CN102487621B - Method for efficiently reducing continuous cropping obstacles of facility soil - Google Patents

Method for efficiently reducing continuous cropping obstacles of facility soil Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN102487621B
CN102487621B CN201110356278.9A CN201110356278A CN102487621B CN 102487621 B CN102487621 B CN 102487621B CN 201110356278 A CN201110356278 A CN 201110356278A CN 102487621 B CN102487621 B CN 102487621B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
soil
nitrolim
days
usage amount
confined reaction
Prior art date
Application number
CN201110356278.9A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN102487621A (en
Inventor
马建宏
刘健明
赵迳连
何建桥
俞禄
马宏卫
陈晶中
Original Assignee
南京市土壤肥料站
南京市江宁区农业局
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 南京市土壤肥料站, 南京市江宁区农业局 filed Critical 南京市土壤肥料站
Priority to CN201110356278.9A priority Critical patent/CN102487621B/en
Publication of CN102487621A publication Critical patent/CN102487621A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN102487621B publication Critical patent/CN102487621B/en

Links

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for efficiently reducing the continuous cropping obstacles of greenhouse soil, relating to the technical field of high-efficiency facility agricultural cultivation and meaning a technology of applying calcium cyanamide, organic materials, water and the like in soil before crop sowing or transplanting, and performing a soil reaction in a waiting period in an airtight condition to rapidly and efficiently kill pests in the soil, decrease acidification degree, relieve secondary salinization and increase the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer, thereby being capable of efficiently reducing the continuous cropping obstacles of the soil. The method for efficiently reducing the continuous cropping obstacles of greenhouse soil comprises the following steps that: 1) a proper treatment time, wherein soil treatment is performed in the seasons having a daily minimum temperature of not less than 5 DEG C; 2) determination for the dosage of calcium cyanamide, wherein the dosage of calcium cyanamide is usually 20-80 kg in per 667 m<2> of soil; and 3) field operation: (1) broadcasting for organic materials; (2) broadcasting for calcium cyanamide; (3) rotary tillage; (4) furrowing; (5) film coating, water irrigation and sealing; (6) soil reaction; and (7) film opening and airing: after the soil treatment is finished, the film is opened, ventilated or aired, and then crop sowing or transplanting can be performed.

