CN106332714B - Ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of young taxus chinensis forest - Google Patents

Ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of young taxus chinensis forest Download PDF

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CN106332714B
CN106332714B CN201610688634.XA CN201610688634A CN106332714B CN 106332714 B CN106332714 B CN 106332714B CN 201610688634 A CN201610688634 A CN 201610688634A CN 106332714 B CN106332714 B CN 106332714B
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irrigation
weeding
young
moss
yew
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CN106332714A (en
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周厚成
段久富
蔡仲希
朱军
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Sichuan New Green Pharmaceutical Technology Development Co Ltd
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Sichuan New Green Pharmaceutical Technology Development Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants

Abstract

The invention discloses an ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation removing cost of yew young forest, which comprises the following steps: in the last 3 months or the last 4 months of the year, early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment is carried out on the young Chinese yew forest by adopting a mode of combining spraying a medicament and manual auxiliary cleaning, wherein the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bagging treatment before the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment, and the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bag taking treatment after the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment; broadcast planting treatment of moss is carried out on the woodland of the yew young forest in late 4 th or early 5 th month of the year, meanwhile, a sunshade net is built to shade the moss and expose the yew young trees outside the sunshade net; from the beginning of the year, carrying out humidity management on the forest land from 4 to 6 months of the year; and (3) performing reseeding and permanent planting treatment on the moss in late 4 or early 5 months of each year from the next year until a taxus chinensis-moss ecosystem is established and ecological weeding and irrigation are realized.

Description

Ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of young taxus chinensis forest
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant cultivation, and particularly relates to an ecological weeding and irrigating method for reducing weeding and irrigating cost of young taxus chinensis forests.
Background
Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd.) is a plant of Taxus of Taxaceae, and is an important protection tree in China, and paclitaxel contained in bark and leaves is an internationally recognized anticancer drug. Because the taxus chinensis grows slowly under natural conditions, the weeds and shrubs in young forests at the early afforestation stage of the taxus chinensis are more and difficult to remove, the field management is complicated, the manual input is large, and the like, the field management cost and the management difficulty of planters for planting the taxus chinensis are increased. The increase of the cost of planting the taxus chinensis on a large scale limits the subsequent development of the taxus chinensis planting industry to a certain extent. The taxol and the derivative thereof extracted from the taxus chinensis are one of the best anticancer drugs in the world at present, and the taxus chinensis is called 'plant gold' due to the low annual output, unbalanced market supply and demand and very high price.
Therefore, the ecological method is used for improving the planting management mode of the taxus chinensis and reducing the labor cost, and is the key for the large-scale planting development of the taxus chinensis.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems in the prior art, the invention aims to provide the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for the young taxus chinensis forest, which is convenient to operate, low in cost and high in efficiency.
The invention provides an ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation removing cost of yew young forest, which comprises the following steps:
A. in the last 3 months or the last 4 months of the year, early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment is carried out on the young Chinese yew forest by adopting a mode of combining spraying a medicament and manual auxiliary cleaning, wherein the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bagging treatment before the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment, and the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bag taking treatment after the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment;
B. broadcast planting treatment of moss on the woodland of the yew young forest is carried out in late 4 th or early 5 th of the year, and then a sunshade net is built to shade the moss and expose the yew young trees outside the sunshade net;
C. from the beginning of the year, carrying out humidity management on the forest land from 4 to 6 months of the year; and (3) performing reseeding and permanent planting treatment on the moss in late 4 or early 5 months of each year from the next year until a taxus chinensis-moss ecosystem is established and ecological weeding and irrigation are realized.
According to one embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing the weeding and irrigation cost of the young taxus chinensis forest, in the step A, the agent is sprayed on sunny days, bagging treatment is carried out on the young taxus chinensis trees 1-15 hours before the agent is sprayed, bagging treatment is carried out on the young taxus chinensis trees on the next day after the agent is sprayed, and manual auxiliary cleaning of residual weed and shrub is carried out on 13-16 days after the agent is sprayed, wherein the time interval between the bagging treatment and the bagging treatment is not more than 36 hours.
