CN109121524A - A kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method - Google Patents

A kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109121524A
CN109121524A CN201810925663.2A CN201810925663A CN109121524A CN 109121524 A CN109121524 A CN 109121524A CN 201810925663 A CN201810925663 A CN 201810925663A CN 109121524 A CN109121524 A CN 109121524A
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China
Prior art keywords
soil
sesbania
parts
orchard
fertilizer
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CN201810925663.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈钟佃
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Institute of Agricultural Ecology of Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Agricultural Ecology of Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Priority to CN201810925663.2A priority Critical patent/CN109121524A/en
Publication of CN109121524A publication Critical patent/CN109121524A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/40Fabaceae, e.g. beans or peas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification methods.This kind of method not only efficiently uses the soil more than the spare time in orchard by intercropping in garden leguminous forage, makes full use of space, plants the sesbania with certain economic benefit, increases the attached value in soil;Simultaneously also by the physicochemical character that the plantation of sesbania is greatly improved the ecological environment with soil, soil hardening and further salinization of soil are avoided, is increase soil fertility, increases production orchard and sesbania in pairs;By the application in sesbania different times a large amount of organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer, it can more preferably promote the growth of sesbania, to realize that flourishing, seed is full plentiful and substantial;It is fermented by a large amount of farmyard manures and utilizing for waste material, realizes discarded resource utilization, reduces production cost.

Description

A kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method
Technical field
The present invention relates to alkaline land improving fields, and in particular to a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method.
Background technique
Sesbania is leguminous plant, and stalk is upright, well developed root system, is enriched with slightly solubility in deep soil nutrient and activating soil and supports Point ability is strong, dross is more, nitrogen fixing capacity is strong, and the spongy tissue ventilated is formed by Yan Hou stem, close to water surface director many Water root, and can normal dross and fixed nitrogen.Sesbania nitrogen rich in (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and microelement, nutrient contain Amount has differences with the difference at breeding time and position.Seedling stage plant is fresh and tender, dry matter is few.After florescence, dry matter is largely accumulated, Grass yield increases, and nutrient total content is higher than seedling stage.The content of nitrogen and phosphorous is higher in blade, and potassium content is high in stem.Leaded wastewater in cured leaf piece It is 4.03%, contains P2O5It is 1.00%, contains K2O is 0.85%.N is 1.16%, P in stalk2O5For 0.16%, K2O is 1.42%.Sesbania Seed is containing crude protein 32.9%, content of ashes 0.71%, fat 0.94%, nitrogenous object are 2.3%, sugar 9.76%, lignin are 16.3%。
Sesbania green forage yield is high, and nutrient content is abundant, and salt tolerance is stronger, is the pioneer crop for improveing saline-alkali soil.Plant field Cyanines are mainly used as fertilizer, can directly plough, apply after its stalk and domestic animals manure stack retting can also be used in addition to improveing saline-alkali soil with it With.It can make base manure, top dressing can also be made.The time is turned over to make sowing and growth of seedling after not influencing, and with green forage yield and its support It is principle when dividing total content highest.
Increase soil water-stable granule total amount after turning over sesbania, the soil weight reduces, and porosity increases, and can inhibit soil The accumulation of salt in the surface soil.Sesbania stalk after sowing, can also peeling do fiber crops substitute.So with sesbania herbage outstanding effect and it is low at Originally, the trade benefit of high yield is slowly found in agriculture field, is badly in need of the more systematic excellent cultural method of one kind and is carried out sesbania The embodiment of herbage application in practice and value.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the present invention in view of the above shortcomings of the prior art, propose that a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil changes Good recipe method, this kind of method are supplied using different fertilizer in sesbania different growing stages by intercropping in garden, not only improve sesbania Itself yield, while soil environment is also improved, promote orchard yield and fruit quality.
A kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method proposed by the present invention, comprising the following steps:
(1) implantation methods: being interplanted in orchard using sesbania, and the line number ratio of fruit tree and sesbania is 1:2~4, sesbania and fruit The spacing of tree is 80~120cm, and the line-spacing of sesbania is 30~50cm, and Sesbania seed is needed to carry out tedding processing prior to seeding, be tedded Time is 7~8h, and application rate is 6~7 kilograms per acre;
(2) fertilizing management: sowing in planting area progress organic fertilizer before sowing, 450~600 kilograms per acre, 20 after emergence~ Apply around rice shoot within 30 days pouring liquid fertilizer, before the florescence, the buried compound fertilizer between two plants of sesbanias, depth is 5~7cm, is applied It is irrigated immediately after fertilizer;
(3) soil treatment: cradle in sesbania flowering stage and buries blueness, and the height for the stubble left is 10~15cm, sows soil in soil surface Earth modifying agent sows 50~100 kilograms per acre, then carries out turning over processing, is turned over when turning over using comminuted, by the field in soil Cyanines branches and leaves and bulk soil are smashed.
The present invention not only can utilize orchard remaining space, increase land use by interplanting sesbania in orchard Rate, while by the plantation of sesbania, it can preferably improve orchard soil soil environment, increase the content of soil with organic matter, It increases soil fertility, increases fruit output, improve nutrient quality.
Sesbania kind is determined according to fruit-tree orchard kind, fruit tree line space, there is normal sesbania at present and downgrades sesbania two Kind kind, is pulse family, but the plant strain growth height of normal sesbania is higher, generally at 3.0 meters or more, will affect fruit sometimes The picking of tree, the spraying of pesticide and field nursing, at this moment will select the dwarfing sesbania by improvement, the line number that the present invention uses Than preferably convenient channel can be provided for field nursing with spacing, while better ventilation condition is also provided, made Fruit tree and sesbania are increased production mutually.
The present invention applies the fertilizer needed for it by the critical period different in sesbania, such as has before planting to soil Machineization processing, not only improves soil, while also providing enough nutrients for the Seedling Stage of sesbania, so that it is grown up strong and sturdy, branch It is numerous full of leaves;Seedling period is sesbania more crucial growth period, so at this moment applying the liquid manure for being easy to osmotic absorption, is convenient for plant Fast germination, stripping;Sesbania needs a large amount of n-p-k element after into the florescence, at this moment applies immediately compound rich in N P and K Fertilizer, growth and photosynthesis convenient for plant;Due to sesbania well developed root system, water absorbing capacity is strong, so watering after fertilising Irrigation preferably can provide moisture for plant, and while absorbing water, nutrient is also therewith by plant root absorption.
By regular real tillage, add soil conditioner to improve and optimize soil kind and structure, convenient for orchard and The growth of coming year sesbania can also greatly reduce the saline and alkaline of soil.
Further, the organic fertilizer in the step (2) and liquid fertilizer be excrement obtained by poultry pig farm, cavings, sawdust and The mixture of stalk separates.
Further, the water content of excrement obtained by the poultry pig farm is less than or equal to 30%.
Further, the length of the stalk is 3~5cm.
Further, the organic fertilizer in the step (2) and liquid fertilizer include following preparation step:
(1) by mass parts by 35~60 parts of excrement, 10~20 parts of cavings obtained by poultry pig farm, 5~10 parts of sawdust and stalk 15~ Add water after 20 parts of mixing, obtains solid state substrate;
(2) solid state substrate is put into fermentation reaction kettle, is stirred after bacteria residue is added, ferments, fermented after stirring Product;
(3) tunning is drained to cyclone to be separated by solid-liquid separation, gained liquid is liquid fertilizer, gained Solid matter is organic fertilizer after being dried.
Further, the solid state substrate water content in the step (1) is less than or equal to 30%.
Further, fermentation temperature described in the step (2) is 60~70 DEG C.
Further, fermentation time described in the step (2) is 13~17 days.
Organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer in the present invention are to send out after excrement obtained by poultry pig farm, cavings, sawdust and stalk mix Ferment separates, and raw material is organic matter, and has stronger fibroid, and organic fertilizer obtained is allow to make soil in this way It is more loose, possess good gas permeability, while the organic matter in soil can also increase significantly, fermentation can degrade the overwhelming majority Organic macromolecule, obtain the nutrient of more free states;Worm's ovum and the germ in raw material can also be killed by fermentation, kept away After exempting from fertilising, pest and disease damage occurs for orchard.
Further, the soil conditioner in the step (3) includes component: plant ash 10~15 by mass parts Part, 1~3 part of biological charcoal ash, 0.5~1 part and 10~15 parts of calcium superphosphate of thallus.
Plant ash, charcoal and calcium phosphate provide sufficient calcium source for soil, calcium ion can in soil chloride ion, The salt such as sulfate ion combine, and precipitating is lost, and can improve soil environment in this way to avoid the salinization of soil.Meanwhile also there are also big Other minerals of amount are for plant root absorption, and charcoal also has very strong adsorptivity, have after fertilising certain slow Release effect.
Further, the thallus includes careless bacillus, photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Trichoderma and bacillusmusilaginosiengineering. It is degraded by different strain, to realize the improvement of soil texture.
A kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method of the invention, this kind of method carry out symbiosis kind by intercropping in garden It plants, not only efficiently uses the soil more than the spare time in orchard, plant the sesbania with certain economic benefit, increase the value in soil;Together When greatly improved the environment of soil also by the plantation of sesbania, avoid soil hardening and salinization of soil, increase soil fertility, make Orchard and sesbania are increased production in pairs;By the application in sesbania different times a large amount of organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer, can more preferably promote Increase the sugariness of fruit into the growth of sesbania to realize that flourishing, seed is full plentiful and substantial;Pass through a large amount of farmyard manures and waste material Using fermentation, realize waste utilization, save cost.
Specific embodiment
For present invention will be further explained below with reference to specific examples.It should be understood that these embodiments are merely to illustrate this hair It is bright rather than limit the scope of the invention.In addition, various changes or modification that those skilled in the art make the present invention, this A little equivalent forms are equally fallen in the application range claimed.Proportion in the embodiment of the present invention is by weight.
Embodiment 1
Water will be added after 35 parts of excrement obtained by poultry pig farm, 10 parts of cavings, 5 parts of sawdust and 15 parts of stalk mixing by mass parts, obtained Solid state substrate;The solid state substrate is put into fermentation reaction kettle, is stirred after bacteria residue is added, is fermented, sent out after stirring Ferment product;The tunning is drained to cyclone to be separated by solid-liquid separation, gained liquid is liquid fertilizer, gained Solid matter is organic fertilizer after being dried.
(1) it implantation methods: selects and downgrades sesbania kind and carry out intercropping in orchard, the line number ratio of fruit tree and sesbania is The spacing of 1:2, sesbania and fruit tree is 80cm, and the line-spacing of sesbania is 30cm;Sesbania seed needs ted processing prior to seeding, booth The solarization time is 7h, and application rate is 6 kilograms per acre;
(2) fertilizing management: sowing for organic fertilizer is carried out in planting area before sowing, 400 kilograms per acre, is carried out within 20 days after emergence It is applied around rice shoot and pours liquid fertilizer, before the florescence, the buried compound fertilizer between two plants of sesbanias, depth 5cm is filled immediately after fertilising It irrigates;
(3) soil treatment: cradle in sesbania flowering stage and bury blueness, height for the stubble left 10cm sows soil in soil surface and changes Good dose, modifying agent includes 10 parts of plant ash, 1 part of biological charcoal ash, 0.5 part and 10 parts of calcium superphosphate of thallus, sows 50 kilograms per acre, Carry out turning over processing again, be turned over when turning over using comminuted, by soil sesbania root and bulk soil smash.
