CN105993613B - A kind of more season implantation methods of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick - Google Patents

A kind of more season implantation methods of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick Download PDF

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CN105993613B
CN105993613B CN201610657674.8A CN201610657674A CN105993613B CN 105993613 B CN105993613 B CN 105993613B CN 201610657674 A CN201610657674 A CN 201610657674A CN 105993613 B CN105993613 B CN 105993613B
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soil
mycelia
hickory chick
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layer
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CN105993613A (en
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常毓巍
何淑玲
马令法
杨敬军
李瑛萍
马军
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Guangxi Normal University for Nationalities
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National College Of Education In Gansu
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms

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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of more season implantation methods of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick, include the following steps: 1: the separation clone of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore;2: the production of cultivar;3: the production of foreign aid's nutrient bag;The method of the present invention is not limited in the severe area of the natural conditions such as high and cold, High aititude by natural conditions; it can anniversary scale, standardized planting hickory chick; material therefor is from a wealth of sources, convenient; it can turn waste into wealth; and recycle the junks such as life, production such as waste paper, litter decoration, plant ash, agricultural crop straw, fallen leaves, decomposed poultry, animal waste etc.; not only fruiting repeatability is high for the technology, and yield is high and stablizes, and the heliogreenhouse hickory chick off-season cultivation technology of economic environmental protection.

Description

A kind of more season implantation methods of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick
Technical field
The invention belongs to industrialized agriculture planting edible mushroom technical field, in particular to a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick More season implantation methods.
Background technique
Hickory chick (Morchella esculenta) is a kind of rare edible and medicinal fungi, and Morchellaceae, morchella are a variety of The all higher fungi of the general name of fungi, even more nutrition and medical value.Wild species often occur in the end of spring and the beginning of summer, and hickory chick nutrition is rich Richness is identified as the advanced benefit of human nutrition containing more than multiple proteins, polysaccharide, vitamin, mineral element and 20 amino acid Product become one of foremost Precious Edible Fungi in the world.Moreover, also there is hickory chick stronger antitumor, enhancing human body to exempt from Epidemic disease power, tonifying kidney and strengthening yang, preventing cold, the effects of keeping fit and healthy.Other than edible, medical value, modern society is also directed to its spy Different nutritional ingredient develops commercialized flavouring, health beverages, food (amino acid) additive, a series of products such as steep in wine. It can be seen that hickory chick is a kind of wide rare edible and medical fungi of development prospect.Some high-grade hotels domestic at present and electric business city Field can see hickory chick recipe or hard-cover merchandise sales, such as Taobao's 196 yuan/50 grams dry products of marked price, the sheep tripe of Alibaba For bacterium dry product wholesale price in 800~2000 yuan/jin, demand is quite big.And Chinese Wild hickory chick is become by bad environments at present Change and artificial excavation wantonly influences, wild toadstool yield is sharply reduced, and about 10 tons of production, the every year output of artificial cultivation are often only No more than 500 tons, and global hickory chick aggregate demand is estimated more than 100,000 tons, therefore, only remote by acquisition wild toadstool Far from satisfying social needs, and off-season cultivation hickory chick surely brings good economic well-being of workers and staff.In addition hickory chick food, Health care product, medication chemistry etc. are multi-field to be had broad application prospects, and is food of the Chinese main exit to European countries such as France With bacterium product, and as demand of the country such as moral, method, meaning, beauty to hickory chick increases, price is constantly soaring.But by Big in hickory chick artificial cultivation difficulty, artificial cultivation progress is slow, wild toadstool its be far from satisfying domestic and state The demand in border market, and due to transition in recent years excavate wild toadstool, seriously destroy hickory chick bio-diversity and Forest, Grassland ecosystems balance.Therefore, the artificial or Semi-artificial cultivation technology of hickory chick is always international edible mushroom research Hot spot, experiment in cultivation occasionally have success, but its poor repeatability, and fruiting is unstable, low output, can not carry out commercialization cultivation.Therefore, The artificial cultivation that the high yield of research hickory chick is of fine quality then has huge market prospects and economic benefit, ecological benefits, while right In the exploitation for reducing wild mushrooms, preserves the ecological environment, have great importance.
In recent years, the research of China hickory chick artificial cultivation was concentrated mainly on strain production technology, various crop fields, woods Ground, wheat, Radix Ophiopogonis bionic cultivation technology, in terms of Interplanting technique, it is external then be concentrated mainly on indoor industrially cultivation technique side Face.On Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, the Hubei of China and other places, the scale of hickory chick is substantially carried out, has commercially produced, mesh Before, both at home and abroad to hickory chick (M.esculenta), balck vein hickory chick (M.angusticeps), Morchellaconica (M.conica) Cultivation condition have been carried out extensive research and.The hickory chick cultivated area gone into operation has reached more than 8000 within 2014~2015 years Mu, per mu yield reach 10~150kg/ mus.The research and probe of artificial cultivation hickory chick had the history of last 100 years, in the U.S. in 1986 San Francisco State University Ron Ower has been authorized to the United States Patent (USP) of two hickory chicks cultivation in nineteen eighty-two and 1986.In 20 generation The Liu Bo fifties that records has carried out experimental study in terms of Semi-artificial cultivation, and using fresh natural mycelium cultivation, with fresh It is cultivated etc. with dry fructification cultivation, with the mycelium of pure culture, can successfully grow fructification.Simultaneously.Semi-artificial cultivation Training aspect, Taiwan Province have also carried out Semi-artificial cultivation test by bacterium soil inocalation method, fructification inocalation method;Foreign countries, at 1898 5 ~June, the fructification block of hickory chick by being seeded in jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) seedling by Baron dyvoire In bed cave, autumn applies people's apple pomace in jerusalem artichoke basal part of stem surrounding, and 1~2 Zhou Houzai covers dry branches and fallen leaves, and spring in next year removes deadwood The method of fallen leaves has carried out Semi-artificial cultivation test, finds under conditions of moister, the mycelium of hickory chick is in matrix Sprawling growth, has Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore to grow every year thereafter;Repin in 1892 will be through more months Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers myceliums of culture Kind of flower is sprinkling upon as strain to cultivate on the ground, mycelium is obtained after 4 years, and in the seedbed of the cured leaf composition through carbonic acid Calcium treatment to alkalinity Above and from the gully that the residual object of apple fills up also grow Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore;J.Pelmas report, with the apple pulps of pH value < 7 or Old newspaper can all plant out fructification, but experiment cannot repeat;Hickory chick has been planted out on 1904~1905 years Molliard apple pomaces Fructification;1909~1910Matruchat paper pulp, rotten wood mixture cultivate hickory chick, also obtain fructification.Outdoor planting Aspect, China have conducted extensive research.Hickory chick cultural method is reported for the first time in 1997 Zhu Douxi.Sichuan Qingchuan County is in previous generation It records and also carries out the field production experiment of hickory chick the nineties, fruiting is not very stable.Therefore, it finds a kind of with stable, high-yielding Measure hickory chick artificial cultivation technique especially stable, high-yielding in extremely frigid zones, it appears extremely urgent.Therefore, the purpose of the research It is solve how preferably to carry out sheep using day-light greenhouse in high and cold, high altitude localities such as Qinghai, Tibet, Gansu Gannans The off-season cultivation of tripe bacterium, to realize that extremely frigid zones hickory chick yield is high, quality is good and promote extremely frigid zones economy with this Development and peasants and herdsmen increase income, create the purpose of benefit.