According to an embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of the yew saplings, in the step A, when bagging treatment is carried out on the yew saplings, plastic bags with different specifications and made of plastic films with the thickness of 0.12-0.35 mm are selected according to the crown width and the tree height of the yew saplings, the whole yew saplings are covered from the tops, bag openings of the plastic bags are pressed into the soil to be fixed, and the distance between the edges of the bag openings and the base parts of the trunks of the yew saplings is controlled to be more than 20cm
According to an embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of the yew young forest, in the step A, when bag taking treatment is carried out on the yew young trees, the bag openings of the plastic bags are pulled out of the soil to allow the yew young trees to be breathable on the same day after the pesticide is sprayed, and the plastic bags are taken away after dew is dried in the afternoon of the next day or the morning of a fine day, wherein the plastic bags are taken away to ensure that the outer surfaces of the plastic bags do not touch the yew young trees.
According to one embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing the weeding and irrigation cost of the young taxus chinensis forest, in the step A, the pesticide spraying treatment comprises two times of pesticide spraying treatment at intervals of 18-22 days, the first pesticide spraying treatment is that 200-400 ml of capping irrigation emulsifiable concentrate with the volume concentration of 48% is applied to each mu of land once, 800 times of liquid is applied to each mu of land once, the second pesticide spraying treatment is that 400-800 g of glyphosate aqueous solution with the mass concentration of 41% is applied to each mu of land once, and manual auxiliary cleaning of residual weed and shrubs is carried out on days 13-16 after the second pesticide spraying treatment.
According to one embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of young taxus chinensis forests, in the step B, the moss is crushed moss which is obtained by drying in the shade or crushing after drying in the sun from moss collected in the middle ten days of the first 8 months or the last 4 months of the year, the size of fragments of the moss is not larger than the size of nails of adults, the sowing amount of the moss is 10-30 kg/mu, and the moss is preferably cucurbit moss.
According to an embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of the yew young forest, in the step B, when a sunshade net is built, the sunshade net with the light transmittance of 60-70% is adopted, and sunshade nets with corresponding specifications are selected according to the row spacing of the yew young trees for shading treatment, wherein the strip sunshade net is stretched, wood piles or thick wood rods are used as sunshade net supports, the supporting height is kept at 1.8-2 m, each row of yew young trees are located in gaps among the strip sunshade nets, the outer edges of the strip sunshade nets are controlled to keep a proper distance from vertical lines of the crown width of the yew young trees, and the photosynthesis of the yew young trees in the current year and 2-3 years later is not influenced.
According to an embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation cost of the young taxus chinensis forest, in the step C, the humidity management of the forest land comprises the steps of sprinkling irrigation of the taxus chinensis forest land by a sprinkling irrigation mode in the early morning or evening to moisten the soil layer 10-15 cm in depth before the broadcasting, planting and re-seeding planting treatment of moss and the re-seeding planting treatment, and sprinkling irrigation of the taxus chinensis forest land by the sprinkling irrigation mode in the early morning or evening every 15-20 days to moisten the soil layer 10-15 cm in depth after the broadcasting, planting and re-seeding planting treatment of the moss, wherein after each sprinkling irrigation, manual auxiliary cleaning of weed shrubs is matched.
According to one embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of the young taxus chinensis forest, the shading net is uncovered and the growing taxus chinensis tree crown is utilized to shade the moss in the fourth year from the current year.
According to an embodiment of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation removing cost of the young taxus chinensis forest, the average tree height of the young taxus chinensis trees is 100-110 cm, and the average diameter of the young taxus chinensis trees is 1-2 cm. .
Compared with the prior art, the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation removing cost of the yew young forest not only greatly reduces management cost of the yew young forest, but also improves landscape value of the forest, and creates an ecological method for removing weeds and shrubs with low cost and high efficiency; the method has a promoting effect in the large-scale planting industry of the taxus chinensis, and can solve the problems of difficult weeding and irrigation removal and large manual input amount in the large-scale planting of the taxus chinensis. In mountainous areas with good ecological environment quality such as rainy and foggy areas, elegant Sichuan areas and the like and air areas, the operation is facilitated, and the using effect is better.
Detailed Description
All of the features disclosed in this specification, or all of the steps in any method or process so disclosed, may be combined in any combination, except combinations of features and/or steps that are mutually exclusive.
Any feature disclosed in this specification may be replaced by alternative features serving equivalent or similar purposes, unless expressly stated otherwise. That is, unless expressly stated otherwise, each feature is only an example of a generic series of equivalent or similar features.