Description

A kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping obstacle
Technical field
What a kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping obstacle of the present invention related to is a kind of efficient installment agriculture growth technical field, refer to crop sowing or transplant in forward direction soil and use nitrolim, organic materials, water etc., soil reaction by certain waiting period in confined conditions, rapidly and efficiently killing harmful bioses in soil, reduce acidizing degree, alleviate secondary salinization, improve utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer, can effectively alleviate the technology of soil continuous cropping obstacle.
Background technology
At present, both at home and abroad the technical measures of prevention and control industrialized agriculture continuous cropping obstacle mainly contain efficent rotation, grafting, to wash salt, microbial control, soil disinfection, application resistant variety etc.Wherein, efficent rotation mode obviously reduces economic benefit, does not meet the demand for development of high-efficiency agriculture; Grafting method subject matter is that cost is high, and has a strong impact on power product quality; Elimination with washing salt technology mainly for secondary salinization, can not eliminating continuous cropping obstacle in the most serious disease problem, cost is also larger; Thereby microbial control by mention Antagonistic Fungi be used for regulate soil microenvironment, suppress harmful microorganism growth and reach the target of preventing and treating soil-borne disease, this technology subject matter is in actual production that environment is restive, Antagonistic Fungi effect is difficult to performance, effect is slow, efficient lower, cost is more high; ,Deng developed country of the soil disinfection Fa Shi Europe, the United States continuous cropping obstacle of large-area applications overcomes technology, and this technology has many effects, efficient height, the advantage such as pollution-free, has also carried out in recent years the popularization in experiment and demonstration and some areas in China.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to provides a kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle for above-mentioned weak point:
The one, solve and become the soil continuous cropping obstacle problem that high-efficiency agriculture develops important restriction bottleneck.Along with the continuous expansion of facility cultivation area and Planting Years increase, soil physical and chemical property deterioration, secondary salinization, soil-borne disease insect pest such as increase the weight of at the Soil-sickness Problem appears suddenly day by day, has affected the sustainable and healthy development of high-efficiency agriculture.At present, become government's care, social concerns, peasant and be badly in need of the difficult point, the focus and emphasis problem that solve.Continuous cropping obstacle is the outward appearance performance of " crop-soil " internal system variant factors exercising result, due to the special environment of facility cultivation, make the microflora of soil that great changes occur, the beneficial microbe such as nitrifying bacteria, ammonification bacteria is suppressed, harmful or pathogenic microorganism is gradually occupied an leading position by ecological succession, some soil can not be grown seedlings again, vertical seedling ability, in the urgent need to applying of this project invention technology.
The 2nd, part solves industrialized agriculture soil nutrient unbalance.According to preliminary investigation, the fertilizing amount of efficient facilities vegetable is generally 4~5 times of land for growing field crops, far away higher than crop demand, and macroelement and secondary and micro-element fertilizers are used imbalance, cause bringing out and lack that K disease is relative with middle trace element to be lacked, crop anti-adversity is poor, and damage by disease and insect happens occasionally, and causes fertilizer, agricultural chemicals use cost to remain high.Owing to partially executing certain nutritive element, cause the antagonism between element, and have influence on the absorption of crop to some element, cause Nutrient Absorption uneven, plant growth is endangered.Many facilities vegetables base boron deficiency phenomenon is serious, and blossom-end rot, top rot, fruit-shrink disease, stem split that disease, fruit are lopsided, colored and unreal etc. to catch someone on the wrong foot.The present invention is conducive to guide peasant's rational application of fertilizer, reduces irrational fertilizing amount, promotes that abridged edition increases income, increasing both production and income and upgrading increase income.
The 3rd, improvement industrialized agriculture soil acidification and salt accumulation present situation.Facilities vegetable cropping index is high, and fertilizing amount is large, and soil acidification trend is obvious, and part soil pH value reaches 4-5, can not adapt to the growth of most of crops.Add that soil can not get the abundant drip washing of rainwater for a long time, cause salinity to be assembled at upper soll layer, secondary salinization phenomenon ubiquity, part soil salts density reaches 3-20 times of common nonirrigated farmland.Soil salt accumulation, the osmotic potential of soil strengthens, and the water suction fertilizer sucting ability of crop root weakens, and growth and development of plants is bad.Meanwhile, soil microbial activity is suppressed, and ammonium nitrogen declines to the conversion rate of nitrate nitrogen, and crop is forced to absorb ammonium nitrogen, and leaf look deepens, and even leaf roll, gives birth to bad.The technology of the present invention can significantly reduce soil acidity, reduces salt accumulation, is conducive to healthy growth of crops.
The 4th, improve soil physical property.The nonactive hole ratio of facility soil reduces relatively, and ventilating permeable is poor, and physical behavior is bad, in the urgent need to by applying organic manure, improves soil organic matter content, improves unit weight, increases transparent performance.
A kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle of the present invention is to take following technical scheme to realize:
A kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle:
1, suitable treatment period
Soil treatment should select carry out the season of day minimum air temperature >=5 ℃, and the summer high temperature period is best.Should be after first crop crop harvesting cleaning, reserved enough reaction and the ventilation airing time, in second stubble crop sowing or before transplanting, carry out.
2, nitrolim consumption determines
Every 667m 2the nitrolim usage amount of (every mu) soil is 20 ㎏~80 ㎏, and concrete consumption should be determined according to soil property, crop species, continuous cropping obstacle degree and required being effective.
3, field operation
(1) spread fertilizer over the fields organic materials: organic materials is pressed to 20 times to 60 times weight of nitrolim usage amount, be evenly spread on soil surface.
(2) spread fertilizer over the fields nitrolim: on organic materials, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields nitrolim.
(3) conpound salto is ploughed: with rotovator, Cultivator or manually organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil, the degree of depth is 20 cm~30cm.
(4) bedding: the high 20cm~30cm of furrow, the wide 60cm~150cm of furrow.