1. Chinese patent application CN201310113092.X, a kind of wheat interplanting hickory chick artificial bionic cultivation is disclosed Method the, this method comprises: 1) production of hybrid seeds;2) furrow are done;3) inoculation and earthing;4) germicidal management;5) Additional nutrient solution;6) fruiting pipe Reason.
2. Chinese patent application 201310129134.9 discloses a kind of cultural method of hickory chick.
3. Chinese patent application CN201310152370.2 discloses a kind of cultivation under woods method of big legs hickory chick.
4. Chinese patent application CN201210339140.2 discloses a kind of new method for cultivating of hickory chick.
5. Chinese patent application CN201310115468.0 discloses the cultural method of terraced rib hickory chick.
6. Chinese patent application CN201310597665.0 discloses the method using cultivation in raw material hickory chick.
7. Chinese patent application CN200910060399.1 discloses hickory chick culture material formula and toadstool natural cultivation Method.
8. Chinese patent application CN200810058482.0 discloses a kind of ecological cultivation method for spire morel,.
9. Chinese patent application CN201310549990.X discloses a kind of hickory chick compost and its cultivation technique.
10. Chinese patent application CN201010148565.6 discloses the indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of a kind of hickory chick and its used Greenhouse.
11. Chinese patent application CN200610010962.0 discloses method for breeding and reproduction of hickory chick.
12. Chinese patent application CN201010287662.3 discloses New method for commercial field cultivation of toadstool.
13. according to agriculture networking (http://www.agrilink.cn) 2013-03=21, Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture in 2013 Hickory chick is cultivated on Shifang, Jintang, Chongzhou City and other places, using rice-dish-bacterium Compound Planting Model by academy of agricultural sciences, joint province, and per mu yield reaches 300~500 jin, be a kind of hickory chick novel species implant model.
14. Chinese patent application CN105218252 A discloses a kind of hickory chick cultivation special solid nutrient solution earthing material The preparation method of material.
15. 105154342 A of Chinese patent application CN discloses a kind of cultural method of hickory chick liquid strain.
16. 105191667 A of Chinese patent application CN discloses hickory chick nutrient formulation, nutrient bag and preparation method thereof With hickory chick cultural method.
17. 103907471 A of Chinese patent application CN discloses a kind of method of Radix Ophiopogonis naked interplanting hickory chick.
18. 103907481 A of Chinese patent application CN discloses a kind of production technology of hickory chick good quality strain.
19. 103583232 A of Chinese patent application CN discloses a kind of hickory chick compost and its cultivation technique.
20. 103190292 A of Chinese patent application CN discloses the cultivation under woods method of big legs hickory chick.
However, the above method has the following disadvantages: by its technology and methods in high altitudes and cold area, hickory chick is planted Yield is all very low, or even fruiting is unable to because being limited by low temperature, therefore cannot realize that anniversary metaplasia produces in extremely frigid zones.
The raw material mentioned in the above technology and methods is extremely limited in extremely frigid zones, cannot recycle waste paper, The work such as litter decoration, agricultural crop straw, domestic refuse need to put into lot of materials expense, meanwhile, for farmer, need Sophisticated equipment and the place of strain are produced, technical requirements are high, and farmer is difficult to operate, therefore increases its production cost;? When sunshade net cool canopy is used only in large-scale plantation, since high altitudes and cold area wind-force is big, it is easy to it is thrown by strong wind, it is in addition purple Outside line is very strong, and sunshade net is easy to aging, often to replace, and causes management troublesome and increased costs, meanwhile, it plants during the cold season Plant does not have thermal effect;After hickory chick picking, shading screen also needs to carry out manual recovery, and recycling later material cannot recycle Utilize, and time-consuming, sunshade net materials remain in soil, also soil can be caused further to pollute, under the influence of one batch Hickory chick plantation.
In conclusion the raw material and formula that currently used hickory chick artificial method for planting is generally selected are more complicated, Especially as the drugs farmer such as 6~benzyladenine, gibberellin obtains more difficult and higher cost, while during the production of hybrid seeds Advanced, high-end equipment is needed, price is very expensive, meanwhile, it is tired to will lead to management for the sunshade net discarded after large area use The problems such as hardly possible, pollution environment.Therefore, there is an urgent need to a kind of new methods at present, to solve the above problems.
