CN101779595A - Method for implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond - Google Patents

Method for implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond Download PDF

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CN101779595A
CN101779595A CN201010127714A CN201010127714A CN101779595A CN 101779595 A CN101779595 A CN 101779595A CN 201010127714 A CN201010127714 A CN 201010127714A CN 201010127714 A CN201010127714 A CN 201010127714A CN 101779595 A CN101779595 A CN 101779595A
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pond
frond
seedling
algae
ancient texts
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CN101779595B (en
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王志刚
李美真
胡凡光
吴海一
王翔宇
房慧
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SHANDONG PROVINCE MARINE CULTURE INSTITUTE
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SHANDONG PROVINCE MARINE CULTURE INSTITUTE
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management

Abstract

The invention provides a method for implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in a north pond. By using the method, the problems of water eutrophication and the like, caused by the ecological imbalance owning to using the prior art for signal animal breeding in the north pond, can be solved. The cultivation process of the invention can be divided to a sprout proliferation phase, a bottom sowing propagation phase, an increasing interharvesting phase and an overwintering seedling protection phase. By using the invention, the problem that owning to the change of factors such as climate, growing environment and the like in the north, the transplanting of south macrophyte fails, can be solved; the method has effects of low input and high output, and the ratio of the fresh weight input to fresh weight output of the algae is 1:1500. The yield per mu is 1500kg. The method of the invention can be used to fill the gap of cultivating macrophyte in aestival pond of northern areas and the diversity of algae resources in northern China is enriched.