(5) overlay film, pour water and seal: with colorless and transparent film, overlay on furrow face, from film, toward between furrow, pour water, until soil is fully moistening in furrow, soil moisture remains 60%~70%.Fill with after sufficient water, by the sealing of furrow body, soil and the external world are isolated completely.
(6) soil reaction: soil need keep humidity and confined reaction state, during 5~15 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 15~20 days; Nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 20~25 days; Nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 25~30 days.During 15~25 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 10~15 days; Nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 15~20 days; Nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 20~25 days.During 25~30 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 10~12 days; Nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 12~15 days; Nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 15~20 days.
(7) take off film airing: after soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilation or airing can be carried out crop sowing or transplanting after 1~2 day.
When described nitrolim is used for preventing and treating the harm of nematoda soil insect, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 50 ㎏~70 ㎏; While being used for preventing and treating fungi or bacillary soil-borne disease, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 60 ㎏~80 ㎏; While being used for regulating soil acidity or alkalinity, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 20 ㎏~60 ㎏; During as Slowly release nitrogen fertilizer, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 40 ㎏~80 ㎏.
Described organic materials is selected feces of livestock and poultry, stalk, rice husk or Chinese medicine slag etc.
4, safe handling requirement
(1) nitrolim can not topdress or seed manure use.
(2) should wear safety goggles, mouth mask, rubber gloves during soil treatment operation, wear trousers, long sleeves operation clothing and without damaged shoes, after operation, wash one's face and rinse one's mouth immediately.Should guarantee that nitrolim does not directly contact, is not strayed into intraocular, do not eat drink by mistake with skin, situation as above-mentioned in careless generation, should rinse with clear water immediately or soap cleans, and severe patient is sent treatment in time to hospital.
(3) after use nitrolim, 24 hours planted agents forbid to drink alcoholic drink.
(4) nitrolim should be avoided being used in aquaculture field, or avoids making the water that contains nitrolim to flow near aquaculture field.
(5) table of comparisons in nitrolim usage amount, soil temperature and reaction time
Invent a kind of method effect, advantage that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle:
The one, effective facility for prevention and control soil continuous cropping soil obstacle, the control rate in Different Crop reaches 60-100%, average out to 77%.
The 2nd, can efficiently kill soil and pass pest, prevent and treat the soil-borne disease insect pests such as fusarium wilt, damping off, bacterial wilt, verticillium wilt, root neck, stalk break, nematodosis.
The 3rd, be effectively to prevent and treat the physiological disturbances such as root rot, heart rot, top rot, blossom-end rot, abnormal fruit disease.
The 4th, quick composting organic materials, make it to change into good fertilizer, promote soil organic matter content, from improving agricultural product quality.
The 5th, regulate soil acidity or alkalinity, improve soil aggregate, reduce the generation of topsoil salt content, minimizing secondary salinization.
The 6th, can realize nitrogen, phosphorus fertilizer slow release, significantly improve utilization rate of fertilizer, save input, increasing both production and income.
The 7th, to achieve many things at one stroke, effect is remarkable, saving of labor's abridged edition, the mu fertilising cost 120-150 unit that can decline, does not produce any pollution, applied widely.
Embodiment
A kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle:
1, suitable treatment period
Soil treatment should select carry out the season of day minimum air temperature >=5 ℃, and the summer high temperature period is best.Should be after first crop crop harvesting cleaning, reserved enough reaction and the ventilation airing time, in second stubble crop sowing or before transplanting, carry out.
2, nitrolim consumption determines
Common every 667 m 2the nitrolim usage amount of (every mu) soil is 20 ㎏~80 ㎏, and concrete consumption should be determined according to soil property, crop species, continuous cropping obstacle degree and required being effective.
3, field operation
(1) spread fertilizer over the fields organic materials: organic materials is pressed to 20 times to 60 times weight of nitrolim usage amount, be evenly spread on soil surface.
(2) spread fertilizer over the fields nitrolim: on organic materials, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields nitrolim.
(3) conpound salto is ploughed: with rotovator, Cultivator or manually organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil, the degree of depth is 20cm~30cm.
(4) bedding: the high 20cm~30cm of furrow, the wide 60cm~150cm of furrow.
(5) overlay film, pour water and seal: with colorless and transparent film, overlay on furrow face, from film, toward between furrow, pour water, until soil is fully moistening in furrow, soil moisture remains 60%~70%.Fill with after sufficient water, by the sealing of furrow body, soil and the external world are isolated completely.
(6) soil reaction: soil need keep humidity and confined reaction state, during 5~15 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 15~20 days; Nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 20~25 days; Nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 25~30 days.During 15~25 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 10~15 days; Nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 15~20 days; Nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 20~25 days.During 25~30 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 10~12 days; Nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 12~15 days; Nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2(every mu), needs confined reaction 15~20 days.
(7) take off film airing: after soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilation or airing can be carried out crop sowing or transplanting after 1~2 day.
When described nitrolim is used for preventing and treating the harm of nematoda soil insect, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 50 ㎏~70 ㎏; While being used for preventing and treating fungi or bacillary soil-borne disease, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 60 ㎏~80 ㎏; While being used for regulating soil acidity or alkalinity, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 20 ㎏~60 ㎏; During as Slowly release nitrogen fertilizer, consumption is every 667m 2(every mu) soil 40 ㎏~80 ㎏.
Described organic materials is selected feces of livestock and poultry, stalk, rice husk or Chinese medicine slag etc.
the experiment and demonstration of nitrolim on crops
Nitrolim, owing to having certain reasons such as toxic action with other fertilizer property differences intermediate product large, that transform in soil, had once once been difficult to promote.But in recent years, constantly find its multiple special efficacy, as soil disinfection, promote organic matter decomposition, break continuous cropping obstacle etc., make it in agricultural production especially installment agriculture growth Zhong status rising, therefore the scope of application and usage amount are all in rising trend, are called as not only ancient but also novel medicine fertilizer kind.