According to the invention, the method for removing weed and irrigation among the young Chinese yew trees is optimized, and the method for planting and planting moss by manual broadcasting is utilized, so that the purposes of establishing the growth advantage of the moss and covering the exposed ground surface among young Chinese yew forest plants are achieved, the effect of inhibiting the growth of weeds and shrubs is realized, and the weeding and irrigation-removing management work of Chinese yew planting is optimized.
According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing the weeding and irrigation cost of the yew young forest comprises the following steps.
Step A:
in the last 3 months or the last 4 months of the year, early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment is carried out on the young Chinese yew forest by adopting a mode of combining spraying a medicament and manual auxiliary cleaning, wherein the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bagging treatment before the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment, and the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bag taking treatment after the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment.
The average tree height of the yew saplings in the yew sapling is 100-110 cm, and the average diameter is 1-2 cm. .
Specifically, in late 3 months or late 4 months of the year, the specific date (need to be sunny) for spraying the pesticide is determined according to the weather forecast and the actual weather condition, namely, the pesticide is sprayed on sunny days.
Bagging treatment is carried out on the yew saplings 1-15 hours before the pesticide is sprayed. When bagging treatment is carried out on the yew saplings, plastic bags with different specifications and made of plastic films with the thickness of 0.12-0.35 mm are selected according to the crown width and the tree height of the yew saplings, the whole yew saplings are covered from the tops, bag openings of the plastic bags are pressed into the soil to be fixed, and the distance between the edges of the bag openings and the base parts of the trunks of the yew saplings is controlled to be more than 20 cm.
And after the bagging work is finished, carrying out medicament spraying treatment as soon as possible, wherein the time interval between the bagging treatment and the bag taking treatment is not more than 36 h. According to the invention, the pesticide spraying actually comprises pesticide spraying treatment for 18-22 days at intervals, namely, the weed and shrub in the young Chinese yew forest are removed by using different herbicides for two times. Specifically, the first pesticide spraying treatment is that 800 times of liquid of 200-400 ml of cover irrigation emulsifiable concentrate with the volume concentration of 48% is applied to each mu of land in a single time, the second pesticide spraying treatment is that 400-800 g of glyphosate aqueous solution with the mass concentration of 41% is applied to each mu of land in a single time, and manual auxiliary cleaning of residual weed and shrub is carried out on 13-16 days after the second pesticide spraying treatment to remove residual live weed and shrub in the yew forest.
And taking bags of the yew saplings the next day after the pesticide is sprayed. When the bag taking treatment is carried out on the yew saplings, the bag openings of the plastic bags are torn out of the soil to enable the yew saplings to be breathable on the same day after the pesticide is sprayed, the plastic bags are taken away after dew is dried in the afternoon of the next day in cloudy days or in the morning of fine days, and the surfaces of the plastic bags are ensured not to touch the yew saplings to avoid the pollution of the saplings caused by the pesticide residue when the plastic bags are taken away. During specific operation, the hoe can be utilized to dig the soil covered by the bag opening, and then the bag opening is turned up by two hands and the plastic bag is taken away, so that the outer surface of the plastic bag is prevented from touching the yew saplings.
And B:
in late 4 months or early 5 months of the year, broadcast sowing and planting treatment of moss is carried out on the woodland of the yew young forest, and meanwhile, a sunshade net is built to shade the moss and expose the yew young trees outside the sunshade net.
The moss is broadcast and sown in the step and the moss is planted in the step, so that the moss is cultivated by utilizing moss spores, the growth of weed shrubs in young Chinese yew forests can be inhibited by utilizing the high surface coverage of the moss along with the establishment of a Chinese yew-moss ecological system, and the purposes of ecological impurity removal and irrigation removal can be realized. In addition, the planted moss can keep soil moist to a certain extent, and the difficulty of planting production water management of the yew young forest is reduced.
Preferably, the taxus chinensis forest land is sprayed with water in the early morning or evening by a spray irrigation mode to wet the soil layer by 10-15 cm, then the moss is sown and planted, and the moss is uniformly sown in the taxus chinensis young forest during sowing. Specifically, the moss used in the invention is crushed moss which is obtained by drying in the shade or drying in the sun and crushing the moss collected in the first 8 th or last 4 th of the year, wherein the moss is mainly cucurbit moss.