Summary of the invention
To solve the above-mentioned problems of the prior art, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of high altitudes and cold area sheep The more season implantation methods of tripe bacterium are not limited in the severe area of the natural conditions such as high and cold, High aititude by natural conditions, can the anniversary scale Change, standardized planting hickory chick, material therefor is from a wealth of sources, convenient, can turn waste into wealth, and recycle life, production etc. and give up Past heritage such as waste paper, litter decoration, plant ash, agricultural crop straw, fallen leaves, decomposed poultry, animal waste etc., the technology not only fruiting Repeated high, yield is high and stablizes, and the heliogreenhouse hickory chick off-season cultivation technology of economic environmental protection.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the technical solution of the present invention is as follows:
A kind of more season implantation methods of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick, are made of following steps:
Step 1: the separation clone of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore:
Culture base-material divides five layers of setting, according to mass fraction, each layer in a reservoir specifically: first layer is 25~80 parts The decomposed ox in native+3~5 parts of quick lime+72~15 part of hickory chick footing, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer are 85~65 parts of agricultural crop straws Powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdust, third layer are+1~3 parts of vitamin B complexes+4 of 10~30 parts of wheat+85~65 part agricultural residues powders ~2 parts of plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdusts, and layer 5 is 10~35 parts of corns + 70~30 parts of crushing waste paper+10~5 part urea of core+10~30 part weed tree sawdust, vessel port tampon beyond the Great Wall are 125 DEG C in temperature, Pressure is high pressure sterilization 1 hour under 0.15Mpa, at room temperature natural cooling;Wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore is taken into wheat 1~2 piece of tissue of size is seeded on above-mentioned the first layered material of test tube, test tube is placed at 12~28 DEG C, air humidity 60% ~95%, under be protected from light culture, start within the 2nd day after inoculation to grow mycelia, 10~15 days to cover with mycelia until growing bacterium in test tube The mycelia of test tube bottom is taken after core or sclerotium or has the culture medium of mycelia, sclerotium to be directly seeded on cultivar compost;
Step 2: the production of cultivar
Cultivate the corn stalk pellets that major ingredient formula is 0.2~0.5 centimetre of+75%~30% diameter of 10%~35% wheat + 1% lime of+3% phosphate fertilizer of+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate of+10%~30% plant ash;2. will impregnate 24~48 hours wheats boil to It pulls out and drains away the water after the inside non-whitening but not rotten skin, in addition corn stalk pellets, plant ash are mixed thoroughly;3. by potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Phosphate fertilizer and lime are dissolved completely in water to mix is made into compost in said mixture, water content 50%~65%;4. compost Seal material formula are as follows: 60%~82% hickory chick footing soil, 38%~14% plant ash, 1%~3% quick lime, 1% di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium, water content 30%~45%, pH are 7.0~7.5;5. sealing compound bottling or pack: first by compost major ingredient be packed into bottle or In bag, bottling or pack are reloaded into sealing compound;6. sealing sterilizing: 121 DEG C~125 DEG C, 0.12Mpa~0.15Mpa high pressure sterilization 4~2 hours;7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooling, the isolated mycelia of step 1 is accessed in gnotobasis or sclerotium connects It takes soybean grain size to be seeded on sealing compound and compress with compost to come into full contact with material, 20mm × 200mm test tube regards bacterium Silk and sclerotium growing way can connect 30~55 bottles or bag, wherein lowest level connect 15~25 bottles or bag, the second layer connects 10~20 bottles, first Layer connects 5 bottles~10 bottles;8. culture: being protected from light culture at being 10~28 DEG C in temperature, air humidity is 55%~90%, the after inoculation Start within 2~4 days to grow mycelia, 10~20 days mycelia expire bottle or purseful until growing sclerotium is cultivar;
Step 3: the production of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 60%~85% waste paper, 35%~10% urea, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% gypsum;
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed plantation, Zhou Nianjun can be planted, this step includes:
(1) site preparation and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal are as base manure, 2. soil disinfection: will be native in compartment Earth scarifying, leveling, first comprehensively sterilized with lime, lime consumption be 250kg/ mus~350kg/ mus, pour once it is permeable after, Sunning 2-5 days, then the plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick and the middle sand of one layer of 5 cm thick are spread, spray concentration is 0.5% cypermethrin And 50% phoxim mixed aqueous solution desinsection;3. greenhouse booth sterilizes: primary rear closed greenhouse is ploughed deeply on ground again after soil disinfection Suffocating sterilization is carried out 3 days with potassium permanganate and formaldehyde, then ventilation process 2 days;4. playing compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth is opened If compartment face, compartment face width is 80~120cm, then opens up compartment irrigation ditch in compartment face surrounding, and 15~30cm of width of irrigation ditch pours water The depth of ditch is 15~20cm, then cultivar is sown on the face of compartment, the big application rate of the technical requirements, divides spring, autumn, three season of winter Sowing;
(2) it sterilizes: utensil being taken to strain using 75% alcohol, holds basin, after inoculation personnel's both hands etc. carry out disinfection, Hickory chick strain is placed in by taking utensil and is held in utensil by inoculation personnel;
(3) it dresses seed: triglycerides and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1~3:1) and water being mixed and made into seed dressing solution, cultivar is mixed Even, the dosage for solution of dressing seed is cultivate quality 25% -35%, because hickory chick must store enough in vegetative growth phase Nutrition, and triglycerides can be used as nutriment and be stored in the needs for meeting hickory chick reproductive growth in mycelia, therefore, Reproductive growth period is extended, the generation of pest and disease damage is reduced, fruiting is stablized, and plantation yield is greatly increased;The technology is The three of core of the invention technology;
(4) sow: on the face of compartment first with+0.5% zinc sulfate of+0.5% magnesium sulfate of+1% gibberellin of 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+ The mixed nutrient solution of 10% plant ash spills wet entire compartment face, then is directly broadcasted sowing on the face of compartment, covers the soil of 2~4cm afterwards, then Soil in compartment is carried out to sprinkling irrigation in 4~6 hours, until soil moisture is made to reach 95%, then covers one layer of (2~3cm on the face of compartment It is thick) crop material, in favor of moisturizing;Purpose is that the spun lacing of first time is sharp to make the mycelia being growing enter reproduction by carrying out Growth;If the first season, mycelia nutrient growth was in 2,3 and April, and fructification reproductive growth is in mid-May to 6 in sowing at the beginning of 2 months At the beginning of the month, growth cycle terminates within 25~40 days, in entire growth phase, is not less than hickory chick life in extremely frigid zones temperature of shed The minimum growth temperature of history finishes the entire history of life for sporophore growth 1 month or so, and first season fruiting yield is about 100~ 150kg/ mus;Then summer, mycelia nutrient growth was in 6,7 and August, at the beginning of mid-August to September in progress second season sowing at the beginning of 6 months Start fruiting, this season is not more than the maximum growth temperature of its history of life, sporophore growth 30 in extremely frigid zones temperature The entire history of life is completed within~50 days, second season fruiting yield is about 150~kg/ mus, then carries out broadcasting the third quarter at the beginning of October Kind, mycelia nutrient growth is in 10,11,12 and January, since the morning and evening temperature difference is larger, morning 3:00~5:00 temperature in canopy in one day For it is minimum~5 DEG C~3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, fructification reproductive growth in second year by the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, this season Section, in high altitudes and cold area greenhouse booth temperature will not be lower than its history of life most bottom growth temperature, sporophore growth 40~ Complete within 55 days the entire history of life, 170~200kg/ mus of second season fruiting yield;It is thereby achieved that the anniversary of a Nian Sanji Production, and due to, high altitudes and cold area can extend to 30~40 days almost without the season for being higher than 30 DEG C, fruiting, and in temperature Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore fruiting in area's is only 10~15 days to degree higher;Increasing application rate is the key that improve one of yield, is in addition used Nutrient solution sprinkling compartment face can grow for mycelia provides the substances such as necessary inorganic salts, hormone, and in addition hickory chick continuous cropping more can be rich The microbiota of rich soil, to greatly increase yield than nonoculture;
