CN105993907B - Seedling collecting method and early cultivation method of sargassum thunbergii - Google Patents

Seedling collecting method and early cultivation method of sargassum thunbergii Download PDF

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CN105993907B
CN105993907B CN201610449759.7A CN201610449759A CN105993907B CN 105993907 B CN105993907 B CN 105993907B CN 201610449759 A CN201610449759 A CN 201610449759A CN 105993907 B CN105993907 B CN 105993907B
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seedling
pool
seedling collecting
seed
collecting
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CN105993907A (en
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刘玮
吴海一
吕芳
丁刚
周健
刘梦侠
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Shandong Marine Biology Institute
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Shandong Marine Biology Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D91/00Methods for harvesting agricultural products
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management

Abstract

The invention relates to a seedling collecting method of sargassum thunbergii and an early cultivation method thereof, belonging to the field of artificial breeding of sargassum thunbergii. In order to overcome the problems of low diffusion efficiency of the seed vegetables and waste of the seed vegetables in the seedling collection process in the prior art, the invention provides a seedling collection method of sargassum thunbergii and an early cultivation method thereof.

Description

Seedling collecting method and early cultivation method of sargassum thunbergii
Technical Field
The invention relates to a seedling collecting method of sargassum thunbergii and an early cultivation method thereof, belonging to the field of artificial breeding of sargassum thunbergii.
Background
The sargassum thunbergii is a brown algae variety with economic value, not only can be used as a high-quality feed for seafood such as sea cucumber, abalone and the like, but also can be used as an industrial raw material for extracting algin and other bioactive substances. In recent years, the sargassum thunbergii resource is seriously affected by human, and artificial breeding of sargassum thunbergii becomes an important way for relieving and recovering related ecological problems. At present, a technical system for artificial breeding of sargassum thunbergii is initially established, but a plurality of key parameters for seedling production are to be further optimized.
The sargassum thunbergii is collected by two modes of fully-artificial collection and semi-artificial collection at present. The full-artificial seedling picking is to collect the sargassum thunbergii oosperm by artificial filtration and then sprinkle the sargassum thunbergii oosperm in a seedling picking pond to finish the seedling picking; semi-artificial seedling picking is to directly place the seed vegetable to be diffused with fertilized eggs in the seedling picking, and take out the seed vegetable after the fertilized eggs are diffused, thereby completing the seedling picking. The full-artificial method consumes a large amount of manpower and material resources, while the semi-artificial seedling collection method is relatively simple, but the phenomenon of excessive use of seed vegetables exists at present during seedling collection, and for the condition of using wild resources as seed vegetables, excessive collection of seed vegetables influences the propagation safety of local natural populations, and even aggravates the trend of resource exhaustion; meanwhile, in the case of using artificial seedlings as seed vegetables, excessive use of the seed vegetables also increases the production cost in the early stage, and wastes manpower and material resources. Therefore, how to improve the diffusion efficiency of the fertilized eggs of the sargassum thunbergii and further properly control the use amount of the sargassum thunbergii is a key problem to be solved urgently in the current seedling picking process.
The fertilized eggs are settled on the surface of the attaching base to begin to develop after the seedling picking is finished, on one hand, a good external environment is needed in the early development stage of the seedlings, for example, sufficient water flow exchange is needed, because the seedlings are picked by using still water during the seedling picking, the seawater in a seedling picking pool can not be replaced within 2-4 days, at the moment, nutrient substances in the water body are relatively poor, the dissolved oxygen is also reduced to some extent, the number of some protozoa is continuously increased, and on the other hand, the stimulation of the water flow is avoided before the seedlings are firmly and fixedly attached to the attaching base. Therefore, after the seedling collection is finished, the time for changing water in the seedling collection pool and the size of water flow directly influence the attachment efficiency of the fertilized eggs. In addition, proper light irradiation, proper water flow stimulation, reasonable nutrient salt addition and favorable water temperature are key factors for promoting the growth of seedlings. How to control the early culture conditions after seedling collection is the key point for ensuring the success of propagation.