The dry moss obtained by the method contains a large amount of moss spores capable of being bred, so that the dry moss can rapidly grow and breed after being sowed and planted and forms a moss layer on Taxus chinensis woodland, and the growth advantage of the moss is utilized to effectively inhibit the growth of weed shrubs, which is an ecological method essentially different from the method for inhibiting weeds by covering the whole layer of moss to maintain soil and water of cuttage plants or blocking sunlight and other illumination and space transient blocking and other physical modes in daily agriculture or forestry production. Wherein the size of the broken pieces of the broken moss is controlled to be not larger than the size of the nails of adults so as to improve the reproduction rate of the moss. And the scattering amount of the broken moss is controlled to be 10-30 kg/mu so as to ensure that the covering surface of the moss layer is large enough.
The purpose of building the sunshade net is to provide a good shading environment for the growth of moss. When the sunshade net is built, the sunshade net with the light transmittance of 60-70% is adopted, and the sunshade net with the corresponding specification is selected for shading treatment according to the row spacing of the yew saplings, wherein the strip-shaped sunshade net is stretched, wood piles or thick wood rods are used as sunshade net supports, the supporting height is kept at 1.8-2 m, each row of yew saplings are located in gaps among the strip-shaped sunshade nets, the outer edges of the strip-shaped sunshade net and the vertical lines of the crowns of the yew saplings are controlled to keep a proper distance, and the photosynthesis of the yew saplings in the current year and 2-3 years later is not affected. That is, except that the rows of the young yew trees remain bare, the other parts of the field are shaded to facilitate the growth of the moss.
And C:
from the beginning of the year, carrying out humidity management on the forest land from 4 to 6 months of the year; and (3) performing reseeding and permanent planting treatment on the moss in late 4 or early 5 months of each year from the next year until a taxus chinensis-moss ecosystem is established and ecological weeding and irrigation are realized.
Specifically, the humidity management of the forest land comprises the steps of sprinkling irrigation 10-15 cm deep in the Chinese yew forest land to moisten by using a sprinkling irrigation mode in the early morning or evening before the broadcasting and planting treatment and the reseeding and planting treatment of moss, and sprinkling irrigation 10-15 cm deep in the Chinese yew forest land to moisten by using a sprinkling irrigation mode in the early morning or evening every 15-20 days after the broadcasting and planting treatment and the reseeding and planting treatment of moss, wherein after each sprinkling irrigation is finished, manual auxiliary cleaning of weed shrubs is matched.
Wherein, the moss is replanted and planted on the exposed ground without growing moss in the taxus chinensis woodland to ensure higher coverage rate of the moss layer. And, beginning at the end of 4 months every year, sprinkling irrigation is carried out to the taxus chinensis woodland every 15 ~ 20 days, guarantees that the soil of soil horizon 10 ~ 20cm degree of depth is moist, enters into rainy season and can suitably prolong the sprinkling irrigation interval time, and the sprinkling irrigation measure lasts to the end of 6 months. And after the sprinkling irrigation measures are finished, the manual auxiliary cleaning of weed and shrub is matched for one time. Meanwhile, the measures of artificially manufacturing the shading environment by adopting the shading net are matched to promote the moss to be planted. Within 3 years after the measure is started, the management mode is circularly adopted every year until a taxus chinensis-moss ecosystem is established and ecological weeding and irrigation are realized.
Wherein, from the fourth year that begins in the current year, just can reveal sunshade net and utilize the yew tree crown of growing up gradually to carry out the sunshade to the moss, later stage only need supplementary a small amount of manual management, can further reduce manpower work load.
The ecological weeding and impurity removing method is adopted to control the growth of weed shrubs in the yew forest, on one hand, the total input amount of manually removing the weed shrubs is reduced, on the other hand, compared with the weed shrubs, moss is attached to the soil surface in the form of 'fibrous roots', and nutrients are not taken by the yew forest like the weed shrubs with deep roots or developed root systems, so that the fertilizer application and nutrient utilization efficiency of the yew forest can be greatly improved. In addition, the establishment of the 'taxus chinensis-moss' ecosystem has potential economic value for creating tourist landscapes in areas with convenient traffic.
It should be understood that the above detailed description of the present invention and the following examples are only for illustrating the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention, and that the insubstantial modifications and adaptations of the present invention by those skilled in the art based on the above description are included in the scope of the present invention. The specific parameters and the like in the following examples are also only an example of suitable ranges, and those skilled in the art can select the parameters and the like within the suitable ranges through the description herein, and are not limited to the specific values and the specific steps in the following examples.
