CN108575834A - A kind of method handling surface water and the method for preventing sea eel ich - Google Patents

A kind of method handling surface water and the method for preventing sea eel ich Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108575834A
CN108575834A CN201810318965.3A CN201810318965A CN108575834A CN 108575834 A CN108575834 A CN 108575834A CN 201810318965 A CN201810318965 A CN 201810318965A CN 108575834 A CN108575834 A CN 108575834A
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water
eel
ich
filter
sea eel
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翟少伟
林茂苍
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Jimei University
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Jimei University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • A01K61/13Prevention or treatment of fish diseases
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D36/00Filter circuits or combinations of filters with other separating devices
    • B01D36/04Combinations of filters with settling tanks
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention belongs to water treatment fields, disclose a kind of method handling surface water and the method for preventing sea eel ich.The method of the processing surface water includes that pending surface water is filtered processing and precipitation process to remove the solid content in surface water successively, and gained surface water is then carried out stewing process at least 48 hours.After being handled surface water using this method, sea eel ich, great application prospect can be effectively prevented without using drug therapy.

Description

A kind of method handling surface water and the method for preventing sea eel ich
Technical field
The invention belongs to water treatment fields, and in particular to a kind of method and prevention sea eel ich of processing surface water Method.
Background technology
Ich distributed pole is wide, has generation or prevalence, the fish in each freshwater aquiculture area of China to have this all over the world It is sick popular.The breeding of small melonworm is 15-25 DEG C suitable for water temperature, is generally popular in early winter, late spring.Since eel culture is taken manually Heating and Insulation, thus epidemic season is widely current from early winter to early summer.Small melonworm is propagated by cyst and larva, in height Under conditions of density intensive culture, it is easier to break out.Sea eel ich is by ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ichthyophthirius Multifiliis) parasitize and cause on the body surface and the gill of sea eel, especially elver, typical symptom be formed in fish body table it is white Point (so being called " ichthyophthirius ") can cause tissue inflammation, necrosis at parasitism, polypide surface to cover one layer of white slimy;The gill is posted It is raw and to have bleeding in addition to tissue inflammation, make the disease fish gill be in kermesinus, the gill of sick eel, body surface, visible many white points on fin. Sick eel epidermal mucus increases, and anorexia, fish body is become thin, and travelling is blunt, often bubbles through the water column or lean on pool side.A large amount of parasitisms can make children Eel is lethal.Suitable for the growth and breeding of small melonworm when 15-25 DEG C of water temperature, the less appearance of when high temperature or low temperature.Body surface is parasitic tight The disease eel death rate is even up to 80% or more when weight.
Therefore, the disease is very big to the harm of sea eel, and to control the disease must carry out diagnoses and treatment early, could effectively control The state of an illness is spread, and reduces loss.Currently, ich is also had without safely and effectively medicine, and using conventional medication There is no thoroughness, and greatly there may be the risks of medicament residue.Therefore, it is especially important to prevent ich, until skin is posted Raw a large amount of small melonworms are difficult to treat.Surface water is the main water source of mountain area cultivation sea eel, and in the epidemic season of ich It is easier to occur than well water.
Invention content
The purpose of the invention is to overcome to use conventional medication ich with no thoroughness and with greatly There may be the defects of medicament residue, and provide a kind of method of processing surface water newly and prevent the side of sea eel ich Method.
Specifically, the method for processing surface water provided by the invention includes that pending surface water is filtered place successively Gained surface water is then carried out stewing process at least 48 hours by reason and precipitation process to remove the solid content in surface water.
The method of prevention sea eel ich provided by the invention includes handling the ground obtained later using through the above method Table water is as water used by raising sea eel.
The present inventor has found after further investigation, by being filtered, precipitating successively by surface water and quiet The small melonworm ovum that can effectively kill after this complementary processing in water body is set, without using drug therapy and processing Just sea eel ich can be effectively prevented, especially suitable for preventing the hair of ich during mountain area stream cultivates sea eel Raw, practicality easy to operate is significant to the safety and economic benefit that improve eel culture.