Chinese patent application 201510295931.3 discloses a cofferdam proliferation method of Sargassum thunbergii, which directly cultivates Sargassum thunbergii seedlings in an intertidal zone by the cofferdam method until the Sargassum thunbergii seedlings are cultivated, and solves the problems of high cost, high operation difficulty and poor proliferation effect in the conventional Sargassum thunbergii proliferation method. Chinese patent application 201510001367.X provides an artificial propagation method for wild kelp, which specifically comprises the steps of (1) selecting a proper wild kelp propagation place; (2) preparing seed kelp; (3) preparing spore water; (4) preparing a seedling picking frame and a transplanting net; (5) collecting seedlings; (6) temporarily culturing in a workshop; (7) temporarily culturing at sea; (8) separating seedlings; (9) cultivating artificial seedlings; (10) and (5) carrying out seabed transplantation. The invention adopts the specially designed seedling picking frame and transplanting net to pick seedlings and culture the seedlings in the middle, utilizes the advantages of the traditional culture mode to realize the rapid breeding of artificially proliferated seedlings, overcomes the influence of varied terrains on the seabed, and realizes the large-area proliferation on the seabed. The two processes do not realize the accurate condition control of the sargassum thunbergii and do not solve the problems of low diffusion efficiency of the seed vegetables and waste of the seed vegetables in the sargassum thunbergii seedling collecting process.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the problems of low diffusion efficiency of the seed vegetables and waste of the seed vegetables in the seedling collection process in the prior art, the invention provides a seedling collection method of sargassum thunbergii and an early cultivation method thereof.
The invention realizes the technical effects through the following technical scheme:
a seedling collecting method of sargassum thunbergii specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) collecting the seed vegetables: collecting algae which simultaneously meet the following conditions as a sargassum thunbergii seed vegetable:
a. female individuals with algal body length greater than 80 cm;
b. the average length of the reproductive branches is not less than 5 cm;
c. the pessary grows mature, and the length of the pessary is not less than 5 mm;
d. obvious egg attachment phenomenon exists on the genital support;
(2) pre-treating the seed vegetables: draining seawater after the seed vegetables are collected, then placing the seed vegetables under the condition of weak light for shade drying treatment, controlling the environmental temperature to be 18-23 ℃, and controlling the relative humidity of air to be 45-55%; the above-mentioned drying in the shade is preferably carried out in a transfer box having a perforated bottom. Wherein the weak light in the shade drying treatment means that the illumination is less than 2000lx, and the time of the shade drying treatment is preferably 30min
(3) Arranging seedling collecting pools: the method comprises the steps of paving and fixing an attaching base on the bottom of a seedling collecting pool, adding seawater until the water storage height in the seedling collecting pool is 50-60cm, and placing a glass slide in the seedling collecting pool for detecting the seedling collecting condition, wherein the seawater in the seedling collecting pool needs to be filtered by a sand filter before being added into the seedling collecting pool, and the water temperature in the pool is 15-19 ℃. 3-5 glass slides (which cannot be overlapped with the attachment base in the pool) are placed in the seedling collecting pool for detecting the seedling collecting condition.
(4) Seedling picking: uniformly spreading the seed vegetables subjected to shade drying in a seedling collecting pool, controlling the water temperature in the seedling collecting pool to be 15-19 ℃, stirring the seed vegetables once every 4-6 hours, detecting the density of the collected seedlings once every 6 hours after the seedlings are collected for 24 hours, removing the seed vegetables in the seedling collecting pool to stop the seedling collection when the density of the collected seedlings reaches a preset standard, and transferring an attaching medium to finish the seedling collection process.
In the seedling collection method of the sargassum thunbergii, the algae which simultaneously meets the following conditions can be collected as sargassum thunbergii in the collection of the sargassum thunbergii:
a. female individuals with algal body length larger than 100 cm;
b. the average length of the reproductive branches is not less than 8 cm;
c. the pessary grows mature, and the length of the pessary is not less than 5 mm;
d. the obvious egg attachment phenomenon exists on the genital support.
When the preset seedling picking density is 50 pieces/cm2The amount of the seed vegetable is 3-5 plants/m2(the area is calculated by the area of the bottom of the seedling collecting pool). When the density of the collected seedlings is not less than 50/cm2Stopping seedling collection, removing the vegetables in the seedling collection pool, wherein the time of the seedling collection process is not more than 54 hours, and when the seedling collection time is close to 54 hours and the preset seedling collection density is reached, the amount of the vegetables can be increased. The illumination of the seedling collecting pool is not higher than 8000lx, and the water temperature of the collected seedlings is not higher than 19 ℃.