Description

A kind of method of implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of southern marine alga and be transplanted to northern pond and carry out tame method, specifically the tame method in transplanting of crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts and pond.
Background technology
Crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts (Gracilaria bursa-pastoris) is a kind of large-scale economic red algae.The algae branch is cylindric, branch 2-3 time, alternate, wilfully or dichotomy, and body colour is bronzing, the long 20~40cm of frond, battalion's set life.Mainly be distributed in Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province is coastal, be China endemic species.Crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts all has important Ecology Action as tangleweed at aspects such as optimizing offshore sea waters ecosystem structure, participation global carbon, control sea area eutrophication and red tide.
Be accompanied by developing rapidly of modern industry, the harmful substance of discharging in the production process also increases day by day, because the indiscriminate row of industrial or agricultural sewage is put excessively, causes the offshore sea waters environment to suffer severe contamination.These are the body eutrophication that causes of principal character with high concentration N, phosphorus and not only directly destroy natural environment with mercury, the pollution that causes every heavy metal ion such as, lead, the development of harm China coastal waters culture fishery, but also bring harm can for the healthy of people, even cause heavy losses to economy.
Confirm according to the study, tangleweed can absorb nutriments such as nitrogen in the water body, phosphorus by photosynthesis, produce oxygen simultaneously, and the mercury in can also the enrichment water body, every heavy metal ion such as, lead, contaminated marine site is had good purification and biological restoration effect, in red-tide control, have important function too.Fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts and dog salmon are raised together with; can remove 50~90% solubility ammonia that are discharged in the fish culture process in the environment; this shows; by in the coastal waters or pond eutrophic water large-scale planting tangleweed as the nutrition buffer; but balance is cultured the extra nutrition burden of being brought because of economic animal, can effectively reduce the risk that coastal waters and pond are polluted.Therefore, with tangleweed the marine pollution environment being carried out biological restoration and have special advantages, is one of preferred version of praising highly in the world.
In recent years, flourish along with mariculture, the pond culture scale enlarges year by year, and by 2006, pond culture area in Shandong Province's reached 114847 hectares, breed variety comprises: various fish, shrimp crab class, particularly the holothurian pond that rose is in recent years cultured upsurge, and growth momentum is swift and violent, under the ordering about of economic interests, Shandong Province's holothurian pond cultured area had reached 24858 hectares in 2006, and presented the trend that continues growth.The upsurge that holothurian pond is cultured, though brought bigger raising for the whole province's fishery output value, the problem of himself also manifests gradually.Highdensity pond culture causes various culture-pool water qualities declines, dissolved oxygen reduction, nitrogen and phosphorus content to exceed standard greatly, causes the cultivated animals disease to take place frequently, and the phenomena of mortality happen occasionally; Cultivating pool brings the aquatic products potential safety hazard for preventing and treating a large amount of medications of Animal diseases; Cultivating pool waste water discharges in a large number, and not only pollution of marine environment causes the cultivating pool self-pollution simultaneously, causes vicious circle, and these phenomenons have seriously restricted the sustainable development of pond culture.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of method of implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond, it can solve the problems such as water quality eutrophication that the simple animal-breeding in northern pond that prior art exists brings, particularly can make frond be in fast growing period all the time, fill up the blank that northern sea area pond culture in summer does not have tangleweed in the summer high temperature phase.
In order to reach the purpose that solves the problems of the technologies described above, technical scheme of the present invention is, a kind of method of implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond is characterized in that, described method comprises the steps:
1) plant selection and the transportation of algae, mid or late May, coastal selection was in the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of growth animated period in south, and individual plant frond weight in wet base is selected the manner of packing of preservation by low temperature insulation at 180-220g, and air transport is to the north;
2) selected pond cultivation condition, described bottom material of pond for breeding is the silt substrate, mud: sand is 10~20%: 80~90%; Before the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of cultivation, must sterilize completely, remove assorted algae and harmful organisms the pond;
3) plant seedling proliferation: the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts kind algae that will transport back from south is slit into several strains with scissors from the frond base section, frond under the cutting will keep the integrality of its plant, and frond length is greater than 15cm, and individual plant frond weight in wet base is not less than 8g, side shoot is no less than 10, sandwiches the seedling rope and is bundled in flat supporting on the buoyant raft of pond;
4) end broadcast expand numerous: begin July to carry out to broadcast at the bottom of the seedling frond expand numerous, with the seedling frond according to step 2) requirement cutting, the frond of well cutting is distributed to pond bottom uniformly, every square metre of cloth seedling 30-50 strain, and remove the assorted algae of the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts growth of influence, when the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of cultivation at the bottom of the pond grows into individual plant frond weight in wet base and is 180-220g, it is carried out the branch seedling handle;
5) receive between increasing: September-November when the pond sturdy look of frond plant dense, length reaches more than the 35cm, receives between carrying out in the pond, the 7%-13% every receiving total amount 5-7 day between evenly stays the continued growth of part seedling;
6) survive the winter and keep a full stand of seedings: in 11 months to the last ten-days period, after the frond results, reservation growth pier is big, the long 35cm of plant above, the algae branch is sturdy and nothing is festered and the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of harmful animal, adopt partly to bury and dwell, expose the growing point mode and survive the winter, winter, Chi Shui remained on 2.0-3.0m, but safe overwintering under the Chi Shui-2 ℃ condition.
The present invention has following supplementary technology scheme:
Select kind of an algae standard to be, frond is sturdy, and branch is in great numbers neat, and body colour is bronzing, and frond is complete, the not damaged putrefactive phenomenon.
The manner of packing of described preservation by low temperature insulation is, the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond incubator of packing into, puts into the seawater ice chest and keeps low temperature, and temperature is controlled at 8-12 ℃, and it is moistening suitably to drench the seawater maintenance, seals then.
Described bottom material of pond for breeding is the silt substrate, mud: sand is 10~20%: 80~90%; The pond is carried out disinfection before the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond in cultivation, the pond disinfection mode is: the pond drains water and shone 25-35 days, injects seawater then and washes the pond, stays the 20-30cm seawater, presses the consumption of 200kg/ha with bleaching powder, carries out full pool spilling head and soaks a week.
Pond cultivation water quality environment, seawater salinity 28 ‰~31 ‰; PH 7.8~8.3; Pond depth of water 2m~3m, 20 ℃~30 ℃ of pond growth optimum water temperatures; Pond day quantity of exchanged water 20%~30%; Intensity of illumination≤1000lx at the bottom of the pond.
When dividing seedling to handle, to follow the big place of stand density during collection and adopt earlier, be in the requirement that growth animated period frond is adopted earlier, collect seedling and cut apart the back, so move in circles by every square metre of 30-50 strain continuation cloth seedling.