In addition, present inventors discovered unexpectedly that, the surface water that annual November to second year collects May is through upper The small melonworm ovum that can be more effectively killed after method is handled in water body is stated, to more effectively prevent the hair of sea eel ich It is raw.
Specific implementation mode
The method of processing surface water provided by the invention includes that pending surface water is filtered to processing successively and is sunk Processing form sediment to remove the solid content in surface water, gained surface water is then subjected to stewing process at least 48 hours.
In the present invention, the time of the stewing process is preferably 48-96 hours, more preferably 72-84 hours.
In the present invention, term " solid content " includes that all are not soluble in water for silt, weeds, branch, leaf, small fish etc. Solid matter.
According to the present invention, filter generally includes filter layer used by the filtration treatment.Preferably, the filter layer For by sand and stone according to 1:The sand stone layer of the weight ratio mixing composition of (2-4).Wherein, the sand can be selected from sea sand, Damp sand, river sand, drift-sand, artificial husky, regeneration sand etc..The stone can be cobblestone, sand product stone, gravel etc..In addition, The diameter of the sand is preferably 6-12 mesh.The diameter of the stone is preferably 3-5cm.It should be noted that in the present invention, When sand and stone it is in irregular shape when, what the diameter referred to is section maximum gauge.In addition, the thickness of the filter layer Preferably 50-100cm.
A preferred embodiment of the invention, the filter further include the strainer that average pore size is 6-12 mesh Layer, at this point, during the filtration treatment, surface water is preferentially contacted with the filter mesh layer.Wherein, the filter mesh layer and mistake Filtering layer can contact setting (being directly arranged at filtering layer surface), non-contact can also be arranged.The filter mesh layer is mainly used for Filtering floats on weeds, the leaf of the water surface, especially small fish etc..
In the present invention, term " precipitation process " refers to using the different specific weight of solid content and water in surface water, by weight Power settlement action, standing makes solid content sink to a kind of water-bed processing mode.Wherein, it is solid that promotion can be added in the precipitation process The reagent of shape object sedimentation, can also be not added with, and from cost-effective and from the point of view of avoiding water body from being secondary polluted, preferably be not added with Enter reagent.In addition, the precipitation process can carry out in the same sedimentation basin, can also be carried out in multiple sedimentation basins, it is excellent Selection of land, the method for the precipitation process include being introduced into the first sedimentation basin to precipitate after filtering pending surface water, it After be re-introduced into the second sedimentation basin and precipitated, wherein the first sedimentation basin primarily serves cushioning effect, by some in surface water Solid content (mainly silt) precipitates, and the second sedimentation basin mainly makes most of proportion in water body heavy more than the solid content of water Get off in shallow lake.In addition, the time of precipitation process is can remove solid content substantially in the first sedimentation basin and the second sedimentation basin Standard can know this those skilled in the art therefore not to repeat here.It was found by the inventors of the present invention that using this preferred Precipitation process mode can shorten the time of precipitation process to improve efficiency.
There is no particular limitation for type of the present invention to the pending surface water, includes mainly that top is all Dynamic and static fresh water, for example, can be reservoir water, mountain stream water, river water etc..A preferred embodiment of the invention, The pending surface water is collected May in annual November to second year, as described above, the earth's surface that this season is collected Water is handled using method provided by the invention, the small melonworm ovum in water body can be more effectively killed, to be more advantageous to Prevent the generation of sea eel ich.
A preferred embodiment of the invention, the filtration treatment and precipitation process carry out in cistern, This method further includes the empty water storage using quick lime to pending surface water before carrying out the filtration treatment and precipitation process Pond carries out disinfection processing.During described disinfect, the dosage of the corresponding quick lime of empty cistern is preferably per acre 100-200kg.In addition, in order to enable quick lime preferably plays bactericidal activity, it most preferably, will after quick lime is added Empty cistern uses after being exposed to the sun under burning sun 1-2 weeks.
