm.
Comparative examples 1 to 3
The method for planting alfalfa in the saline-alkali soil in the comparative examples 1-3 is different from the method in the examples 1-3 only in the improvement mode of the saline-alkali soil, and the saline-alkali soil improvement steps in the comparative examples 1-3 are as follows: removing weeds and impurities, deeply ploughing by 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, applying a mixture of sand and desulfurized gypsum, and leveling the soil 2 times by using a shallow ploughing rake.
Wherein, the weight ratio of the sand to the desulfurized gypsum is 1: 5, applying the mixture into 20cm soil, shallow-turning and leveling the soil, wherein the application amount is 1-1.5t/667m2
Comparative examples 4 to 6
The method for planting alfalfa in the saline-alkali soil in the comparative examples 4-6 is different from the method in the examples 1-3 only in the improvement mode of the saline-alkali soil, and the comparative examples 4-6 adopt the improvement mode of the saline-alkali soil in which straws are returned to the field, and the specific method comprises the following steps: directly crushing the straws on the original overground part and returning the straws to the field, deeply ploughing the straws by 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, and then leveling the land for 3 times by using a disc harrow.
Application example
Test field: the pH value of the Wanjiabao good cattle ranch (45 degrees 56 '13.81' N and 126 degrees 21 '49.16' E) in Heilongjiang province is 8.5-9.0, and the salt content is 0.68-0.79 g/kg. The tests were carried out simultaneously in different zones on the test site, according to the methods of examples 1 to 3 and comparative examples 1 to 6The domain area is 40m2(10 m.times.4 m) and alfalfa grown on saline without modification as a Control (CK).
And 8, 8 and 7 days in 2018, detecting the productivity, the crude protein content of the pasture and the relative feeding value of the pasture.
Grassland productivity was determined as follows:
3 squares of 10X 20cm were randomly selected in each planting area and biomass was monitored. And (3) cutting all vegetation in the sample in a neat and clean manner, subpackaging the cut vegetation in gauze bags, taking the cut vegetation back to a laboratory, weighing the cut vegetation to obtain fresh weight, drying the cut vegetation in a drying oven at 65 ℃ for 72h to constant weight, weighing the cut vegetation to obtain dry weight, and recording the aboveground biomass of each species.
The method for testing the crude protein content Pr (%) of pasture comprises the following steps:
0.5g (to the nearest 0.0001g) of a dry pulverized plant sample was weighed into a digestion tube, and 5g of a catalyst (mK) was added2SO4:mCuSO4·5H2O500: 50) and 10mL of 98% sulfuric acid, digested at 420 ℃ for about 1-1.5 h. After thorough digestion, the digestion solution is clear and blue-green. After cooling, the plants were analyzed for total nitrogen using a fully automatic Kjeltec Analyzer Unit 2300, FOSS, Sweden.
The method for measuring the relative feeding value of the pasture comprises the following steps: relative Feed Value (RFV) was calculated by measuring plant Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF). The formula for the Relative Feed Value (RFV) is: RFV ═ (DMI value × DDM value)/1.29, where dry matter feed intake (DMI) is 120/NDF; digestible dry matter DDM 88.9-0.779 ADF. The Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and the Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) were tested by the methods described in CN 201110092444.9. The biomass and quality analysis of alfalfa planted on each test site is shown in table 1. Alfalfa growth processes and population structures are shown in table 2.
TABLE 1
Figure BDA0001881925170000081
Figure BDA0001881925170000091
Analysis of the data in table 1 using SPSS19.0 software showed significant differences (P <0.05) between the retted manure treatment and other treatments in terms of fresh weight, dry weight and quality, indicating significant improvements in yield and quality.