Example 1: the traditional weeding and irrigation method for the yew young forest is different from the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation for the yew young forest in the cost investment difference of 7 years of transplanting the yew young trees (namely the basic afforestation time of the yew under conventional management).
A semi-mountain area with convenient drainage and irrigation, thick soil layer, a plough layer of about 20cm, fertile land, subtropical monsoon climate and abundant rainfall is selected as a test land, the test land is divided into 2 blocks which are respectively numbered as a No. 1 area and a No. 2 area, and the area of each test area is 5 mu. The young yew tree used in the test was a 2.5 year old seedling with an average tree height of 100cm and an average diameter of about 1 cm. The two test areas are planted with two-year-old yew transplanted in the first 11 months, and the yew saplings in the two test areas grow uniformly.
In late 3 months or middle 4 months of the 1 st year (namely the current year) after transplanting, bagging work of protection bags with corresponding sizes is carried out on 5 mu of yew young forests in the No. 1 area according to the height and the crown width of the yew young trees, attention is paid to bagging, bag openings are sleeved from the top ends of the yew young trees and cover the whole plants, the bag openings are pricked into soil downwards, and the edges of bag opening materials are more than 20cm away from the basic parts of the trunks of the yew young trees.
And after bagging is finished, carrying out herbicide spraying work in the test area. Weed killers (covering irrigation energy and glyphosate) are used for removing miscellaneous shrubs and various weeds in the young taxus chinensis forest twice, and the interval period between the two weeding and irrigation is 20 days. The application amount is as follows: 1 st weeding and irrigation, 200ml of cap irrigation emulsifiable solution with 48% volume concentration is applied once for 1 mu, and 800 times of the solution; and (3) weeding and irrigation at the 2 nd time, and applying 800g of 41% glyphosate water agent in a single time in 1 mu. And supplementing manual auxiliary cleaning work of residual miscellaneous shrubs for one time 15 days after the herbicide weeding and irrigation removal, and mainly removing the residual live weed shrubs among young Chinese yew forests. And (4) carrying out bag taking work on the yew saplings on the 2 nd day after herbicide weeding and irrigation, and selecting to carry out the bag taking work in the afternoon of cloudy days. The hoe is utilized to dig the soil covered by the bag opening, the bag opening is turned up by two hands at the same time, and the outer surface of the bag does not touch the taxus chinensis saplings when the bag is taken away so as to avoid the pollution of the saplings caused by the residual medicament.
Broadcast planting of the moss (the cucurbit moss) is carried out in late 4 th or early 5 th of the year, and before the moss (the cucurbit moss) is broadcast, the taxus chinensis forest land is sprinkled by a sprinkling irrigation mode in the early morning or evening to wet the soil layer to a depth of about 10 cm. Uniformly scattering 10-30 kg of dry crushed cucurbit moss (which is collected in 4 months and 8 months in the first year, dried in the sun or in the shade and crushed into cucurbit moss fragments with the size of adult fingernails) in each mu of young Chinese yew forest. Beginning in the next year, 1 time of reseeding of broken moss is carried out in the same period every year, and the method is used for the exposed ground where no moss grows in the field of the young Chinese yew.
And on the next day after the first broadcast planting of the crushed moss, shading treatment is carried out by adopting a shading net with the light transmittance of 60 percent and selecting the shading net with the corresponding specification according to the row spacing of the yew saplings. Specifically, the strip-shaped sunshade net is stretched, a wooden pile or a thick wooden stick is used as a sunshade net support, the height is kept at 1.8m, each row of Chinese yew is located between the strip-shaped sunshade nets, the outer edges of the strip-shaped sunshade nets keep a proper distance from the vertical line of the crown width of the Chinese yew saplings, and the photosynthesis of the Chinese yew saplings in the current year and 2-3 years later is not affected.
From the beginning of 4 months every year, the forest land humidity management of the yew young forest needs to be carried out, 1 time of sprinkling irrigation measures are carried out every 15 days, particularly, the sprinkling irrigation interval time can be properly prolonged in rainy seasons before moss is replanted and planted, and the sprinkling irrigation measures can last to the bottom of 6 months. In the following 1-3 years, the supplementary irrigation work and the sprinkling irrigation measure of the moss in the No. 1 area need to be carried out circularly, and the manual weeding and irrigation removal work is assisted.
In the No. 2 area, the artificial weeding and irrigation removal work is started in the last 3 months of the year, and the artificial weed and shrub removal and cleaning work is respectively carried out once at the end of 3 months, at the beginning of 4 months to the end of 8 months and at the beginning of 9 months every year.