Nitrolim is a kind of slow-release fertilizer, and long-acting nitrogen can be provided, and improves nitrogen utilization efficiency 8-12%, calcium element is provided, solves plant calcium nutritional deficiency disease, regulate P in soil H, nitrolim is applied more in Japan, New Zealand's agricultural production, and its effect is to improve utilization rate of fertilizer and improvement soil.
In facilities vegetable Tree Precise Fertilization and the technical research of soil toxicity reduction, we have carried out the demonstration of a series of nitrolim application, and this fertilizer Main Ingredients and Appearance is calcium cyanamide (more than 50%), nitrogen content 20%.
1 nitrolim and characteristic thereof
1.1 nitrolim brief introductions: nitrolim formal name used at school calcium cyanamide is to be formed by the calcium carbide (calcium carbide) of melting and nitrogen chemical combination, because containing volume lime, claims again nitrolim.In soil, by the hydrogen ion being adsorbed on soil colloid, substituted, can form free cyanamide, hydrolysis becomes urea, further hydrolysis can become ammonium carbonate, becomes the absorbable nitrogen nutrition of plant, and it is only water-fast fertilizer in many nitrogen manures, and not containing acid group, be a kind of slow effect basic nitrogen fertilizer, fertilizer effectiveness can reach 3-4 month, can reduce the amount of application of other nitrogenous fertilizer, and can supplement the required calcium element of crop, make up the deficiency of calcium element in soil, improve quality of agricultural product, extend storage period.In addition the intermediate product that calcium cyanamide decompose to produce is to the nitrifying bacteria in soil and urea is mould etc. stronger inhibitory action, has improved the availability of nitrogenous fertilizer, can reduce again the content of nitrate nitrogen in vegetables, fruit.Nitrolim also can accelerate the speed of becoming thoroughly decomposed of organic materials, also can be used as organic matter decomposing inoculant and uses.The agrochemical fertilizer that is a kind of nuisanceless, safety and sanitation, noresidue, environment is not polluted.
1.2 use after nitrolim the impact of soil pH, and soil pH value temporarily has a uphill process, and pH rises can reach 1.5-2, after 10 days, substantially remains unchanged.
1.3 is anacidity root manure material on the nitrolim that affects of soil alkali concentration, and nitration reaction is slower, uses rear soil alkali concentration substantially constant, therefore, even if amount of application is larger, is also difficult for plant growth to produce salt concentration obstacle.
The nitrogen transformation characteristic of 1.4 nitrolims is because nitrolim is all converted into NH 4 +need the long period, and its intermediate product can suppress the breeding of nitrifying bacteria, not only make nitrolim itself be converted into nitrate nitrogen slower, the amount that simultaneously also makes other ammoniacal nitrogens in soil transfer nitrate nitrogen to reduces, so make nitrolim have late effect property and long-lasting.
The effect of 2 nitrolims on outdoor vegetable
2.1 materials and methods:
2.1.1 test site is located at Sun Jia village, slab bridge town, Yuhuatai District, for examination soil, is the horse liver soil that Alluvial deposit soil from Yangtze River is grown, and grain changes dish and reached 5 years, and vegetable variety is autumn in summer king's asparagus lettuce.Sowing on asparagus lettuce August 5, processed 1 and executes nitrolim on August 10, transplanted asparagus lettuce, density after two of September 1 processing sealing fertilizers, phosphorus potash fertilizer: 5000 plants/acre.
2.1.2 two processing are established in test altogether, and each processing area is 0.8 mu.Two processing except base manure is used difference, topdress and other management all identical, applying pesticides not.
Process 1: nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus are done base manure fertilising, after executing, plough deeply and bury, build border irrigation water overlay film, sowing or transplant crop (this test is because of continuous low temperature wet weather after applying fertilizer again after 15-20 days, confined reaction was transplanted asparagus lettuce after 20 days), utilize the heat energy of the sun and nitrolim to react with water in soil, make soil temperature increase very soon, and discharge active ingredient cyanamide, utilize the action of contace poison of high temperature and cyanamide to play the effect of sterilization and disinsection.
Process 2: peasant household's conventional fertilizer application contrast.
Table 1 is respectively processed fertilising situation
Note: efficient compound fertilizer N:P 2o 5: K 2o=15:15:15, compoiste fertilizer is 3:2:3, potash fertilizer K 2o% is 60%.
2.1.3 observe and analyze: vegetables, between breeding time, investigating weeds quantity, damage by disease and insect occurrence degree and vegetable growth situation, yield and quality.
2.2 results and analysis:
2.2.1 the impact on output and factor thereof: each is processed and to adopt 40 asparagus lettuces with multidraw method respectively to harvest time, measure that stem is thick, stem is grown, stem heavily etc., and calculating mean value.Result is as follows:
Quality and the output of table 2 different disposal asparagus lettuce
Process Single stem thick (cm) Single stem long (cm) Ye Chong (g/) Single stem heavy (g/)
Nitrolim 16 40 550 550
Conventional fertilizer application 13 38 475 425
Under equal amount of nitrogen level, use nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus and can promote asparagus lettuce to increase thick growth, to compare with conventional fertilizer application, single stem stem is thick, stem is long increases by 23.08%, 5.26% than respectively, and single cauline leaf heavily increases by 15.8%, and single stem heavy (commodity output) increases by 29.4%.That the ratio that Ye Chong and stem are heavy is executed nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus is 1:1, and conventional fertilizer application is 1:0.89, thereby uses nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus and can increase output shared ratio in biomass.
2.2.2 the impact on root system: while gathering, the asparagus lettuce root system of using nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus is long and thick, and size is even, accidental root nodule; The asparagus lettuce root system size of conventional fertilizer application is uneven, and general thin and short, and root nodule is more.
2.2.3 the impact on damage by disease and insect: observe asparagus lettuce disease and weeds in field in vegetative period.The asparagus lettuce stem rot diseased plant rate of using nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus is 1.3%, compared with conventional fertilizer application, reduces 75%; Downy mildew diseased plant rate is 6.1%, compared with conventional fertilizer application, reduces 60.9%, and root knot nematode disease diseased plant rate is 3.5%, compared with conventional fertilizer application, reduces 80.6%.In soil, without root-knot nematode, plant growing way is more prosperous.
2.2.4 the control efficiency to crop smothering: transplant and carry out weeds in field investigation, everywhere Richard 3m for latter 30 days 3, mean value is as table 3.Can find out, the total weeds amount of processing of using nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus is 14/m 2, conventional fertilizer application is treated to 40/m 2, weeds amount reduces 65%.