Embodiment 2
The preparation of organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer:
Water will be added after 55 parts of excrement obtained by poultry pig farm, 15 parts of cavings, 7 parts of sawdust and 17 parts of stalk mixing by mass parts, obtained Solid state substrate;The solid state substrate is put into fermentation reaction kettle, is stirred after bacteria residue is added, is fermented, sent out after stirring Ferment product;The tunning is drained to cyclone to be separated by solid-liquid separation, gained liquid is liquid fertilizer, gained Solid matter is organic fertilizer after being dried.
(1) it implantation methods: selects and downgrades sesbania kind and carry out intercropping in orchard, the line number ratio of fruit tree and sesbania is The spacing of 1:3, sesbania and fruit tree is 100cm, and the line-spacing of sesbania is 40cm;Sesbania seed needs to carry out tedding processing prior to seeding, Tedding the time is 7.5h, and application rate is 6.5 kilograms per acre;
(2) fertilizing management: sowing for organic fertilizer is carried out in planting area before sowing, 520 kilograms per acre, is carried out within 25 days after emergence It is applied around rice shoot and pours liquid fertilizer, before the florescence, the buried compound fertilizer between two plants of sesbanias, depth 6cm is filled immediately after fertilising It irrigates;
(3) soil treatment: cradle in sesbania flowering stage and bury blueness, height for the stubble left 12cm sows soil in soil surface and changes Good dose, modifying agent includes 12 parts of plant ash, 2 parts of biological charcoal ash, 0.7 part of thallus and 12 parts of calcium phosphate, sows 75 kilograms per acre, then Carry out turning over processing, be turned over when turning over using comminuted, by soil sesbania branches and leaves and bulk soil smash.
Embodiment 3
The preparation of organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer:
Water will be added after 60 parts of excrement obtained by poultry pig farm, 20 parts of cavings, 10 parts of sawdust and 20 parts of stalk mixing by mass parts, obtained Solid state substrate;The solid state substrate is put into fermentation reaction kettle, is stirred after bacteria residue is added, is fermented, sent out after stirring Ferment product;The tunning is drained to cyclone to be separated by solid-liquid separation, gained liquid is liquid fertilizer, gained Solid matter is organic fertilizer after being dried.
(1) it implantation methods: selects and downgrades sesbania kind and carry out intercropping in orchard, the line number ratio of fruit tree and sesbania is The spacing of 1:4, sesbania and fruit tree is 120cm, and the line-spacing of sesbania is 50cm;Sesbania seed needs to carry out tedding processing prior to seeding, Tedding the time is 8h, and application rate is 7 kilograms per acre;
(2) fertilizing management: sowing for organic fertilizer is carried out in planting area before sowing, 600 kilograms per acre, is carried out within 30 days after emergence It is applied around rice shoot and pours liquid fertilizer, before the florescence, the buried compound fertilizer between two plants of sesbanias, depth 7cm is filled immediately after fertilising It irrigates;
(3) soil treatment: cradle in sesbania flowering stage and bury blueness, height for the stubble left 15cm sows soil in soil surface and changes Good dose, modifying agent includes 15 parts of plant ash, 3 parts of biological charcoal ash, 1 part of thallus and 15 parts of calcium phosphate, sows 100 kilograms per acre, then Carry out turning over processing, be turned over when turning over using comminuted, by soil sesbania branches and leaves and bulk soil smash.
Evaluation:
By the experimental plot for carrying out embodiment 1, embodiment 2 and embodiment 3 and with kind stone of two kinds of region traditional cultivation method Pomegranate yield result compares, and experimental plot initial soil index is salt content 0.38%, pH value 8.1, compares identical index Test field Upper to use different cultural method third annual datas, correlation data is shown in Table 1.