In the pond cultivation process in order to prevent that harmful organisms such as algae gammarid to the nibbling of crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond, throwing in a small amount of japonicus and carrying out ecology regulation and control.
Crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts not only has the effect of stronger absorbed nitrogen, phosphorus nutrition salt and enriching heavy metal ion, and frond itself is again the splendid bait of precious marine products such as abalone, has higher economic worth.The cultivation of the transplanting of the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of the present invention and pond not only enriched the algae culturing kind of northern China, and filled up the blank that northern China pond culture in summer does not have macro.Up to 20t, seedling input and output fresh weight is than up to 1: 1500, and is obvious to the catharsis of pond water quality by a receipts output per hectare fresh weight.
The present invention has following advantage and good effect:
1) utilizes the present invention, can solve southern algae kind and be transplanted to the graft failure that cause owing to the change that is subjected to factors such as weather and growing environment in the north, fill up the blank that northern area is not fit to pond culture in summer macro simultaneously, also enriched the diversity of northern China marine algae resource.
2) frond of cutting apart keeps complete vegetative shoot, makes frond be in fast growing period all the time, frond survival rate 100%, and growth is synchronously, and the frond size is evenly.
3) the cloth seedling is reasonable, can make every strain frond that sufficient growing space is all arranged, and has solved the drawback that influences the frond growth owing to the growing space is narrow and small.
4) low expense Peak output, the ALONG COASTAL FUJIAN algae strain of crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts algae kind source.The fresh weight input and output ratio of frond reaches 1: 1500.Per mu yield 1500kg, 4000~5000 yuan of per mu yield values.
5) the inventive method can be generalized to fish-farming in shallow marine water and pond, culture in the cofferdam, can effectively prevent the water pollution that causes owing to animal-breeding.Promote the ecologic breeding theory.
6) use the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts algae of this cultivation mode kind in the pond, to survive the winter and keep a full stand of seedings, reach and once introduce a fine variety the purpose of utilizing for many years.
7) it is numerous the present invention early stage only to need an a small amount of algae strain to expand, and cultivation later stage kind algae can be recycling, do not need to plant in a large number algae, can reach the effect that economizes on resources.
Embodiment
Select the algae kind: late May gathers in ALONG COASTAL FUJIAN and is in the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of growth animated period, and it is sturdy to choose frond, and branch is in great numbers neat, and body colour is bronzing, and frond is complete, and the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of not damaged putrefactive phenomenon is as the algae kind.
Low temperature transportation: the new fresh and crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of the gathering incubator of packing into, put into the seawater ice chest and keep low temperature, and it is moistening suitably to drench the seawater maintenance, temperature is controlled at 8-12 ℃, seals then, is transported to northern sea pond.
Frond is cut apart: the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of whole strain is divided into several parts from its base portion with scalpel, and the frond under the cutting will keep the integrality of its plant, and frond length is greater than 15cm, and individual plant frond weight in wet base must not be less than 8g, and side shoot must not be less than 10.
The selection and the processing in cultivation pond: utilize plant to be located at the cistern on seashore, 30 mu of pond areas, bottom material of pond for breeding are the silt substrate, mud: sand is 10~20%: 80~90%; Pond seawater salinity 28 ‰~31 ‰; PH 7.8~8.3; Pond depth of water 2m~3m; Intensity of illumination≤1000lx at the bottom of the pond.Before the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts cultivation, at first to and remove harmful organisms to the pond disinfection.
Pond cultivation cycle and operation: the cultivation process is divided into kind of a seedling proliferation phase; Broadcast and expand numerous phase at the end; The receipts phase keeps a full stand of seedings the phase with surviving the winter between growth.
1) plant the seedling proliferation phase: mid or late May is when ging up to 15 ℃ when the pond water temperature, the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts kind algae that to transport back from south is divided into several strains to frond from its base portion with scissors, frond under the cutting will keep the integrality of its plant, frond length is greater than 15cm, individual plant frond weight in wet base must not be less than 8g, and side shoot must not be less than 10.Be provided with in the pond and culture two of buoyant rafts, buoyant raft is 3m at interval, and the plant of well cutting is sandwiched Miao Shengzhong every 10cm, the long 3m of seedling rope, folder Miao Houping is suspended to and adopts floating to culture between two scaffolds, grows up with crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts and cuts apart the folder seedling again, until reaching enough seedling fronds;
2) numerous phase of expanding is broadcast at the end: July is when the pond water temperature reaches about 25 ℃, begins to carry out to broadcast at the bottom of the frond to expand numerously, and the frond of well cutting is distributed to pond bottom uniformly, is advisable with every square metre of cloth seedling 40 strains.And in time remove the assorted algae of the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts growth of influence.When the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of cultivation at the bottom of the pond grows into individual plant frond weight in wet base and is the 200g left and right sides, just can carry out the processing of branch seedling to it.To follow the big place of stand density during collection and adopt earlier, be in the principle of adopting earlier of growth animated period, irregularly continue to collect seedling, collect seedling and cut apart the back, so move in circles by every square metre 40 strain continuation cloth seedling; In order to prevent that algae from colluding harmful organisms such as shrimp to the nibbling of crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts, throw in a small amount of japonicus in the breeding process and carry out ecology regulation and control.
3) increase between the receipts phase: September-November when the pond sturdy look of frond plant dense, length reaches more than the 35cm, uses workboat to take off with bamboo in the pond and receives between carrying out, and receives about 10% of total amount every 5 days between evenly, all gathers in the crops until November, stays seedling and survives the winter.
4) survive the winter and keep a full stand of seedings the phase: the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts plant of remainder is kept to survive the winter at the bottom of the pond keep a full stand of seedings, winter, Chi Shui remained on more than the 2m, and water temperature drops to-2 ℃ of fronds and still can survive.
Ecological effect: in crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts cultivation pond, the pond discharge of wastewater can reduce more than 15%, water quality is limpid, transparency and dissolved oxygen content strengthen, the sea cucumber back of the body sour jujube of raising together with slightly grows, color and luster is fresh and tender, happiness is sought connections with between the algae strain, and than conventional pond culture sea cucumber aestivation time retardation 10-15 days, and growth was disease-free soon.
Take method of the present invention, can make the cultivated in north of introducing a fine variety of the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts success of southern algae kind frond be in all the time fast growing period at the pond Summer High-Temperature Times, and survival rate 100%. Utilizing the inventive method to cultivate crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts less investment output height, keep a full stand of seedings by surviving the winter of kind of algae, can reach and once introduce a fine variety the effect of utilizing for many years, is a kind of cultivation pattern of low input high benefit. The inventive method is having boundless application prospect aspect from now on Offshore Ecology reparation, artificial fishing bank and the shallow sea bottom sowing culture.