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is launched
At step 4 hickory chick after planting the: 7~10 days, hole is pricked on nutriment bag, the side for resting material bag aperture is lain against Soil surface is depressed into and comes into full contact with all Kong Junyu soil, if in air by hole exposure, will cause in nutrient bag Nutriment infects miscellaneous bacteria and goes mouldy, and the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm~45cm, line-spacing 30cm~50cm;
(6) vegetative stage management
Step 5 hickory chick after planting, carry out soil irrigation ditch when causing soil to whiten because of soil water evaporation Flood irrigation and compartment face sprinkling irrigation processing, when being irrigated, plus triglycerides 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and carefully in water Born of the same parents mitogen 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelia growth, meanwhile, compartment face soil moisture 50%~70% is kept, air is wet Degree 70%~95%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature;
(7) take away foreign aid's nutrient bag: nutrient bag is launched 7~40 days, covers with mycelia in Nutrient bag, and mycelia is very close It is taken away after collection, takes away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia and enter one of inducement of reproductive growth, it is rear to carry out first time moisturizing 2L/m2, rear every A water progress spun lacing was mended every 7 days to swash, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and cell are added into water when former base appearance, moisturizing Mitogen 0.05mL/L, the sharp speed of spun lacing are 250~1000mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre, 12 hours to 40 hours every time, in water The drying that soil will be opposite before stimulating, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65% of water, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C;
(8) hickory chick management of producing mushroom
After Morciiella Esculeuta Mycelia is differentiated to form former base to the immature fructification with stem and cap, into hickory chick fruiting rank Section, former base occur to being a crucial this period in period during growing to 3cm, and soil moisture control in compartment face is in field capacity 50%~60%, air humidity control 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature, condition is slightly uncomfortable, and former base will be a large amount of It is dead;
(9) it harvests
After sporophore growth 5~10 days, when color becomes sallow by grey, fructification surface begins with a small amount of white spore Reach ripeness standard when powder occurs to be harvested in time, mature one harvests one, and every morning, noon, afternoon respectively pick 1 It is secondary;When picking, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion and soil, neat cutting not pulled out from soil directly with hand It rises, in order to avoid immature former base and immature fructification around damage.
Further, in the step 1, first layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 50~75%, second Layer loading amount be test tube volume 25%, water content be 55~70%, third layer loading amount be test tube volume 15%, water content be 40~ 55%, the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, and layer 5 loading amount is test tube volume 20%, aqueous Amount is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves 5% space in favor of inner air tube circulation.
Further, in the step 2, compost major ingredient loading amount standard is to be reloaded into sealing compound no more than 3/5, is sealed Expect that loading amount standard is no less than 1/5, charging cannot be too real, and material is intermediate to plug a batten, and bottle or bag will reserve 1/5 sky Between, to ensure the aeration expected.
Further, in the step 3, will each raw material mix after be mixed thoroughly with water, water content be 45%~60% to get Nutriment is successively packed, is sealed by foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, does not need high pressure sterilization to get nutriment bag.
Further, in the step 4, the usage amount of organic fertilizer is 800~1200kg/ mus, the usage amount of Rapeseed meal It is 120~130kg/ mus.
Further, in the step 4, first time moisturizing, rate of water make-up 2L/m are carried out after taking away foreign aid's nutrient bag2, after It mended a water progress spun lacing every 7 days to swash, until former base occurs.
Further, in the step 4, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and the basic element of cell division is added when moisturizing into water 0.05mL/L, the sharp speed of spun lacing are 250~1000mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre, 12 hours to 40 hours every time, before spun lacing swashs Soil will be opposite drying, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65% of water, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 ℃。
Compared with the existing technology, the invention has the benefit that
1. the separation clone technology of the fructification of wild (or cultivation) kind of the invention uses five layers of special and different original Material formula can be used directly because mycelia has had reached the purpose of purifying and rejuvenation by the growth of five layers of different composts Cultivar is produced, the production of parent species and original seed is eliminated, significantly shortens the production of hybrid seeds period.2. the raw material in cultivar production Mainly with hickory chick footing soil, plant ash, decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, farming straw powder, corncob, based on wheat bran, material used Expect that source is very convenient, extensive, cheap, less investment greatly reduces cost, but improves yield.3. in nutrient bag nutriment Material therefor source used is equally very convenient, extensive, cheap based on shredded paper and urea in formula, and less investment is greatly dropped Low cost, and follow it is bad life, work waste product is utilized, also protect ecological environment.4. carried out in site preparation basal dressing, Therefore three soil disinfection, greenhouse booth sterilizing links do not have pest and disease damage, and improve yield during plantation.5. dressing seed The mixed liquor of Shi Caiyong triglycerides and potassium dihydrogen phosphate is as seed dressing liquid, because triglycerides can be used as nutriment storage Meet the needs of hickory chick reproductive growth in mycelia, therefore, extends reproductive growth period, and reduce pest and disease damage Occur, improves plantation yield.Necessary inorganic salts are provided, are swashed 6. can be grown before sowing with nutrient solution sprinkling compartment face for mycelia Compartment face soil is after planting carried out sprinkling irrigation in 4~6 hours by the substances such as element, it is therefore an objective to which the spun lacing by carrying out first time, which swashs, to be made just Enter reproductive growth in the mycelia of growth, so that fruiting in advance, can shorten crop cycle, then cover on the face of compartment one layer (2~ 3cm is thick) crop material, so that moisturizing improves yield indirectly.7. hickory chick continuous cropping can more enrich the microorganism of soil Fauna, to greatly increase yield than nonoculture.8. the Best Times for launching foreign aid's nutrient bag be hickory chick after planting the 7th~ 10 days.9. taking away foreign aid's nutrient bag optimum time is 16 days, because having overgrowed with intensive mycelia in nutrient bag at this time, at this time Taking away exogenous nutrition can induce hickory chick to enter reproductive growth earlier, while carry out first time moisturizing 2L/m2, after every 7 It is mended a water progress spun lacing and swashs, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and cell point are added into water when former base appearance, moisturizing Split plain 0.05mL/L, the sharp speed of spun lacing is 250~1000mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre 2,12 hours to 40 hours every time, in spun lacing The drying that soil will be opposite before swashing, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65% of water, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12 ~22 DEG C.10. vegetative stage is irrigated, in water plus triglycerides 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and Basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelia growth, when former base grows to the period of 3cm key, compartment face soil moisture Control is the 50%~60% of field capacity, and air humidity control is 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature, optimum temperature 18 DEG C, condition is slightly uncomfortable, and former base will mortality.