Table 3 different disposal disease pest and weed situation
Data shows: use nitrolim and process the generating capacity that can reduce cutworm, chafer and soybean capsule nematode, the soil-borne diseases such as control spinach damping off and strawberry fusarium wilt are also had to good effect.Nitrolim is disinfected for plastic shed soil, and the diseases such as damping off, bacterial wilt, club root, gray mold, root nematode are had to remarkable result.
These characteristics and the effect of nitrolim, can greatly reduce the amount of application that vegetables produce Pesticides, for producing pollution-free vegetable, lays a good foundation.
The effect of 3 nitrolims on facilities vegetable
3.1 purpose and meaning
The cultivation of booth facilities protection is the better planting type that improves land utilization rate and economic benefit, and In Nanjing industrialized agriculture area is larger, and the crop rotation of melon dish for many years; soil acidification, harden, cause the crop disease and insects such as vegetables, fruit to occur serious, plant strain growth is suppressed; yield reducation, quality declines.For this reason, our Demonstration Application " nitrolim ", object is facilities protection land soil and sterilization, improves soil acidity or alkalinity, regulates soil physical and chemical property, the insect pest of control soil soil-borne disease.
3.2 materials and methods
3.2.1 be experimental field positioned at Nanjing Vegetable Technology Park, Heng Xi town, soil is sticky loess, and soil physical and chemical property is general, for stubble before examination ground, is greenhouse watermelon.
3.2.2 supply trial product: 20% nitrolim granule.
3.2.3 test area: 5 mu of (16 of standard steelframe booths, nitrolim treatment regions: 4 Mu, check plots: 1 mu).
3.2.4 test is processed: nitrolim is processed, and executes nitrolim 80 ㎏+duck excrement 1600 ㎏ for every mu; Control treatment mu is executed quicklime 75 ㎏+duck excrement 2000 ㎏.Each processing of its control measures of base is consistent.
3.2.5 for studying thing: No. 7 capsicums of river vegetables (3 canopy), Soviet Union green pepper No. 5 (3 canopy), Feng Xiang strawberries (7 canopy).
3.2.6 cultivation management situation:
Nitrolim 80 ㎏/mu+duck excrement 1600 ㎏ were used at August 12 on capsicum ground, confined reaction 25 days, every mu was spread fertilizer over the fields 45% Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 25 ㎏+potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.75 ㎏ and made base manure wholely September 10, field planting on September 12, density 40 ㎝ * 35 ㎝ (every mu of 4500 strains).September 21, mu was executed urea 20 ㎏, every mu of October 12 imposed carbon ammonium 20 ㎏+phosphate fertilizer 30 ㎏.Due to virus disease, epidemic disease occur serious, every about 7 days with viral A, other chemical controls of viral K+ once.
Whole ground on September 16, strawberry ground, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields 45% Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 25 ㎏+potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.75 ㎏ and makes base manure, field planting on September 18, density 20 ㎝ * 30 ㎝ (mu is planted 8500 strains).Every mu of October 12 impose carbon ammonium 20 ㎏+phosphate fertilizer 30 ㎏.
3.3 results and analysis
3.3.1 from soil acidity or alkalinity improvement, soil pH value is measured, and uses nitrolim 80 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region Wei6.2, check plot of 25 days is 5.6, and it is better that treatment region is improved soil soda acid degree effect compared with check plot.
3.3.2 from field growing situation, slightly well, number of results is similar for treatment region capsicum growing way, and root system is more flourishing, and new root is more, and plant strain growth is neat; Larger volume increase advantage, successful from output treatment region, have been compared with check plot.
The output situation of table 4 different disposal and different cultivars capsicum
Soviet Union green pepper is used nitrolim 80 ㎏/mus for No. seven with river vegetables No. five, the confined reaction treatment region of 25 days increases production respectively 13.5% and 10.1%.Strawberry is longer harvest time, and output is not yet qualitative, and just growing way situation is seen at present, use nitrolim 80 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region strawberry of 25 days grows fine, plant regularity is better, fruit integral body is well-balanced, commodity, mouthfeel are all better, and disease resistance is stronger.
3.3.3 use nitrolim 80 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region plant growing way of 25 days is more prosperous, leaf look darker, root system is more.
3.3.4 use nitrolim 80 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region capsicum tip of a root nematodosis of 25 days etc. without generation, damage by disease and insect a situation arises no significant difference.
4 conclusions
The experiment and demonstration of having carried out open country and booth vegetable in In Nanjing shows, uses nitrolim 80 ㎏/mus, confined reaction can improve soil pH value in 25 days, eliminates soil acidification phenomenon, prevents and treats various vegetables disease pest and weed, after using, can obviously improve yield of vegetables.Therefore, in nitrolim Wo city Agricultural product without pollution, be worth large scale application.
the application example of nitrolim on crops
The application example of 1 nitrolim on watermelon
1.1 application site are in Tang Ji village, stone bridge town, Pukou District, 5 mu of areas, and 1 mu of nitrolim treatment region 4 Mu, check plot, soil species is yellowish-white soil, middle fertility, application variety of watermelon is black close No. 8, adopts feeding block seedlings raising.Sowing on April 10, May 21 transplanted, wide 420 ㎝ of moisture in the soil, spacing in the rows 35 ㎝, every mu of 450 strains, July 16 gathered for the first time, the end of gathering July 25.
1.2 nitrolim consumptions and field operation
Nitrolim treatment region: every mu with nitrolim 60 ㎏, cow dung 2000 ㎏, superphosphate 50 ㎏, potassium chloride 20 ㎏, transplant and with rotovator, organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil for first 30 days, and the degree of depth is 25 cm.Water permeable rear also with plastic mulching 15 days.After soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilate or airing laggard row crop transplanting in 1 day.
Check plot: conventional fertilizer application is processed every mu with cow dung 2000 ㎏, urea 24.8 ㎏, superphosphate 50 ㎏, potassium chloride 20 ㎏, transplant and with rotovator, organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil for first 30 days, and the degree of depth is 25 cm.Water permeable rear also with plastic mulching 15 days.After soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilate or the laggard row crop transplanting of airing 1d.
1.3 cultivation step
2 treatment regions are except base manure difference, and other cultivation step is identical, and preventing disease pest control, cultivation uproot etc. all carries out routinely.May 21 transplanted, and went out every mu of urea of climing fertilizer 7.5 ㎏, and fertile every mu of urea 10 ㎏ of Fruit, containing amounting to (containing fertilizer) every mu of purity nitrogen 25.8 ㎏, phosphorus pentoxide 7 ㎏, potassium oxide 12 ㎏ breeding time.
1.4 results and analysis