TABLE 2
Treatment of Stage of emergence Rate of emergence (%) Bud stage
Example 1 6-1 81 7-20
Example 2 6-1 79 7-18
Example 3 6-2 78 7-20
Comparative example 1 6-9 65.8 7-25
Comparative example 2 6-8 62 7-24
Comparative example 3 6-6 61 7-26
Comparative example 4 6-10 50 7-29
Comparative example 5 6-11 49 7-29
Comparative example 6 6-10 48 7-30
CK 6-10 48.5 7-30
The data of table 2 are analyzed by using SPSS19.0 software, and the result shows that the rate of emergence of retting the mature cow dung is obviously different from that of other treatments, and meanwhile, the emergence period and the bud period are advanced, specifically, the emergence period of the alfalfa treated by retting the mature cow dung is 5-9 days earlier than that of other treatments, and the bud period is about 10 days earlier than that of other treatments, which indicates that the growth speed of the alfalfa in the embodiment of the invention is higher than that of a control group.
Although the invention has been described in detail above with reference to a general description and specific examples, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that modifications or improvements may be made thereto based on the invention. Accordingly, such modifications and improvements are intended to be within the scope of the invention as claimed.

Claims (1)

1. A method for planting alfalfa in a saline-alkali soil is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) selection of a planting land: selecting saline-alkali soil with good drainage as a planting field under the climate conditions of warm and semi-arid climate, the average daily temperature of 15-20 ℃ and the annual precipitation of 300-;
2) saline-alkali soil improvement: removing weeds and sundries, deeply ploughing by 25-30cm by using a furrow plough, applying retted mature cow dung, and leveling the land for 2-3 times by using a disc harrow;
3) sowing:
3-1) sowing time: the soil temperature of the seeding layer is stabilized above 10 ℃, and the seeding is carried out in time according to local climatic conditions;
3-2) variety: selecting alfalfa seeds with germination rate not less than 85% and cleanliness not less than 95% in a non-dormancy stage;
3-3) sowing: sowing by using a special alfalfa sowing machine;
4) field management: weeding, fertilizing, irrigating, preventing and treating plant diseases and insect pests, and mowing and managing;
the manufacturing method of the retting mature cow dung comprises the following steps:
1) preparing a bacterial liquid: 100g of leavening agent, 1 kg of brown sugar and 10 kg of water are put into a container and sealed, and the container is kept stand for 3 to 5 days;
2) composting and fermenting: diluting the prepared bacterial liquid with clear water, then uniformly mixing with 2-3 tons of cow dung to obtain a fermentation material, wherein the moisture content of the fermentation material is 40-70%, piling, covering a layer of film or straw mat on the fermentation material, and fermenting for 5-7 days in summer for use;
in the step 1), the pH value of the saline-alkali soil is 8.5-9.0, and the salt content is 0.68-0.79 g/kg;
in the step 2), uniformly throwing the retted mature cow dung onto the ground surface by using a turner, wherein the throwing thickness is 10-15cm, and the throwing amount is 10-15t/667m2
In the step 3), the seeding row spacing is 20-30cm, the seeding depth is 2-3cm, and the seeding quantity is 14-16kg per hectare;
in the step 4), in the fertilization stage of field management, uniformly throwing the retted mature cow dung onto the ground surface by using a turning and throwing machine, wherein the throwing thickness is 10-15cm, and the throwing amount is 10-15t/667m2
In the step 4), cutting management is carried out every year from the first year after the alfalfa is successfully planted, cutting is carried out when flowering is 10%, the last cutting before overwintering is carried out for 30-40d, and the height of the remaining stubble is 5-6 cm;
the variety is selected from the agricultural academy of sciences of Heilongjiang province, such as Medicago sativa No. 10 Nongqing, Medicago sativa No. 8 Nongqing, and Medicago sativa No. 1 Nongqing;
in the step 4), weeding: weeds are prevented and removed in time after the seedlings are harvested in the seedling stage and summer; draining and irrigating water: draining water in rainy season, and dying the alfalfa after 24 hours of water flooding; and (3) pest control: the pesticide is applied, and the pesticide comprises 233.3-333.3mg/L of chlorfluazuron missible oil and 10-20mg/L of abamectin missible oil.
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