In addition, the present invention also provides a kind of methods of prevention sea eel ich, wherein water used by raising sea eel To handle the surface water obtained later through the above method.
Below with reference to embodiment, the invention will be further described, in the examples where no specific technique or condition is specified, It is carried out according to technology or condition described in document in the art or according to product description.Agents useful for same or instrument are not noted Bright production firm person, being can be with conventional products that are commercially available.
Embodiment 1
(1) mountain stream water (collection on November 1st, 2016) is introduced to three length × width × heights successively is respectively:3 meters × 3 meters × 2 meters, in 3 meters × 2 meters × 2,3 meters × 1 meter × 2 meters of cement pit.Wherein, first cement pit is filtering ponds, and bottom is served as reasons Coarse sand (a diameter of 6-12 mesh) and cobblestone (a diameter of 3-5cm) are according to 1:The thickness that 2 weight ratio mixes is 50cm's Filter layer, top are provided with the plastic wire that aperture is 6 mesh.Second cement pit and third cement pit are sedimentation basin, are played again Secondary precipitation is to remove the solid content in water body.
(1) filtered water body is introduced into the cistern that 3.5 meters deep, area is 15 mu after standing 48 hours and is used.
Embodiment 2
(1) mountain stream water (collecting on 2 1st, 2017) is introduced three length × width × heights successively is respectively:3 meters × 3 meters × 2 In rice, 3 meters × 2 meters × 2,3 meters × 1 meter × 2 meters of cement pit.Wherein, first cement pit is filtering ponds, and bottom is by thick Sand (a diameter of 6-12 mesh) and cobblestone (a diameter of 3-5cm) are according to 1:The thickness that 3 weight ratio mixes is the mistake of 60cm Filtering layer, top are provided with the plastic wire that aperture is 8 mesh.Second cement pit and third cement pit are sedimentation basin, are played again Precipitation is to remove the solid content in water body.
(2) filtered water body is introduced into the cistern that 3 meters deep, area is 15 mu after standing 60 hours and is used.
Embodiment 3
(1) mountain stream water (collection on March 1st, 2017) is introduced to three length × width × heights successively is respectively:3 meters × 3 meters × 2 In rice, 3 meters × 2 meters × 2,3 meters × 1 meter × 2 meters of cement pit.Wherein, first cement pit is filtering ponds, and bottom is by thick Sand (a diameter of 6-12 mesh) and cobblestone (a diameter of 3-5cm) are according to 1:The thickness that 3 weight ratio mixes is the mistake of 80cm Filtering layer, top are provided with the plastic wire that aperture is 10 mesh.Second cement pit and third cement pit are sedimentation basin, are played again Precipitation is to remove the solid content in water body.
(2) filtered water body is introduced into the cistern that 2.5 meters deep, area is 15 mu after standing 72 hours and is used.
Embodiment 4
(1) mountain stream water (in May, 2017 collection) is introduced to three length × width × heights successively is respectively:3 meters × 3 meters × 2 In rice, 3 meters × 2 meters × 2,3 meters × 1 meter × 2 meters of cement pit.Wherein, first cement pit is filtering ponds, and bottom is by thick Sand (a diameter of 6-12 mesh) and cobblestone (a diameter of 3-5cm) are according to 1:The thickness that 2 weight ratio mixes is the mistake of 100cm Filtering layer, top are provided with the plastic wire that aperture is 12 mesh.Second cement pit and third cement pit are sedimentation basin, are played again Precipitation is to remove the solid content in water body.
(2) filtered water body is introduced into the cistern that 2 meters deep, area is 15 mu after standing 96 hours and is used.
Comparative example 1
Mountain stream water is handled according to the method for embodiment 1, unlike, time of repose is 24 hours in step (2).