The invention also provides an early cultivation method, which comprises the following steps:
(1) adopting the seedling collection method to collect seedlings;
(2) early cultivation: and after 48 hours of seedling picking, taking out the attaching base in the seedling picking pool, placing the attaching base in a culture pool with the water storage height of 40-50cm for early culture of seedlings, culturing the seedlings on the attaching base by adopting weak current circulating seawater in the culture process, controlling the illumination in the culture pool to be not higher than 10000lx, controlling the water temperature of the pool water to be 15-19 ℃ and controlling the salinity to be 27-31 per mill.
Preferably, the mass flow rate of the water flow in the culture pond during the culture process does not exceed 300 kg/, (m2·s)。
And in the culture process, the content of soluble inorganic nitrogen and the content of soluble inorganic phosphorus are controlled by adding exogenous raw materials, wherein preferably, the content of the soluble inorganic nitrogen in the water is 15-20 mu mol/L, and the content of the soluble inorganic phosphorus is 0.3-0.5 mu mol/L.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following outstanding technical effects:
(1) the invention puts forward the requirements (the size and the maturity of the seed vegetables) for collecting the seed vegetables, and the seed vegetables with higher maturity and uniform maturity are selected by the screening scheme of the invention, and the screening scheme can avoid resource waste from the source particularly for the condition of using wild seaweed resources to prepare the seed vegetables, and is favorable for protecting the seaweed resources. In addition, the invention provides a scientific proportioning and use of the amount of the vegetable seeds according to the seedling picking density, which is beneficial to saving vegetable seed resources and reducing production cost.
(2) The method adopts the shade drying stimulation to improve the diffusing efficiency (5-10%) of the seed vegetables, remarkably shortens the seedling picking time (10-30%), promotes a large amount of fertilized eggs on the reproductive support to diffuse in a relatively short time through the shade drying stimulation, is favorable for improving the production efficiency, and controls the shade drying condition to directly influence the diffusing effect of the fertilized eggs.
(3) The semi-manual seedling collection method is used, so that the advantages of semi-manual seedling collection (time and labor saving) are exerted on one hand, and the defects that water bodies in the seedling collection pool are polluted for a long time, low in nutritive salt and the like, so that the seedlings are not beneficial to growth in the traditional method are avoided by controlling relevant seedling collection production parameters (seedling collection environment, time and the like). The patented method is beneficial to saving manpower and material resources and improving the seedling picking efficiency, and compared with the traditional seedling picking time, the time can be shortened by 10-30%.
(4) The method provided by the invention is adopted to culture early seedlings, so that the seedling attachment efficiency can be effectively improved (20% -30%), the seedling growth is promoted, the healthy and strong seedlings are ensured, and the seedling emergence efficiency is favorably improved.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below by means of specific examples, which do not in any way limit the scope of patent protection.
Example 1 seedling collecting method and cultivation method of Sargassum thunbergii of the present invention
A seedling collecting method and a cultivation method of sargassum thunbergii comprise the following steps:
(1) collecting the seed vegetables: when the sargassum thunbergii is collected, the selected fronds must simultaneously meet the following conditions:
a. female individuals with algal body length greater than 80 cm;
b. the average length of the reproductive branches is not less than 5 cm;
c. the pessary grows mature, and the length of the pessary is not less than 5 mm;
d. the obvious egg attachment phenomenon exists on the genital support.
(2) Pre-treating the seed vegetables: collecting seed vegetables, draining off seawater in a transfer box with holes at the bottom, standing under low light condition (illumination less than 2000 lx) for 30min, and drying in the shade at 18-23 deg.C and air relative humidity of 45-55%.
(3) Arranging seedling collecting pools: the attaching base is laid on the bottom of the seedling collecting pool and fixed, the water storage height in the seedling collecting pool is 50-60cm, the seawater in the seedling collecting pool needs to be filtered by a sand filter, and the water temperature in the pool is 15-19 ℃. 3-5 glass slides (which cannot be overlapped with the attachment base in the pool) are placed in the seedling collecting pool for detecting the seedling collecting condition.