Claims (7)

1. the method for an implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond is characterized in that, described method comprises the steps:
1) plant selection and the transportation of algae, mid or late May, coastal selection was in the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of growth animated period in south, and individual plant frond weight in wet base is selected the manner of packing of preservation by low temperature insulation at 180-220g, and air transport is to the north;
2) selected pond cultivation condition, described bottom material of pond for breeding is the silt substrate, mud: sand is 10~20%: 80~90%; Before the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of cultivation, sterilized completely in the pond, remove assorted algae and harmful organisms;
3) plant seedling proliferation: the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts kind algae that will transport back from south is slit into several strains with scissors from the frond base section, frond under the cutting will keep the integrality of its plant, and frond length is greater than 15cm, and individual plant frond weight in wet base is not less than 8g, side shoot is no less than 10, sandwiches the seedling rope and is bundled in flat supporting on the buoyant raft of pond;
4) end broadcast expand numerous: begin July to carry out to broadcast at the bottom of the seedling frond expand numerous, with the seedling frond according to step 2) requirement cutting, the frond of well cutting is distributed to pond bottom uniformly, every square metre of cloth seedling 30-50 strain, and remove the assorted algae of the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts growth of influence, when the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts of cultivation at the bottom of the pond grows into individual plant frond weight in wet base and is 180-220g, it is carried out the branch seedling handle;
5) receive between increasing: September-November when the pond sturdy look of frond plant dense, length reaches more than the 35cm, receives between carrying out in the pond, the 7%-13% every receiving total amount 5-7 day between evenly stays the continued growth of part seedling;
6) survive the winter and keep a full stand of seedings: mid or late November, after the frond results, keep riotous growth, the long 35cm of frond body is above, the algae branch is sturdy and do not have and fester and the frond of harmful animal, employing partly being buried to dwell and exposing the growing point method and survive the winter, and winter, Chi Shui remained on 2.0-3.0m.
2. according to the described method of claim 1, it is characterized in that: select kind of an algae standard to be, frond is sturdy, and branch is in great numbers neat, and body colour is bronzing, and frond is complete, the not damaged putrefactive phenomenon.The manner of packing of described preservation by low temperature insulation is, the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond incubator of packing into, puts into the seawater ice chest and keeps low temperature, and temperature is controlled at 8-12 ℃, and it is moistening suitably to drench the seawater maintenance, seals then.
3. according to the described method of claim 3, it is characterized in that: a plurality of breed buoyant rafts are set in the pond, adjacent buoyant raft is 2.5-3.5m at interval, frond plant with well cutting, sandwich Miao Shengzhong every 8-12cm, folder Miao Houping is suspended between two buoyant rafts and adopts floating to culture, and increases weight after more than the individual plant weight 180g with crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond, cut apart the folder seedling once more, till reaching the seedling demand.
4. according to the described method of claim 2, it is characterized in that, before the crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond of cultivation, the pond is carried out disinfection, the pond disinfectant method is: the pond drains water and tanned by the sun 25-35 days, inject seawater then and wash the pond, stay the 20-30cm seawater, carry out full pool spilling head by the 200kg/ha consumption and soak a week with bleaching powder.
5. according to the described method of claim 4, it is characterized in that: pond cultivation water quality environment, salinity 28 ‰~31 ‰; PH 7.8~8.3; Pond depth of water 2m~3m, 20 ℃~30 ℃ of pond water temperatures; Pond day quantity of exchanged water 20%~30%; Intensity of illumination≤1000lx at the bottom of the pond.
6. according to the described method of claim 4, it is characterized in that, when dividing seedling to handle, will follow the big place of stand density during collection and adopt earlier, be in the requirement that growth animated period frond is adopted earlier, collect seedling and cut apart the back, so move in circles by every square metre of 30-50 strain continuation cloth seedling.
7. according to the described method of claim 3, it is characterized in that, in order to prevent harmful organisms, collude shrimp etc. to the nibbling of crisp fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts frond in the pond cultivation process, throw in a small amount of japonicus and carry out ecology regulation and control as algae.
CN2010101277140A 2010-03-15 2010-03-15 Method for implanting and cultivating Gracilaria bursa-pastoris in north pond Expired - Fee Related CN101779595B (en)