The using effect of the present invention is as follows:
1 materials and methods
1.1 experimental animals and grouping situation
Test Contrast on effect of the different disposal water source method in America common eel cultivates at eel
Experimental animal be America common eel at eel, the intensive culture pond for by 8 open areas being 225 square metres is randomly divided into two groups, That is conventional treatment water source group (only removing the sundries such as branch leaf, small fish in water with filter screen) and Ecological Disposal water source group (this The mountain stream water that the method for inventive embodiments 1 is handled), every group of 4 repetitions.America common eel exists at specification, throwing seedling amount of eel etc. Statistically without significant difference (P>0.05).The eel growth of cereal crop seedlings condition that every mouthful of pond is launched is shown in Table 1.Experimental period is 12 weeks, November 7 in 2016 Day was on 2 5th, 2017.
The American eel of the different water source processing groups of table 1 throws seedling and the situation that feeds intake at eel
Note:Total amount of feeding refers to that the total weight that feed feeds intake during eel culture, following table are same in table 1.
Test two different disposal water source methods the continents U.S. Man Yu son's eel seedling cultivation in Contrast on effect
Experimental animal be the continents U.S. Man Yu son's eel seedling, the intensive culture pond for by 8 open areas being 169 square metres is randomly divided into two Group, i.e. conventional treatment water source group (only removing the sundries such as branch leaf, small fish in water with filter screen) and Ecological Disposal water source group (the mountain stream water handled by the method for the embodiment of the present invention 2), every group of four repetitions.The continents U.S. Man Yu son eel specification, throw Seedling amount etc. is statistically without significant difference (P>0.05).The eel growth of cereal crop seedlings condition that every mouthful of pond is launched is shown in Table 2.Experimental period be 6 weeks, 2017 2 months on March 16th, 3 days 1 of year.
The black young eel of American eel of the different water source processing groups of table 2 throws seedling and the situation that feeds intake
Test Contrast on effect of the three different disposal water source methods in the cultivation of American eel elver seedling
Experimental animal is American eel elver seedling, and the intensive culture pond for by 8 open areas being 225 square metres is randomly divided into two Group, i.e. conventional treatment water source group (only removing the sundries such as branch leaf in water with filter screen) and Ecological Disposal water source group are (by this hair The mountain stream water that the method for bright embodiment 3 is handled), every group of four repetitions.Specification, throwing seedling amount of American eel elver etc. are being united Meter is learned without significant difference (P>0.05).The eel growth of cereal crop seedlings condition that every mouthful of pond is launched is shown in Table 3.Experimental period is 6 weeks, on March 19th, 2017 To on April 29th, 2017.
The American eel elver of the different water source processing groups of table 3 throws seedling and the situation that feeds intake
Test Contrast on effect of the four different disposal water source methods in America common eel cultivates at eel
Experimental animal be America common eel at eel, the intensive culture pond for by 8 open areas being 289 square metres is randomly divided into two groups, I.e. conventional treatment water source group (only removing the sundries such as branch leaf, small fish in water with filter screen) and Ecological Disposal water source group (by The mountain stream water that the method for comparative example 1 is handled), every group of 4 repetitions.America common eel is counting at specification, the throwing seedling amount etc. of eel Without significant difference (P on learning>0.05).The eel growth of cereal crop seedlings condition that every mouthful of pond is launched is shown in Table 4.Experimental period is 12 weeks, and on November 7th, 2016 is extremely On 2 5th, 2017.
The American eel of the different water source processing groups of table 4 throws seedling and the situation that feeds intake at eel
1.2 feeding management
U.S.'s continent eel fish son eel seedling is matched according to the son eel sea eel powdery of Foochow Fenghua aquatic feeds Co., Ltd life production Conjunction feed illustrates to be fed.American eel seedling uses sea eel according to the elver that Foochow Fenghua aquatic feeds Co., Ltd produces Powdery compound feed illustrates to be fed.American eel at eel according to Foochow Fenghua aquatic feeds Co., Ltd produce at eel Illustrate to be fed with sea eel powdery compound feed.