In conclusion beneficial effects of the present invention: 1) in high altitudes and cold area whole year production hickory chick, and annual output is high Up to 422kg~520kg/ mus.2) fructification piece shape is proper, uniform in size, bacterium emits perimeter and is averaged 2.5cm~4.0cm, and bacterium emits length 2.0~3.5cm, stem 0.5~1.5cm of perimeter, the long 1~2cm of stem, bacterium emit fleshy hypertrophy, and all good rate of quality may be up to 92%.
3) life, work waste product and leftover bits and pieces have sufficiently been recycled, planting cost has been reduced, improves yield, has been protected With repaired ecological environment.
Meanwhile the present invention eliminates the production of the highest parent species of technical requirements in production of hybrid seeds program, and wild species are cloned, system Make waste paper common in selection life when original seed, cultivar, culture material and foreign aid's nutrient bag, litter decoration, corncob, wheat, jade The cheap composts such as rice stalk, wheat bran, fallen leaves, chicken manure, cow dung have sufficiently recycled local production, life is got a foothold and material Waste etc. both manages simple to operation, there is ecological, environmental protective, the yield small and that substantially increase hickory chick of investment.
Specific embodiment
Technical solution of the present invention is described in further detail With reference to embodiment:
A kind of more season implantation methods of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick, are made of following steps:
Step 1: the separation clone of the fructification of wild (or cultivation) kind
Equipment used and technical essential: (1) test tube of various specifications: 10mm × l00mm, 12mm × l00mm, 15mm × l50mm,18mm×180mm,20mm×200mm;(2) raw material: hickory chick footing soil, decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, wheat, agriculture Make straw powder, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corncob, wheat bran, crush waste paper, urea, vitamin B1;(3) technical essential: test tube first layer It is 85~65 parts for the decomposed ox in native+3~5 parts of quick lime+72~15 part of 25~80 parts of hickory chick footings, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer Agricultural residues powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdust, third layer are 10~30 parts+1~3 parts of wheat+85~65 part agricultural residues powder Vitamin B complex+4~2 part plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdusts, layer 5 10 + 70~30 parts of crushing waste paper+10~5 part urea of~35 parts of corncob+10~30 part weed tree sawdusts, first layer loading amount are test tube volume 15%, water content is 50~75%, and second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is Test tube volume 15%, water content are 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is the 35~50%, the 5th Layer loading amount is test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves 5% space in favor of inner air tube circulation. Vessel port tampon beyond the Great Wall is 125 DEG C in temperature, and pressure is high pressure sterilization 1 hour under 0.15Mpa, at room temperature natural cooling;It will Wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore takes 1~2 piece of tissue of wheat size to be seeded on above-mentioned the first layered material of test tube, and test tube is put At 12~28 DEG C, air humidity is 60%~95%, under be protected from light culture, start within the 2nd day after inoculation to grow mycelia, 10~15 days After cover with mycelia in test tube until taking the mycelia of test tube bottom after growing sclerotium or sclerotium or having the culture medium of mycelia, sclerotium direct It is seeded on cultivar compost;Because mycelia has had reached the mesh of purifying and rejuvenation by the growth of three layers of different composts , it can be used directly to production cultivar, the production of parent species and original seed is eliminated, significantly shorten the production of hybrid seeds period.
Dry out when first layer hickory chick footing soil content is less than 25% because tissue block is dehydrated for a long time, causes to send out Bacterium;Mycelia mycelia is not twisted together when decomposed ox, sheep or chicken manure content are lower than 15%, slow growth, or even is stopped growing;Quick lime contains Material is easy mildew, or even separation failure when amount is lower than 3%.Third layer is 10%~30% wheat;Third layer wheat content 10%, Vitamin B complex will not be twisted together lower than 1% and when vegetation ash content is lower than 2% in this layer of mycelia, only minimal amount of bacterium Silk just can enter the 4th layer.Layer 5 crushes waste paper content lower than 30% and when urea content is lower than 5%, mycelia slow growth, Also sclerotium is not formed, yield is caused to reduce, when corncob content is lower than 10%, compost aeration is poor, is easy mildew.