(4) Seedling picking: uniformly spreading the seed vegetables in a seedling collecting pool, and when the preset seedling collecting density is 50 pieces/cm2The amount of the seed vegetable is 3-5 plants/m2(the area is calculated by the area of the bottom of the seedling collecting pool). The vegetables are stirred once every 4-6 hours, and after the seedlings are picked for 24 hours, the density of the picked seedlings on the glass slide is detected once every 6 hours. When the density of the collected seedlings is not less than 50/cm2Stopping seedling collection, removing the vegetables in the seedling collection pool, wherein the time of the seedling collection process is not more than 54 hours, and when the seedling collection time is close to 54 hours and the preset seedling collection density is reached, the amount of the vegetables can be increased. The illumination of the seedling collecting pool is not higher than 8000lx, and the water temperature of the collected seedlings is not higher than 19 ℃.
(5) Early cultivation: after 48 hours of seedling collection, taking out the attaching base and transferring the attaching base into a culture pond with the water depth of 40-50cm, wherein the illumination is not higher than 10000lx, and the pond waterThe water temperature is 15-19 ℃, and the salinity is 27-31 per mill. Culturing seedlings on the attaching base in a culturing pool by using weak water flow circulation seawater, wherein the mass flow rate of water flow does not exceed 300 kg/(m)2S). The content of soluble inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in water is 15-20 mu mol/L, and the content of soluble inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is 0.3-0.5 mu mol/L.
Example 2 seedling collecting method and cultivation method of Sargassum thunbergii of the present invention
A seedling collecting method and a cultivation method of sargassum thunbergii comprise the following steps:
(1) collecting the seed vegetables: when the sargassum thunbergii is collected, the selected fronds must simultaneously meet the following conditions:
a. female individuals with algal body length larger than 100 cm;
b. the average length of the reproductive branches is not less than 8 cm;
c. the pessary grows mature, and the length of the pessary is not less than 5 mm;
d. the obvious egg attachment phenomenon exists on the genital support.
(2) Pre-treating the seed vegetables: collecting seed vegetables, draining off seawater in a transfer box with holes at the bottom, standing under low light condition (illumination less than 2000 lx) for 30min, and drying in the shade at 18-23 deg.C and air relative humidity of 45-55%.
(3) Arranging seedling collecting pools: the attaching base is laid on the bottom of the seedling collecting pool and fixed, the water storage height in the seedling collecting pool is 50-60cm, the seawater in the seedling collecting pool needs to be filtered by a sand filter, and the water temperature in the pool is 15-19 ℃. 3-5 glass slides (which cannot be overlapped with the attachment base in the pool) are placed in the seedling collecting pool for detecting the seedling collecting condition.
(4) Seedling picking: uniformly spreading the seed vegetables in a seedling collecting pool, and when the preset seedling collecting density is 80/cm2The amount of the seed vegetable is 2-3 plants/m2(the area is calculated by the area of the bottom of the seedling collecting pool). The vegetables are stirred once every 4-6 hours, and after the seedlings are picked for 24 hours, the density of the picked seedlings on the glass slide is detected once every 6 hours. When the density of the collected seedlings is not less than 50/cm2Stopping seedling collection, removing the vegetables in the seedling collection pool, wherein the seedling collection time is not more than 54 hours, and when the seedling collection time is close to 54 hours and reaches the preset seedling collection density, the seedling collection time can be properThe amount of the seed vegetables is increased. The illumination of the seedling collecting pool is not higher than 8000lx, and the water temperature of the collected seedlings is not higher than 19 ℃.
(5) Early cultivation: and after 48 hours of seedling picking, taking out the attaching base and transposing the attaching base into a culture pond with the water depth of 40-50cm, wherein the illumination is not higher than 10000lx, the water temperature of pond water is 15-19 ℃, and the salinity is 27-31 per thousand. Culturing seedlings on the attaching base in a culturing pool by using weak water flow circulation seawater, wherein the mass flow rate of water flow does not exceed 300 kg/(m)2S). The content of soluble inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in water is 15-20 mu mol/L, and the content of soluble inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is 0.3-0.5 mu mol/L.
The above embodiments are only used for illustrating the technical solution of the present invention, and not for limiting the same; although the invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof; such modifications and substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention as set forth in the appended claims.