Take the circumstances into consideration to increase and decrease according to sea eel upgrowth situation, water quality situation, desinsection, appetite and Changes in weather situation during experiment and feed Amount, and recorded.Test tank depth of water 0.9m or so is often equipped with two aerators in pond, for 24 hours uninterrupted oxygen supply, using semi-fluid The breeding way of water.Water quality is detected weekly, it is made to maintain pH value 6.6-7.2, nitrite nitrogen 0.03-0.06mg/L, is dissolved Oxygen 4.1-6.3mg/L, ammonia nitrogen 0.3-0.7mg/L.
1.3 testing indexs and method
Rate of body weight gain (%)=(the first sea eel gross weight of experiment end of term sea eel gross weight-experiment)/(testing initial sea eel gross weight) × 100%
Feed efficiency (%)=(the first sea eel gross weight of experiment end of term sea eel gross weight-experiment)/(experimental period inventory) × 100%
The death rate (%)=(first sea eel quantity-experiment end of term sea eel quantity of experiment)/(the first sea eel quantity of experiment) × 100%
Small melonworm infection rate (%)=(the first sea eel quantity of the small melonworm sea eel quantity/experiment of infection in experimental period) × 100%
Wherein, sea eel gross weight unit is the ponds kg/, and sea eel unit of quantity is tail/pond.
1.4 data statistic analysis
All data are first arranged with Excel, are as a result indicated with mean+SD.Wherein, rate of body weight gain, feed effect The indexs such as rate, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate are after arcsine transformed, then with the independent sample T of 17.0 statistical softwares of SPSS Inspection module is for statistical analysis, level of signifiance P<0.05.
2 results
2.1 different water source processing are shown in Table American eel at the influence of eel growth performance, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate 5, wherein it is the data of embodiment 1 that table 5 is corresponding.
From the results shown in Table 5, the rate of body weight gain for the Ecological Disposal water source group that method using the present invention obtains and feeding Material efficiency is significantly higher than conventional treatment water source group (P<0.05), the death rate and small melonworm infection rate are substantially less than conventional treatment water source Group (P<0.05).It is worth noting that, Ecological Disposal water source group occurs without ich in this experiment.
The American eel of the different water source processing groups of table 5 is at eel growth performance, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate situation
Project Conventional treatment water source group Ecological Disposal water source group
Rate of body weight gain, % 20.6±3.2a 32.3±2.5b
Feed efficiency, % 35.4±4.7a 52.3±1.9b
The death rate, % 2.3±0.4a 0.1±0.01b
Small melonworm incidence, % 39.3±2.3a 0b
Cultivation density, tail/square metre 76.3±21.7 81.2±18.9
Note:Data are indicated with mean+SD (SD) in table 5, and the different letter persons of colleague's data shoulder mark indicate that difference is aobvious It writes, P<0.05.Following table is same.
The influence of 2.2 different water source processing black to American eel young eel growth performances, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate is shown in Table 6, wherein it is the data of embodiment 2 that table 6 is corresponding.
From the results shown in Table 6, the rate of body weight gain for the Ecological Disposal water source group that method using the present invention obtains and feeding Material efficiency is significantly higher than conventional treatment water source group (P<0.05), the death rate and small melonworm infection rate are substantially less than conventional treatment water source Group (P<0.05).It is worth noting that, group small melonworm infection rate in Ecological Disposal water source is extremely low in this experiment.
The black young eel growth performance of American eel, the death rate and the small melonworm infection rate situation of the different water source processing groups of table 6
Project Conventional treatment water source group Ecological Disposal water source group
Rate of body weight gain, % 90.7±7.4a 109.6±3.4b
Feed efficiency, % 80.0±2.6a 89.6±2.6b
The death rate, % 1.33±0.43a 0.16±0.04b
Small melonworm infection rate, % 10.05±1.7a 0.01±0.02b
Influence of the 2.3 different water source processing to American eel elver growth performance, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate is shown in Table 7, wherein it is the data of embodiment 3 that table 7 is corresponding.