It can be seen from Table 1 that be substantially better than traditional cultivation using the obtained data of cultural method of the invention Technology, not only yield is apparently higher than traditional technology, but also greatly improved the salt alkali number of salt affected soil, and salt content and pH value are bright Aobvious to reduce, the plant strain growth for after provides better growing environment, absolutely prove the present invention the technical field have compared with Big progress.
Exemplary illustration is carried out to the embodiment of the present invention above, but the content is only preferable implementation of the invention Example, should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention.All the changes and improvements etc. of all application ranges according to the present invention, It should all fall within the scope of the patent of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method, it is characterised in that: the following steps are included:
(1) implantation methods: being interplanted in orchard using sesbania, and the line number ratio of fruit tree and sesbania is 1:2~4, sesbania and fruit The spacing of tree is 80~120cm, and the line-spacing of sesbania is 30~50cm, and Sesbania seed is needed to carry out tedding processing prior to seeding, be tedded Time is 7~8h, and application rate is 6~7 kilograms per acre;
(2) fertilizing management: sowing in planting area progress organic fertilizer before sowing, 450~600 kilograms per acre, 20 after emergence~ Apply around rice shoot within 30 days pouring liquid fertilizer, before the florescence, the buried compound fertilizer between two plants of sesbanias, depth is 5~7cm, is applied It is irrigated immediately after fertilizer;
(3) soil treatment: cradle in sesbania flowering stage and buries blueness, and the height for the stubble left is 10~15cm, sows soil in soil surface Earth modifying agent sows 50~100 kilograms per acre, then carries out turning over processing, is turned over when turning over using comminuted, by the field in soil Cyanines branches and leaves and bulk soil are smashed.
2. a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: the step (2) In organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer be excrement obtained by poultry pig farm, cavings, sawdust and stalk mixture separate.
3. a kind of cultural method of sesbania herbage as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that: excrement obtained by the poultry pig farm Water content be less than or equal to 30%.
4. a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that: the length of the stalk Degree is 3~5cm.
5. a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method as described in any one of Claims 1 to 4, feature exists In: organic fertilizer and liquid fertilizer in the step (2) include following preparation step:
(1) by mass parts by 35~60 parts of excrement, 10~20 parts of cavings obtained by poultry pig farm, 5~10 parts of sawdust and stalk 15~ Add water after 20 parts of mixing, obtains solid state substrate;
(2) solid state substrate is put into fermentation reaction kettle, is stirred after bacteria residue is added, ferments, fermented after stirring Product;
(3) tunning is drained to cyclone to be separated by solid-liquid separation, gained liquid is liquid fertilizer, gained Solid matter is organic fertilizer after being dried.
6. a kind of cultural method of sesbania herbage as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that: the solid-state in the step (1) Water content of substrate is less than or equal to 30%.
7. a kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that: the step (2) Described in fermentation temperature be 60~70 DEG C.
8. a kind of cultural method of sesbania herbage as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: sent out described in the step (2) The ferment time is 13~17 days.
9. a kind of cultural method of sesbania herbage as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: the soil in the step (3) Modifying agent includes component by mass parts: 10~15 parts of plant ash, 1~3 part of biological charcoal ash, and 0.5~1 part of thallus and peroxophosphoric acid 10~15 parts of calcium.
10. a kind of cultural method of sesbania herbage as claimed in claim 9, it is characterised in that: the thallus includes gemma bar Bacterium, photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Trichoderma and bacillusmusilaginosiengineering.
CN201810925663.2A 2018-08-15 2018-08-15 A kind of salt-soda soil guava Orchard Soil modification method Pending CN109121524A (en)

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全国积肥造肥工作现场促进会议: "《"积肥造肥工作经验"》", 31 January 1959 *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110393119A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-11-01 广西澳一澳农业科技有限公司 A kind of Queensland nut seed fast seedling growing propagation method
CN110419370A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-11-08 广西澳一澳农业科技有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of macadamia

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