1.4.1 from field growing situation, the growing way of using nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region watermelon of 15 days is better than check plot, show as growth potential strong, the neat leaf color depth of growing, later stage of particularly growing shows obvious difference, check plot leaf look light, shows early ageing, and nitrolim treatment region is still keeping growing way preferably.
1.4.2 a situation arises for disease, and according to field investigation, administrations nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region fusarium wilt of 15 days and anthracnose are obviously lighter than check plot.Investigation on June 23 nitrolim treatment region, blight diseased plant rate is 2.3%, anthracnose diseased plant rate is 4.5%, reduces 74.2% and 72.9% respectively than 8.9% and 16.6% of check plot.
1.4.3 the impact on output: output is investigated result and used nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, confined reaction treatment region average theory per mu yield 3072.7 ㎏ of 15 days, than check plot 2796 ㎏, volume increase 9.9%, the average every mu of 2716 ㎏,Bi check plot 2497 ㎏ volume increase 8.77% of effective yield nitrolim treatment region.(in Table one)
(table one) output situation investigation table
1.5 conclusion
This demonstration shows, use nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, confined reaction is applied for 15 days on watermelon, can effectively alleviate watermelon disease and continuous cropping obstacle, increase the yield of watermelon, promote watermelon fruit shape neat and consistent, improve commodity rate, improve the economic benefit of growth of watermelon, be expected to become the another new way of growth of watermelon increasing both production and income.
2 nitrolims application example on tomato
2.1 application site are in great Lin village, Jiangpu street, Pukou District, 10 mu of areas, and 2 mu of nitrolim treatment region 8 Mu, check plots, soil fertility is medium.
2.2 nitrolim consumptions and field operation
Nitrolim treatment region: every mu with nitrolim 60 ㎏, fresh cow dung 3600 ㎏, execute straight fertilizer after field planting, sow first 30 days and with rotovator, organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil, and the degree of depth is 30 cm.Water permeable rear also with plastic mulching 15 days.After soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilate or airing laggard row crop transplanting in 1 day.
Check plot: conventional fertilizer application is processed every mu with cow dung 4000 ㎏, executes straight fertilizer after field planting, and field planting is ploughed under organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles in soil with rotovator for first 30 days, and the degree of depth is 25 cm.Water permeable rear also with plastic mulching 15 days.After soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilate or airing laggard row crop transplanting in 1 day.
2.3 cultivation step
2 treatment regions are except base manure difference, and other cultivation step is identical, and preventing disease pest control, cultivation uproot etc. all carries out routinely.
2.4 results and analysis
2.4.1 from field growing situation, the growing way of using nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region tomato of 15 days is better than check plot, show as growth potential strong, the neat leaf color depth of growing, later stage of particularly growing shows obvious difference, check plot leaf look light, shows early ageing, and nitrolim treatment region is still keeping growing way preferably.
2.4.2 a situation arises for disease, according to field investigation, uses nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region of 15 days compared with check plot soil organic matter increase by 60%, and nematode number reduces 87%, and the plant incidence of disease reduces 70%, and plant height increases by 11%.
2.4.3 the impact on output: output is investigated result, use nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region average theory per mu yield of 15 days 4232 ㎏,Bi check plot 3723 ㎏, increase production 13.7%, the average every mu of 4066 ㎏,Bi check plot 3507 ㎏ volume increase 15.9% of effective yield nitrolim treatment region.
2.5 conclusion
This demonstration shows, use nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, confined reaction is applied for 15 days on tomato, can effectively alleviate tomato disease and continuous cropping obstacle, increase tomato yield, promote tomato fruit shape neat and consistent, improve commodity rate, improve the economic benefit of tomato planting, be expected to become the another new way of tomato planting increasing both production and income.
3 nitrolims application example on green pepper
3.1 application site are in great Lin village, Jiangpu street, Pukou District, 6 mu of areas, and 1 mu of nitrolim treatment region 5 Mu, check plot, soil fertility is medium.
3.2 nitrolim consumptions and field operation
Nitrolim treatment region: every mu with nitrolim 60 ㎏, fresh cow dung 2000 ㎏, execute straight fertilizer after field planting, sow first 30 days and with rotovator, organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil, and the degree of depth is 20cm.Water permeable rear also with plastic mulching 16 days.After soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilate or airing laggard row crop transplanting in 1 day.
Check plot: conventional fertilizer application is processed every mu with cow dung 2000 ㎏, executes straight fertilizer after field planting, sows first 30 days and with rotovator, organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles is ploughed under in soil, and the degree of depth is 20 cm.Water permeable rear also with plastic mulching 16 days.After soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilate or airing laggard row crop transplanting in 1 day.
3.3 cultivation step
2 treatment regions are except base manure difference, and other cultivation step is identical, and preventing disease pest control, cultivation uproot etc. all carries out routinely.
3.4 results and analysis
3.4.1 from field growing situation, the growing way of using nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region green pepper of 16 days is better than check plot, show as growth potential strong, the neat leaf color depth of growing, later stage of particularly growing shows obvious difference, check plot leaf look light, shows early ageing, and nitrolim treatment region is still keeping growing way preferably.
3.4.2 a situation arises for disease, according to field investigation, uses nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region of 16 days compared with check plot soil organic matter increase by 43%, and nematode number reduces 93%, and the plant incidence of disease reduces 62%, and plant height increases by 11%.
3.4.3 the impact on output: output is investigated result, use nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, the confined reaction treatment region average theory per mu yield of 16 days 3075 ㎏,Bi check plot 2812 ㎏, increase production 9.4%, the average every mu of 2908 ㎏,Bi check plot 2684 ㎏ volume increase 8.4% of effective yield nitrolim treatment region.
3.5 conclusion
This demonstration shows, use nitrolim 60 ㎏/mus, confined reaction is applied for 16 days on green pepper, can effectively alleviate green pepper disease and continuous cropping obstacle, increase green pepper output, promote green pepper fruit shape neat and consistent, improve commodity rate, improve the economic benefit of green pepper plantation, be expected to become the another new way of green pepper plantation increasing both production and income.