From the results shown in Table 7, the rate of body weight gain for the Ecological Disposal water source group that method using the present invention obtains and feeding Material efficiency is significantly higher than conventional treatment water source group (P<0.05), the death rate and small melonworm infection rate are substantially less than conventional treatment water source Group (P<0.05).It is worth noting that, Ecological Disposal water source group does not find small melonworm infection in this experiment.
American eel elver growth performance, the death rate and the small melonworm infection rate situation of the different water source processing groups of table 7
Project Conventional treatment water source group Ecological Disposal water source group
Rate of body weight gain, % 76.8±3.2a 97.1±12.1b
Feed efficiency, % 76.5±1.3a 87.0±1.8b
The death rate, % 1.23±0.03a 0.08±0.01b
Small melonworm incidence, % 6.83±1.17a 0b
2.4 different water source processing are shown in Table American eel at the influence of eel growth performance, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate 8, wherein it is the data of comparative example 1 that table 8 is corresponding.
From the results shown in Table 8, the Ecological Disposal water source group rate of body weight gain and feed obtained using the method for comparative example 1 Efficiency is significantly higher than conventional treatment water source group (P<0.05), although and the death rate and small melon can be reduced to a certain extent Insect infection rate, but still cannot thoroughly prevent the generation of ich.
The American eel of the different water source processing groups of table 8 is at eel growth performance, the death rate and small melonworm infection rate situation
Project Conventional treatment water source group Ecological Disposal water source group
Rate of body weight gain, % 21.0±2.2a 32.5±3.4b
Feed efficiency, % 35.0±1.6a 42.3±1.7b
The death rate, % 2.35±0.39a 1.30±0.22b
Small melonworm incidence, % 38.65±2.61a 23.2±2.3b
Cultivation density, tail/square metre 77.4±18.9a 79.6±20.5a
Method using the present invention, which is can be seen that, from above-mentioned test result prevents working well for ich, operation letter It is single, it is of great significance to preventing ich in eel culture, great scale application foreground.
Although the embodiments of the present invention has been shown and described above, it is to be understood that above-described embodiment is example Property, it is not considered as limiting the invention, those skilled in the art are not departing from the principle of the present invention and objective In the case of can make changes, modifications, alterations, and variations to the above described embodiments within the scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of method of processing surface water, which is characterized in that this method includes being filtered pending surface water successively Processing and precipitation process are then small by gained surface water progress stewing process at least 48 to remove the solid content in surface water When.
2. according to the method described in claim 1, wherein, the time of the stewing process is 48-96 hours.
3. method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein filter used by the filtration treatment includes filter layer, institute State filter layer be by sand and stone according to 1:The sand stone layer of the weight ratio mixing composition of (2-4).
4. according to the method described in claim 3, wherein, the thickness of the filter layer is 50-100cm.
5. according to the method described in claim 3, wherein, a diameter of 6-12 mesh of the sand, a diameter of 3- of the stone 5cm。
6. according to the method described in claim 3, wherein, the filter further includes the filter mesh layer that average pore size is 6-12 mesh, During the filtration treatment, surface water is preferentially contacted with the filter mesh layer.
7. method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the pending surface water is annual November to second year 5 The surface water that month collects.
8. method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the filtration treatment and precipitation process carry out in cistern, This method further includes being carried out disinfection to the empty cistern of pending surface water using quick lime before carrying out the filtration treatment Processing.
9. according to the method described in claim 8, wherein, during described disinfect, empty cistern is corresponding per acre The dosage of quick lime is 100-200kg.
10. a kind of method of prevention sea eel ich, which is characterized in that water used by raising sea eel is through claim 1- Method described in any one of 9 handles the surface water obtained later.
CN201810318965.3A 2018-04-11 2018-04-11 A kind of method handling surface water and the method for preventing sea eel ich Pending CN108575834A (en)

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