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Cited By (6)

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CN102204507A (en) * 2011-04-07 2011-10-05 胶南市海洋与渔业局 Intermediate rearing method for Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze seedlings
CN103814808A (en) * 2014-03-10 2014-05-28 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所 Water depth regulation and control method in gracilaria pond cultivation
CN106395029A (en) * 2016-09-09 2017-02-15 中国科学院海洋研究所 Asparagus live keeping transportation method
CN106613891A (en) * 2016-12-13 2017-05-10 广西壮族自治区海洋研究所 Simple ecological restoration method for halophila ovalis sea grass bed pond
CN106852287A (en) * 2016-12-13 2017-06-16 广西壮族自治区海洋研究所 Holothuria scabra ecological cultivation method in one kind happiness salt grass transplanting sea grass bed
CN110100524A (en) * 2019-05-24 2019-08-09 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 A kind of crispy gracilaria folder seedling pre-treating method

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CN101331849A (en) * 2007-06-25 2008-12-31 上海水产大学 Ecology reparation method of eutrophication barricaded sea area using gracilaria marine macroalgae

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CN102204507A (en) * 2011-04-07 2011-10-05 胶南市海洋与渔业局 Intermediate rearing method for Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze seedlings
CN103814808A (en) * 2014-03-10 2014-05-28 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所 Water depth regulation and control method in gracilaria pond cultivation
CN103814808B (en) * 2014-03-10 2015-09-30 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所 Depth of water regulate and control method in fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts pond culture
CN106395029A (en) * 2016-09-09 2017-02-15 中国科学院海洋研究所 Asparagus live keeping transportation method
CN106395029B (en) * 2016-09-09 2019-04-16 中国科学院海洋研究所 A kind of method of asparagus On Transportaion of Live
CN106613891A (en) * 2016-12-13 2017-05-10 广西壮族自治区海洋研究所 Simple ecological restoration method for halophila ovalis sea grass bed pond
CN106852287A (en) * 2016-12-13 2017-06-16 广西壮族自治区海洋研究所 Holothuria scabra ecological cultivation method in one kind happiness salt grass transplanting sea grass bed
CN106852287B (en) * 2016-12-13 2020-02-07 广西壮族自治区海洋研究所 Ecological breeding method for holothuria scabra in halophilic grass transplanting seaweed field
CN106613891B (en) * 2016-12-13 2020-03-27 广西壮族自治区海洋研究所 Simple and convenient halophila haliotidis bed pond ecological restoration method
CN110100524A (en) * 2019-05-24 2019-08-09 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 A kind of crispy gracilaria folder seedling pre-treating method
CN110100524B (en) * 2019-05-24 2020-05-19 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 Pretreatment method for gracilaria crispatus seedling clamping

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