Step 2: the production of cultivar
Equipment used and technical essential: (1) seed bottle of 450~750mL or polypropylene strain bag or clean discarded Can, infusion bottle;(2) raw material: hickory chick footing soil, plant ash, decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, farming straw powder, phosphate fertilizer, White sugar, corncob, wheat bran, urea;(3) technical essential: 1. cultivating major ingredient material formula is 10%~35% wheat+75%~30% The corn stalk pellets+10% that 0.2~0.5 centimetre of diameter~+1% stone of+3% phosphate fertilizer of+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 30% plant ash Ash.Bacterium germination is very slow when wheat content and vegetation ash content are lower than 10%, and mycelia is not also twisted together, and the sclerotium of formation is less, or even not Sclerotium is formed, causes fruiting few, low output.When wheat Content is higher than 30%, the overnutrition of mycelia growth causes resource Waste, while production cost is improved, when corn stalk pellets are lower than 10%, the aeration of raw material is poor, and the mildew rate of material increases It is high.It drains away the water 2. being pulled out after the wheat impregnated 24~48 hours is boiled to the inside non-whitening but not rotten skin, in addition corn stover Particle, weed tree sawdust, wheat bran are mixed thoroughly.It is mixed in said mixture 3. potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and lime are dissolved completely in water It is made into compost, water content 50%~65%, pH is nature.4. compost seals material formula are as follows: 60%~82% hickory chick base Foot soil, 38%~14% plant ash, 1%~3% quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, water content 30%~45%, pH be 7.0~ 7.5;Hickory chick footing soil content is lower than 60% and vegetation ash content is lower than 14%, and bacterium germination is waited a moment late, and the water retention property of material is poor, water Divide evaporation fast, is unfavorable for Sclerotia forming.When quick lime content is lower than 1%, the easily raw nematode of sealing compound is higher than 3%, and the pH value of material will Higher than 7.5, alkalinity is too strong, is unfavorable for mycelia growth.5. sealing compound bottling or pack: compost major ingredient being first packed into bottle or bag In, bottling or pack, loading amount standard are 3/5, are reloaded into sealing compound, and loading amount standard is 1/5, and charging cannot be too real, are interleave in material A upper batten, to ensure the aeration expected.6. sealing sterilizing: 121 DEG C~125 DEG C, 0.12Mpa~0.15Mpa high pressure sterilization 2 ~4 hours.7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooling, access the step 1 isolated mycelia or sclerotium in gnotobasis, one Branch test tube can connect 30~55 bottles or bag, wherein lowest level connect 15~25 bottles or bag, the second layer connects 10~20 bottles, and first layer connects 5 Bottle~10 bottles.8. culture: being protected from light culture at being 10~28 DEG C in temperature, optimum temperature is 18~20 DEG C, air humidity 55% ~90%, optimum humidity is 65%~75%, and the starts to grow mycelia for 2-4 days after inoculation, and 10~20 days mycelia bottle or purseful are straight It is cultivar to sclerotium is grown.
Step 3: the production of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 60%~85% waste paper, 35%~10% urea, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% gypsum;Lower than 60% and when urea content is lower than 10%, mycelia enters waste paper content The time of nutrient bag extends, and extends the time for taking away foreign aid's inter space, to extend the vegetative growth phase of mycelia, postpones The reproductive growth time, therefore, fruiting is later, extends the growth cycle of hickory chick, can not achieve the production of a Nian Sanji, indirectly Ground reduces yield.(2) will each raw material mix after be mixed thoroughly with water, water content is 45%~60% to get foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, Nutriment is successively packed, is sealed, does not need high pressure sterilization to get nutriment bag.Nutrient bag food material source is convenient, wide General, cheap, less investment not high to equipment requirement greatly reduces cost, technically simple.
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed (having ventilation, irrigation equipment) plantation, Zhou Nianjun can be planted, this step includes following mistake Journey: (solid growth can also be carried out with plantation layer frame in canopy, spatial planting technology is being researched and developed)
(1) site preparation and sowing: 1. basal dressing: as base manure, the usage amount of organic fertilizer is 800 for organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal ~1200kg/ mus, the usage amount of Rapeseed meal is 120~130kg/ mus;2. soil disinfection: by soil scarifying in compartment, leveling is first Comprehensively sterilized with lime, lime consumption is 250kg/ mu~350kg/ mu, pour once it is permeable after, sunning 2-5 days then is spread The plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick and the middle sand of one layer of 5 cm thick, spray 0.5% cypermethrin and the mixing of 50% phoxim is water-soluble Liquid desinsection;3. greenhouse booth sterilizes: primary rear closed greenhouse is ploughed deeply on ground again after soil disinfection and is smoked with potassium permanganate and formaldehyde Sterilizing 3 days is steamed, then ventilation process 2 days;4. playing compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth opens up compartment face, compartment face width is 80~ 120cm, then compartment irrigation ditch, 15~30cm of width of irrigation ditch are opened up in compartment face surrounding, the depth of irrigation ditch is 15~20cm, so Cultivar is sown on the face of compartment afterwards, the big application rate of the technical requirements, divides spring, autumn, the sowing of three season of winter.
(2) it sterilizes: utensil being taken to strain using 75% alcohol, holds basin, after inoculation personnel's hand etc. carries out disinfection, is connect Hickory chick strain is placed in by taking utensil and is held in utensil by kind of personnel.
(3) it dresses seed: triglycerides and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1~3:1) and water being mixed and made into seed dressing solution, cultivar is mixed Even, the dosage for solution of dressing seed is cultivate quality 25% -35%, because hickory chick must store enough in vegetative growth phase Nutrition, and triglycerides can be used as nutriment and be stored in the needs for meeting hickory chick reproductive growth in mycelia, therefore, Reproductive growth period is extended, the generation of pest and disease damage is reduced, fruiting is stablized, and plantation yield is greatly increased.The technology is The three of core of the invention technology.
(4) sow: on the face of compartment first with+0.5% zinc sulfate of+0.5% magnesium sulfate of+1% gibberellin of 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+ The mixed nutrient solution of 10% plant ash, which is spilt, fits entire compartment face, sprays this nutrient solution, can effectively break the suspend mode of mycelia, provide simultaneously Various salt needed for mycelia nutrient growth.Directly broadcasted sowing on the face of compartment again, afterwards cover 2~4cm soil, then by compartment soil into Row sprinkling irrigation in 4~6 hours until soil moisture is made to reach 95%, then covers the crop straw of one layer (2~3cm is thick) on the face of compartment Stalk, in favor of moisturizing.Purpose is that the spun lacing of first time is sharp to make the mycelia being growing enter reproductive growth by carrying out.If the One season, mycelia nutrient growth was in 2,3 and April, and fructification reproductive growth is at the beginning of mid-May to 6 months in sowing at the beginning of 2 months, and 25~40 Its growth cycle terminates, and in entire growth phase, is not less than the minimum life of the hickory chick history of life in extremely frigid zones temperature of shed Long temperature finishes the entire history of life for sporophore growth 1 month or so, and first season fruiting yield is about 100~150kg/ mus.It connects Summer second season sowing is carried out at the beginning of 6 months, mycelia nutrient growth just starts fruiting in 6,7 and August, mid-August to September, this A season is not more than the maximum growth temperature of its history of life in extremely frigid zones temperature, completes within sporophore growth 30~50 days The entire history of life, second season fruiting yield are about 150~kg/ mus, and third quarter sowing, mycelia nutrition are then carried out at the beginning of October Be grown in 10,11,12 and January, since the morning and evening temperature difference is larger, in one day in canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be it is minimum~5 DEG C ~3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, fructification reproductive growth in second year by the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, this season, in high and cold high sea Area's greenhouse booth temperature of rising sheer from level ground will not be lower than the most bottom growth temperature of its history of life, and sporophore growth 40~55 completes entire life History living, 170~200kg/ mus of second season fruiting yield.It is thereby achieved that the whole year production of a Nian Sanji, and due to high and cold Almost without 30 DEG C of season is higher than, fruiting can extend to 30~40 days for high altitude localities, and in temperature area hickory chick higher Fructification fruiting only has 10~15 days.Increasing application rate is the key that improve one of yield, in addition can with nutrient solution sprinkling compartment face To provide the substances such as necessary inorganic salts, hormone for mycelia growth, in addition hickory chick continuous cropping can more enrich the microbiota of soil System, to greatly increase yield than nonoculture.