Claims (3)

1. a method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle, is characterized in that:
1) suitable treatment period
Soil treatment should select carry out the season of day minimum air temperature >=5 ℃, should be after first crop crop harvesting cleaning, reserved enough reaction and the ventilation airing time, in second stubble crop sowing or before transplanting, carry out;
2) nitrolim consumption determines
Concrete consumption should be determined according to soil property, crop species, continuous cropping obstacle degree and required being effective, every 667m 2the nitrolim usage amount of soil is 20 ㎏~80 ㎏;
3) field operation
(1) spread fertilizer over the fields organic materials: organic materials is pressed to 20 times to 60 times weight of nitrolim usage amount, be evenly spread on soil surface;
(2) spread fertilizer over the fields nitrolim: on organic materials, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields nitrolim;
(3) conpound salto is ploughed: with rotovator, Cultivator or manually organic matter and nitrolim uniform particles are ploughed under in soil, the degree of depth is 20cm~30cm;
(4) bedding: the high 20cm~30cm of furrow, the wide 60cm~150cm of furrow;
(5) overlay film, pour water and seal: with colorless and transparent film, overlay on furrow face, from film, toward between furrow, pour water, until soil is fully moistening in furrow, soil moisture remains 60%~70%, fills with after sufficient water, by the sealing of furrow body, soil and the external world is isolated completely;
(6) soil reaction: soil need keep humidity and confined reaction state, during 5~15 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 15~20 days, nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 20~25 days, nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 25~30 days; During 15~25 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 10~15 days, nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 15~20 days, nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 20~25 days; During 25~30 ℃ of soil temperature, nitrolim usage amount 20~30 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 10~12 days, nitrolim usage amount 30~40 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 12~15 days, nitrolim usage amount 50~80 ㎏/667m 2, need confined reaction 15~20 days;
(7) take off film airing: after soil treatment completes, take off film, ventilation or airing can be carried out crop sowing or transplanting after 1~2 day.
2. a kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle according to claim 1, is characterized in that:
When described nitrolim is used for preventing and treating the harm of nematoda soil insect, consumption is every 667m 2soil 50 ㎏~70 ㎏; While being used for preventing and treating fungi or bacillary soil-borne disease, consumption is every 667m 2soil 60 ㎏~80 ㎏; While being used for regulating soil acidity or alkalinity, consumption is every 667m 2soil 20 ㎏~60 ㎏; During as Slowly release nitrogen fertilizer, consumption is every 667m 2soil 40 ㎏~80 ㎏.
3. a kind of method that effectively alleviates facility soil continuous cropping soil obstacle according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described organic materials is selected feces of livestock and poultry, stalk, rice husk or Chinese medicine slag.
CN201110356278.9A 2011-11-11 2011-11-11 Method for efficiently reducing continuous cropping obstacles of facility soil CN102487621B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201110356278.9A CN102487621B (en) 2011-11-11 2011-11-11 Method for efficiently reducing continuous cropping obstacles of facility soil