Claims (3)

1. A seedling collecting and early-stage cultivating method of sargassum thunbergii is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) collecting the seed vegetables: collecting algae which simultaneously meet the following conditions as a sargassum thunbergii seed vegetable:
a. female individuals with algal body length greater than 80 cm;
b. the average length of the reproductive branches is not less than 5 cm;
c. the pessary grows mature, and the length of the pessary is not less than 5 mm;
d. obvious egg attachment phenomenon exists on the genital support;
(2) pre-treating the seed vegetables: draining seawater after the collection of the seed vegetables, and then placing the seed vegetables in a low-light condition for drying in the shade, wherein the environmental temperature is controlled to be 18-23 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 45-55%; the drying in the shade is carried out in a transfer box with a hole at the bottom, the illumination of weak light in the drying in the shade is less than 2000lx, and the drying in the shade is carried out for 30 min;
(3) arranging and picking seedlings in a seedling picking pool: the attaching base is laid on the bottom of the seedling collecting pool and fixed, seawater is injected into the seedling collecting pool until the water storage height in the seedling collecting pool is 50-60cm, and the seawater in the seedling collecting pool needs to be filtered by a sand filter before being injected into the seedling collecting pool; placing a glass slide in the seedling collecting pool for detecting the density of the collected seedlings; uniformly spreading the seed vegetables subjected to shade drying in a seedling collecting pool, controlling the water temperature in the seedling collecting pool to be 15-19 ℃, stirring the seed vegetables once every 4-6 hours, detecting the seedling collecting density once every 6 hours after the seedlings are collected for 24 hours, removing the seed vegetables in the seedling collecting pool when the seedling collecting density reaches a preset standard, stopping the seedling collection, and transferring an attaching medium to finish the seedling collecting process; the illumination of the seedling collecting pool is not higher than 8000lx in the seedling collecting process;
(4) early cultivation: 48 hours after seedling picking, taking out the attaching base in the seedling picking pool, placing the attaching base in a culture pool with the water storage height of 40-50cm for early culture of seedlings, culturing the seedlings on the attaching base by weak current circulating seawater in the culture process, controlling the illumination in the culture pool to be not higher than 10000lx, the water temperature of the pool to be 15-19 ℃, the salinity to be 27-31 per mill, and the mass flow rate of water flow to be not more than 300 kg/(m ‰)2S) the content of soluble inorganic nitrogen in water is 15-20 mu mol/L, and the content of soluble inorganic phosphorus is 0.3-0.5 mu mol/L.
2. The seedling collection and early stage cultivation method for sargassum thunbergii as claimed in claim 1, wherein the algae collected in the seed vegetable collection simultaneously meet the following conditions as sargassum thunbergii seed vegetable:
a. female individuals with algal body length larger than 100 cm;
b. the average length of the reproductive branches is not less than 8 cm;
c. the pessary grows mature, and the length of the pessary is not less than 5 mm;
d. the obvious egg attachment phenomenon exists on the genital support.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the predetermined harvest density is 50 pieces/cm2The amount of the seed vegetable is 3-5 plants/m2(ii) a Wherein the area is calculated by the area of the bottom of the seedling collecting pool.
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CN106937590B (en) * 2017-03-19 2019-09-06 中国海洋大学 One main laver conchospore collect seedling combination unit and method of collecting seedling
CN107047280A (en) * 2017-06-23 2017-08-18 山东省海洋生物研究院 A kind of intensive method of collecting seedling of sargassum kjellmanianum Yendo
CN107232051B (en) * 2017-07-21 2020-07-31 山东省海洋生物研究院 Nutrient rapid propagation-based Sargassum horneri large-scale cultivation method
CN109744140A (en) * 2019-03-06 2019-05-14 山东省海洋生物研究院 A kind of surely raw seaweed indoor highly effective method for culturing seedlings of oogamy
CN109729968A (en) * 2019-03-19 2019-05-10 山东省海洋生物研究院 The proliferation big specification breeding method of sargassum thunbergii seedling in a kind of sea jungle nursery
CN110036903A (en) * 2019-06-05 2019-07-23 山东省海洋生物研究院 A kind of Sargassaceae seaweed scale breeding facility and its application method

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