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is launched
At step 4 hickory chick after planting the: 7~10 days, hole is pricked on nutriment bag, the side for resting material bag aperture is lain against Soil surface is depressed into and comes into full contact with all Kong Junyu soil, if in air by hole exposure, will cause in nutrient bag Nutriment infects miscellaneous bacteria and goes mouldy, and the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm~45cm, line-spacing 30cm~50cm.
(6) vegetative stage management
Step 5 hickory chick after planting, carry out soil irrigation ditch when causing soil to whiten because of soil water evaporation Flood irrigation and compartment face sprinkling irrigation processing, when being irrigated, plus triglycerides 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and carefully in water Born of the same parents mitogen 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelia growth, meanwhile, keep compartment face soil moisture 50%~70%, the most adaptability of soil Earth humidity 65%, air humidity 70%~95%, most suitable air humidity 75%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature, 20 DEG C of optimum temperature.
(7) take away foreign aid's nutrient bag: nutrient bag is launched 7~40 days, covers with mycelia in Nutrient bag, and mycelia is very close Exogenous nutrition bag is taken away after collection;It takes away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia and enters one of inducement of reproductive growth, it is rear to carry out first time moisturizing 2L/m2, after mended water every 7 days and carry out spun lacing and swash, until former base occurs, when moisturizing, potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added into water 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, the sharp speed of spun lacing are 250~1000mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre, 12 hours every time By 40 hours, the drying that soil will be opposite before spun lacing swashs, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65% of water, air humidity 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature;
(8) hickory chick management of producing mushroom
After Morciiella Esculeuta Mycelia is differentiated to form former base to the immature fructification with stem and cap, into hickory chick fruiting rank Section, former base occur to being a crucial this period in period during growing to 3cm, and soil moisture control in compartment face is in field capacity 50%~60%, air humidity control 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature, condition is slightly uncomfortable, and former base will be a large amount of It is dead;
(9) it harvests
After sporophore growth 5~10 days, when color becomes sallow by grey, fructification surface begins with a small amount of white spore Reach ripeness standard when powder occurs to be harvested in time, mature one harvests one, every morning, noon, picking in afternoon 1 It is secondary.When picking, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion and soil, neat cutting not pulled out from soil directly with hand It rises, in order to avoid immature former base and immature fructification around damage.
Embodiment 1
Enforcement place: Gansu Province, Gansu, Hezuo City college of education, nationality high fungal pathogens research and teaching practice base, height above sea level 3090 meters, 1.7 DEG C of average annual temperature, without absolute frost-free period.
On April 15th, 2013 is after the Hezuo City soil of high altitudes and cold just thaws on Gansu college of education, nationality plateau 3 negative canopies, each canopy area 600m are planted with sunshade net cool canopy conventional method in fungi research and teaching practice base2, to August part every Less than 10 fructifications are seen in a canopy, and fructification is small.Then two quarterly test kinds were carried out with same cool canopy at September 15th, directly To on April 20th, 2014 to May 20,3 negative canopies have grown 40 fructifications altogether.On March 15th, 2013 is simultaneously in sunlight Planting technology is carried out in the canopy of room and improves test, achieves unexpected technical effect, 2013~so far, by 4 years annual 3 The repetition in season is tested, and test result can repeat and obtain success.
Embodiment 2
Enforcement place: village, Zhuoni County township, Gansu Province, between 2000-2920 meters of mean sea level, 4.6 DEG C of average annual temperature, 584 millimeters of annual precipitation, heliogreenhouse shed plantation sum is 18 canopies, and area is 18 mu.The time: March 10 in 2014 is implemented in plantation Day~on March 20th, 2016.
Specific implementation process is as follows.
Step 1: the separation clone of the fructification of wild (or cultivation) kind
(1) test tube used in: 15mm × l50mm (2) raw material: hickory chick footing soil, decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, wheat, agriculture Make straw powder, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corncob, wheat bran, crush waste paper, urea, vitamin B;(3) technical essential: test tube first layer is Native+5 parts of+15 parts of the quick lime decomposed oxen of 80 parts of hickory chick footings, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer are 65 parts+35 parts of agricultural residues powder Weed tree sawdust, third layer are 30 parts of+65 parts of wheat+3 parts of agricultural residues powder+2 parts of plant ash of vitamin B complex, and the 4th layer is 65 parts + 35 parts of weed tree sawdusts of agricultural residues powder, layer 5 are 35 parts of+30 parts of corncob+30 parts of weed tree sawdust crushing+5 parts of urea of waste paper, examination Tampon on pipe close sterilizes 1 hour, at room temperature natural cooling in 121 DEG C of pressure cookers.By wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore Tissue block is with adopting with being seeded on moist soil, and the method has reached simple open-sky technique, not by ambient environmental conditions Limitation and restriction.Test tube is placed at 20 DEG C, air humidity 75%, optimum humidity is protected from light culture under being 80%, the 2nd after inoculation It starts to grow mycelia, takes the culture medium of mycelia, sclerotium to be directly inoculated with after covering with mycelia in test tube and growing sclerotium within 13 days On cultivar compost.