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201110356278.9A CN102487621B (en) 2011-11-11 2011-11-11 Method for efficiently reducing continuous cropping obstacles of facility soil

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN102487621A CN102487621A (en) 2012-06-13
CN102487621B true CN102487621B (en) 2014-01-15

Family

ID=46179540

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201110356278.9A CN102487621B (en) 2011-11-11 2011-11-11 Method for efficiently reducing continuous cropping obstacles of facility soil

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN102487621B (en)

Families Citing this family (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104782261A (en) * 2014-02-13 2015-07-22 江苏省农业科学院 Method for improving greenhouse strawberry continuous cropping soil
CN103907422A (en) * 2014-03-27 2014-07-09 辽宁省农业科学院 Cultivation method for solving continuous cropping obstacles in protected agriculture
CN104145551A (en) * 2014-07-31 2014-11-19 上海市农业技术推广服务中心 Method for improving soil with asparagus succession cropping obstacles
CN105875125A (en) * 2014-12-15 2016-08-24 唐立华 Papaya field continuous cropping multiplication method
CN105284415B (en) * 2015-12-07 2017-12-08 江苏沿江地区农业科学研究所 Slow down the implantation methods of greenhouse strawberry continuous cropping obstacle
CN105541489A (en) * 2016-01-22 2016-05-04 河北农业大学 Preparation method for organic fertilizer for preventing and treating secondary salinization of solar greenhouse vegetable field
CN106995320A (en) * 2016-01-25 2017-08-01 宁夏大荣化工冶金有限公司 Modified form partile cyanamid prevents and treats the method and purposes of tomato blossom-end rot and dehiscent fruit
CN106995318A (en) * 2016-01-25 2017-08-01 宁夏大荣化工冶金有限公司 A kind of lime nitrogen increase rice tillering, the method and purposes for improving yield
CN106995346A (en) * 2016-01-25 2017-08-01 宁夏大荣化工冶金有限公司 A kind of method of modified nitrolim preventing and treating tomato root-knot nematode and application thereof
CN106995334A (en) * 2016-01-25 2017-08-01 宁夏大荣化工冶金有限公司 A kind of medicine fertilizer composition prevents and treats the method and purposes of potato scab
CN106083276A (en) * 2016-05-27 2016-11-09 句容市农业技术推广中心 A kind of Fructus Fragariae Ananssae fertilizer drug composition and preparation method thereof
CN106034461A (en) * 2016-07-11 2016-10-26 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Method for improving soil of saline alkali land through vinegar production waste residues
CN106105467A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-11-16 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A kind of desulfurated plaster combines the method for animal wastes improvement alkaline land soil
CN107417356A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-12-01 河北农业大学 A kind of preparation method of with the solving continuous cropping strawberry combined type organic fertilizer of soil swelling-shrinkage
CN107297388B (en) * 2017-08-09 2018-03-16 上海乾界生物科技有限公司 A kind of soil microenvironment restorative procedure for eliminating continuous cropping obstacle
CN108702909A (en) * 2018-03-10 2018-10-26 湖南农业大学 A kind of Hunan south late rice high-yield and high-efficiency fertilizing method
CN108811578A (en) * 2018-05-21 2018-11-16 云南农业大学 A kind of facility operation continuous cropping obstacle release method
CN108990739A (en) * 2018-07-25 2018-12-14 黔西南州贵隆农业发展有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of pueraria lobata continuous cropping
CN110804442A (en) * 2019-11-05 2020-02-18 浙江省农业科学院 Ecological restoration method and restoration agent for soil with facility economic crop planting obstacle

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101074178A (en) * 2007-06-21 2007-11-21 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 Method for manuring protecting-land gree vegetable straw substrate soiless cultivation
CN101089121A (en) * 2006-06-16 2007-12-19 河南农业大学 Application of whiterof fungus prepn in improving the continuous cropping performance of soil
CN101278611A (en) * 2008-05-06 2008-10-08 江苏丘陵地区镇江农业科学研究所 Method for treating greenhouse strawberry continuous cropping field soil
CN101595794A (en) * 2009-06-30 2009-12-09 东北农业大学 A kind of ecological cultivation method that overcomes continuous cropping obstacle of watermelon

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101089121A (en) * 2006-06-16 2007-12-19 河南农业大学 Application of whiterof fungus prepn in improving the continuous cropping performance of soil
CN101074178A (en) * 2007-06-21 2007-11-21 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 Method for manuring protecting-land gree vegetable straw substrate soiless cultivation
CN101278611A (en) * 2008-05-06 2008-10-08 江苏丘陵地区镇江农业科学研究所 Method for treating greenhouse strawberry continuous cropping field soil
CN101595794A (en) * 2009-06-30 2009-12-09 东北农业大学 A kind of ecological cultivation method that overcomes continuous cropping obstacle of watermelon

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN102487621A (en) 2012-06-13

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN103875494B (en) Two season super hybridization rice standardized planting method
CN103283557B (en) Grape planting technique
CN102845270B (en) Organic rice cultivation method
CN104335860B (en) A kind of direct-sowing dry rice high yield efficiency cultivation technology for high
CN104885611B (en) Method for improving soil saline alkali
CN101548635B (en) Rice cropping method
CN103004449B (en) Cultivation and management method of organic cotton
RU2621025C2 (en) Method for recovery and improvement of soil fertility, especially in desert and semi-desert agricultural regions
CN103988685B (en) A kind of high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich peanuts
CN104381064A (en) Paddy rice planting method
CN101292615B (en) Method for growing nuisance free selenium-rich rice by using biological technique
CN103271095B (en) Composite microbial agent for preventing and treating fruit tree replant disease and disease prevention method thereof
CN105935020A (en) Plantation method of millettia speciosa champ
CN103238447A (en) High-quality high-efficiency high-yield blueberry cultivation method
CN104429751B (en) Organic selenium-enrichment rice planting method
CN103688812A (en) Planting method of organic paddy rice
CN103380690B (en) Method for planting corn
CN103265377B (en) Efficient microbial agent for resisting insects, preventing diseases, increasing fertility and promoting growth
CN106818174B (en) A kind of wheat and Chinese milk vetch mixed seeding make altogether and the organic implantation methods of crops with the two crops a year of rice crop rotation
CN104429581B (en) A kind of Organic tomato health cultural method
CN105104044A (en) Planting method for organic rice in mountainous area
CN102960168A (en) Method for cultivating hybrid rice
CN106105930A (en) The rice cultivating method of double season mechanization straw incorporations
CN102326486A (en) Planting technology of purple sweet potatoes
CN107353164A (en) A kind of fermented type charcoal base biological organic fertilizer and preparation method thereof

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
C14 Grant of patent or utility model
GR01 Patent grant
C56 Change in the name or address of the patentee

Owner name: NANJING PROTECTION STATION OF FARMLAND QUALITY

Free format text: FORMER NAME: NANJING SOIL AND FERTILIZER STATION

CP01 Change in the name or title of a patent holder

Address after: 1210, room 169, agricultural science and technology building, 210036 Hanzhoung Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Patentee after: Nanjing cultivated land quality protection station

Patentee after: Nanjing Jiangning District Agriculture Bureau

Address before: 1210, room 169, agricultural science and technology building, 210036 Hanzhoung Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Patentee before: Nanjing Soil Fertilizer Station

Patentee before: Nanjing Jiangning District Agriculture Bureau

CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20140115

Termination date: 20171111