After the field weed and shrub management work for 1-7 years is carried out on the two experimental areas, the comparison of the traditional weeding and irrigation method and the ecological weeding and irrigation method in the aspect of manual investment is carried out. Wherein, the traditional weeding and irrigation removing method in the No. 2 area consumes 310 workers in 7 years, and the total investment cost is 31000 yuan in 7 years. The ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for the No. 1 area consumes 100 workers in total within 7 years, and the total amount is 10000 yuan; the material cost is 6000 yuan in 7 years, and the total cost of the No. 1 area in 7 years is 16000 yuan.
As can be seen from the test and the data, the cost investment of the ecological weeding and irrigation method is far superior to that of the traditional weeding and irrigation method, and the comprehensive cost investment of the removal, control and management of the weeds and shrubs per mu is about 51.6 percent of that of the traditional method.
Example 2: compared with the traditional weeding and irrigation method for the young Chinese yew forest and the ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation of the young Chinese yew forest
Different weeding and irrigation removing methods are compared in small fish cave town yew production areas in Pengzhou city of Sichuan province, and the manual input amount and material cost of the yew are compared within 7 years by combining a yew planting management mode.
TABLE 1 comparison of the labor input and the material cost for the year 1 of transplanting yew seedlings
Figure BDA0001084039530000101
Figure BDA0001084039530000111
Table 1 shows a comparison table of the labor input and material cost usage of different methods corresponding to the 1 st year of transplanting Chinese yew seedlings. As shown in table 1, in the 1 st year after transplanting of the young taxus chinensis forest, the traditional weeding and irrigation method is purely manual operation, the growth of weeds and shrubs in the young taxus chinensis forest is in the dominant period, the breeding is severe, the manual input is large, 10 workers per mu are consumed for manual weeding and irrigation every year, and the labor cost for weeding and irrigation is 1000 yuan per mu according to the market manual price of 100 yuan per worker.
When the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method is adopted, in the 1 st year, not only the labor cost is invested, but also part of the material cost is remained. The labor cost is mainly used for bagging and taking bags of the yew young trees in the early 4 months, spraying pesticide on forest lands, manually assisting in weeding and irrigation removing, broadcasting broken moss, shading by a sunshade net and sprinkling irrigation of the yew young trees in the later period, 1 worker is consumed for each mu, and the total amount is 500 yuan. The material cost is mainly used for protection bags, herbicide, broken moss and sunshade nets, about 240 protection bags are consumed per mu, and the unit price is 0.5 yuan/mu, namely 120 yuan/mu; the pesticide is applied twice, 2 bottles (100ml specification) of cap irrigation energy and 4 bottles (200ml specification) of glyphosate are consumed respectively per mu, namely 130 yuan per mu; the amount of the broken moss is calculated according to 30kg per mu, including the amount of the broken moss which is reseeded at the later stage, and the cost is 210 yuan per mu; sunshade net, about 300 yuan/mu; the sunshade net is constructed by 40 yuan/mu. The total amount is 1300 yuan/mu.
Therefore, the difference between the traditional weeding and irrigation method and the ecological weeding and irrigation method is small in the weed and shrub management of transplanting the yew young forest in the first year, and the management capital investment is basically equivalent. However, as the 'taxus chinensis-moss' ecological system is not established, the grass inhibiting advantage is not reflected, and the cost of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method in the first year is slightly more.
TABLE 2 comparison of the labor input and the material cost for 2-4 years of transplanting yew seedlings
Table 2 shows a comparison table of the manual input amount and the material cost usage corresponding to the transplanting years 2-4 of the Chinese yew seedlings by different methods. As shown in Table 2, in the 2 nd to 4 th years of transplantation of the taxus chinensis, pure labor is still adopted in the traditional weeding and irrigation method, the taxus chinensis seedlings are still in the growth disadvantage period, the breeding of weeds and shrubs is more, the manual weeding is complicated, and 10 workers are consumed per mu, namely 1000 yuan per mu per year of labor cost.
The ecological weeding and irrigation method is adopted, the labor cost consumption is mainly used for the auxiliary weeding and irrigation work of an ecological system, the moss ground coverage degree of the young Chinese yew forest is gradually improved due to the slow establishment of the Chinese yew-moss ecological system, the weed breeding is gradually reduced, about 2 workers are consumed per mu for weed management, namely, the labor cost investment of 200 yuan/mu per year is reduced; in addition, the moss is applied in the establishment of an ecosystem, and the moss is applied to moss plots which do not grow normally in forests, so that 1 worker is consumed per mu, namely, the labor cost investment of 100 yuan/mu per year. After the moss is interplanted, humidity management work needs to be carried out on a taxus chinensis-moss ecological system, namely, the humidity management is carried out on the system regularly in a sprinkling irrigation mode, 0.2 worker is consumed in each mu of land according to the efficiency that 1 person can irrigate 5 mu of land in 1 day, and 5 sprinkling irrigation works are carried out every year, namely 1 worker is consumed in each year, and 100 yuan per mu per year is consumed in sprinkling irrigation. The ecological weeding and irrigation method has fixed consumption on material cost, namely the material consumption for applying the moss is fixed every year, more than 10kg of broken moss needs to be consumed every year, and the material cost of the moss is about 100 yuan/mu per year, so that the total labor cost and the material cost of the ecological weeding and irrigation method is 500 yuan/mu per year.
Therefore, the capital consumption of the traditional weeding and irrigation removing method in 3 years is 3000 yuan within 2-4 years after the Chinese yew is transplanted, and the management cost of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method is only 1500 yuan. The management cost is saved by 50 percent of the original cost.
TABLE 3 comparison of the labor input and the material cost for 5-7 years of transplanting yew seedlings
Figure BDA0001084039530000131
And Table 3 shows a comparison table of the manual input amount and the material cost using condition of 5 th to 7 th years of transplanting the Chinese yew seedlings by different methods. It can be seen from table 3 and a comparison between table 1 and table 2 that, with the establishment and maturation of the "taxus chinensis-moss" ecosystem, the management by adopting the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method has the advantage of lower cost compared with the traditional weeding and irrigation removing method in the aspect of the management cost of weed and shrub, and particularly after 5 years of transplantation of taxus chinensis seedlings, the "taxus chinensis-moss" ecosystem matures day by day, the ground coverage degree of the moss reaches the optimal period, the capability of inhibiting weeds and shrubs reaches the maximum, and the cost of manual weeding and irrigation removing is greatly reduced. Because the taxus chinensis grows up gradually, the weeding and irrigating cost for managing the taxus chinensis by the traditional weeding and irrigating method is correspondingly reduced to 800 yuan/mu/year.
As can be seen from tables 1-3, the total amount of the Chinese yew is 6100 yuan per mu of capital investment by adopting the traditional weeding and irrigation removing method in 1-7 years of transplanting the Chinese yew young forest. And the total amount of the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method is 3100 yuan per mu of capital investment. That is, the ecological weeding and irrigation removing method is superior to the traditional weeding and impurity removing method in the comprehensive management cost, the management cost is only 48.4% of the cost of the traditional method, and the large-scale management efficiency is also obviously increased.
In conclusion, with the establishment of the ecosystem, only manual auxiliary management is needed in the later period, the humidity management of the soil of the young Chinese yew forest is mainly used, the 'Chinese yew-moss' ecosystem is adjusted in a sprinkling irrigation mode, the labor cost is reduced in the later period of manual investment, the ornamental value of the 'Chinese yew-moss' ecosystem is greatly improved, and the added value of the 'Chinese yew-moss' ecosystem is increased.
The invention is not limited to the foregoing embodiments. The invention extends to any novel feature or any novel combination of features disclosed in this specification and any novel method or process steps or any novel combination of features disclosed.

Claims (10)

1. An ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation removing cost of young taxus chinensis forests is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
A. in the last 3 months or the last 4 months of the year, early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment is carried out on the young Chinese yew forest by adopting a mode of combining spraying a medicament and manual auxiliary cleaning, wherein the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bagging treatment before the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment, and the young Chinese yew tree is subjected to bag taking treatment after the early-stage weeding and irrigation-removing treatment;
B. broadcast sowing and planting treatment of moss is carried out on the forest land of the young Chinese yew forest in late 4 th or early 5 th month of the year, then a sunshade net is built to shade the moss and expose the young Chinese yew tree outside the sunshade net, the moss is crushed moss obtained by drying in the shade or crushing after drying in the sun and can rapidly grow and propagate after broadcast sowing and planting and form a moss layer on the Chinese yew forest land, the moss is cucurbit moss, and the broadcast sowing amount of the moss is 10-30 kg/mu;
C. from the beginning of the year, carrying out humidity management on the forest land from 4 to 6 months of the year; and (3) performing reseeding and permanent planting treatment on the moss in late 4 or early 5 months of each year from the next year until a taxus chinensis-moss ecosystem is established and ecological weeding and irrigation are realized.
2. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of young taxus chinensis forests according to claim 1, wherein in step a, the agent is sprayed on sunny days, the young taxus chinensis trees are bagged 1-15 hours before the agent is sprayed, the young taxus chinensis trees are bagged the next day after the agent is sprayed, and the manual auxiliary cleaning of residual weed and shrub is performed on days 13-16 after the agent is sprayed, wherein the time interval between the bagging treatment and the bagging treatment is not more than 36 hours.
3. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of the yew saplings according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in step a, when bagging treatment is performed on the yew saplings, plastic bags with different specifications made of plastic films with the thickness of 0.12-0.35 mm are selected according to the crown width and the tree height of the yew saplings, the whole yew saplings are covered from the top, the bag mouths of the plastic bags are pressed into the soil to be fixed, and the distance from the mouth edges to the base parts of the trunks of the yew saplings is controlled to be more than 20 cm.
4. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs for young taxus chinensis forests according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in step a, when the bag-taking treatment is performed on the young taxus chinensis trees, the bag openings of the plastic bags are torn out of the soil to make the young taxus chinensis trees breathable on the same day after the pesticide is sprayed, and the plastic bags are taken away after dew dries in the afternoon of the next day on a cloudy day or the morning of a fine day, wherein the plastic bags are taken away to ensure that the outer surfaces of the plastic bags do not touch the young taxus chinensis trees.
5. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of young taxus chinensis forests according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in the step A, the pesticide spraying treatment comprises two pesticide spraying treatments with 18-22 days of separation, the first pesticide spraying treatment is that 200-400 ml of cover irrigation emulsifiable concentrate with 48% of volume concentration is applied to each mu of land once, 800-fold liquid is applied to each mu of land once, the second pesticide spraying treatment is that 400-800 g of glyphosate aqueous solution with 41% of mass concentration is applied to each mu of land once, and the manual auxiliary cleaning of residual weed and shrubs is carried out on the 13 th-16 th days after the second pesticide spraying treatment.
6. The ecological weeding and irrigation method according to claim 1, wherein in step B, the moss is a crushed moss obtained by drying in the shade or crushing after drying in the sun from moss collected in the middle 8 th month or 4 th month of the year, and the size of the crushed moss pieces is not larger than the size of adult fingernails.
7. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of the yew young forest according to claim 1, wherein in step B, when a sunshade net is built, a sunshade net with a light transmittance of 60-70% is adopted, and a sunshade net with a corresponding specification is selected according to the row spacing of the yew young trees for shading treatment, wherein the strip sunshade net is stretched, wood piles or thick wood rods are used as sunshade net supports, the supporting height is kept at 1.8-2 m, each row of yew young trees are positioned in gaps between the strip sunshade nets, and the outer edges of the strip sunshade net are controlled to keep a proper distance from the vertical line of the canopy width of the yew young trees so as not to affect the photosynthesis of the yew young trees in the current year and 2-3 years later.
8. The ecological weeding and irrigation removing method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of young taxus chinensis forests according to claim 1, wherein in step C, the humidity management of the forest land comprises a step of sprinkling irrigation of the taxus chinensis forest land by a sprinkling irrigation manner in early morning or evening before the broadcasting, planting and re-seeding, planting and planting treatment of moss to moisten the soil layer 10-15 cm deep, and a step of sprinkling irrigation of the taxus chinensis forest land by a sprinkling irrigation manner in early morning or evening every 15-20 days after the broadcasting, planting and re-seeding, planting and treatment of moss to moisten the soil layer 10-15 cm deep, wherein after each sprinkling irrigation is finished, artificial auxiliary cleaning of weed and shrub is matched.
9. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of young taxus chinensis forests according to claim 1, wherein in the fourth year from the current year, a sunshade net is uncovered and the growing taxus chinensis tree crown is used for shading the moss.
10. The ecological weeding and irrigation method for reducing weeding and irrigation costs of young taxus chinensis forests according to claim 1, wherein the young taxus chinensis trees have an average tree height of 100-110 cm and an average diameter of 1-2 cm.
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