Step 2: the production of cultivar
(1) clean discarded can, the infusion bottle of 450mL are selected;(2) raw material: hickory chick footing soil, plant ash, Decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, farming straw powder, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corncob, wheat bran, urea;(3) technical essential: 1. culture master Expect that material formula is+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% of+30% plant ash of corn stalk pellets of 0.5 centimetre of+30% diameter of 35% wheat + 1% lime of phosphate fertilizer.It drains away the water 2. being pulled out after the wheat impregnated 48 hours is boiled to the inside non-whitening but not rotten skin, in addition beautiful Rice stalk particle, weed tree sawdust, wheat bran are mixed thoroughly.It mixes 3. potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and lime are dissolved completely in water above-mentioned mixed It closes and is made into compost, water content 50% in object, pH is nature.4. compost seals material formula are as follows: 82% hickory chick footing soil, 14% plant ash, 3% quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate contain hydraulic quantity 40%, and pH is nature.5. sealing compound bottling or pack: First compost major ingredient is fitted into bottle or bag, bottling or pack, loading amount standard are 3/5, are reloaded into sealing compound, and loading amount standard is 1/ 5, charging cannot be too real, and material is intermediate to plug a batten, to ensure the aeration expected.6. sealing sterilizing: 121 DEG C of high pressure sterilizations 3 Hour.7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooling, in mycelia or sclerotium that access step 1 is isolated in gnotobasis, one Test tube can connect 35 bottles, wherein lowest level connect 15 bottles or bag, the second layer connects 10 bottles, and first layer connects 5 bottles.8. culture: being in temperature 18 DEG C, air humidity 55%, optimum humidity 75% starts to grow mycelia for the 2nd day after inoculation, 13 days mycelia bottles and grows bacterium Core is cultivar.
Step 3: the production of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 85% waste paper, 10% urea, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% gypsum;(2) it is mixed thoroughly after mixing each raw material with water, water content is 45% feeding to get foreign aid's nutrient bag Material, nutriment is successively packed, is sealed, does not need high pressure sterilization to get nutriment bag.
Step 4: there are ventilation, the plantation of irrigation equipment heliogreenhouse shed, this step includes following procedure:
(1) site preparation and sowing: 1. basal dressing: as base manure, the usage amount of organic fertilizer is for organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal 800kg/ mus, the usage amount of Rapeseed meal is 120kg/ mus;2. soil disinfection: by soil scarifying in compartment, leveling, first with lime into The comprehensive disinfection of row, lime consumption are 250kg/ mu, pour it is primary it is permeable after, sunning 2 days, then spread the plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick With the middle sand of one layer of 5 cm thick, 0.5% cypermethrin and 50% phoxim mixed aqueous solution desinsection are sprayed;3. greenhouse booth sterilizes: Primary rear closed greenhouse potassium permanganate is ploughed deeply on ground again after soil disinfection and formaldehyde carries out suffocating sterilization 3 days, then ventilation Reason 2 days;4. playing compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth opens up compartment face, and compartment face width is 80cm, then opens up compartment in compartment face surrounding and fill The depth in ditch, 15~30cm of width of irrigation ditch, irrigation ditch is 15cm, and then cultivar is sown on the face of compartment.Strain amount For 1 bottle/m2
(2) it sterilizes: utensil being taken to strain using 75% alcohol, holds basin, after inoculation personnel's hand etc. carries out disinfection, is connect Hickory chick strain is placed in by taking utensil and is held in utensil by kind of personnel.
(3) it dresses seed: triglycerides and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1:1) and water being mixed and made into seed dressing solution, cultivar is mixed thoroughly, The dosage of seed dressing solution is cultivate quality 25%.
(4) sow: on the face of compartment first with+0.5% zinc sulfate of+0.5% magnesium sulfate of+1% gibberellin of 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+ The mixed nutrient solution of 10% plant ash spills entire compartment face of fitting, then is directly broadcasted sowing on the face of compartment, the rear soil for covering 2cm, then will Compartment soil carries out sprinkling irrigation in 4 hours, until soil moisture is made to reach 95%, then the crop of one layer (2cm is thick) is covered on the face of compartment Stalk.The first season was sowed at 8 days 2 months, and mycelia nutrient growth is in 2,3 and April, beginning on May 2 fruiting, June 15, growth week Phase terminates substantially, and in entire growth phase, at 3~12 DEG C, maximum temperature control exists for minimum temperature control in extremely frigid zones canopy 14 DEG C~26 DEG C, finish the entire history of life within sporophore growth nearly 40 days or so, 124kg/ mus of first season fruiting yield~ 135kg/ mus.Then summer started in progress second season sowing on June 10, mycelia nutrient growth 6,7 and August, September 1st Mushroom, in this season, maximum temperature control completes entire life in sporophore growth 48 days at 12 DEG C~24 DEG C in extremely frigid zones canopy History living, 139kg/ mus~148kg/ mus of second season fruiting yield, then progress on October 15 third quarter sowing, mycelia nutrient growth 10,11,12, since the morning and evening temperature difference is larger, morning 3:00~5:00 temperature is minimum -5 DEG C~3 DEG C in canopy in one day, mycelia Growth period extends, and fructification reproductive growth completes the entire history of life the January 24 of second year, sporophore growth 55 days, the Three 155kg/ mus~172kg/ mus of fruiting yield of seasons.Gross annual output amount is about 419kg/ mus~445kg/ mus it is thereby achieved that one The whole year production of Nian Sanji.
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is launched
At step 4 hickory chick after planting the: 7 days, hole is pricked on nutriment bag, the side for resting material bag aperture lies against soil Surface is depressed into and comes into full contact with all Kong Junyu soil, if in air by hole exposure, will cause the nutriment in nutrient bag It infects miscellaneous bacteria and goes mouldy, the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm, line-spacing 30cm.
(6) vegetative stage management
After strain sowing, whiten as long as there is soil, carries out the flood irrigation of soil irrigation ditch and compartment face sprinkling irrigation processing, filled When irrigating, triglycerides 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L are added in water, to provide bacterium The nutrition of silk growth, meanwhile, keep compartment face soil moisture 50%%, most suitable soil moisture 65%, air humidity 70%, most suitable sky Air humidity degree 75%, 16 DEG C of temperature, 20 DEG C of optimum temperature.
(7) take away foreign aid's nutrient bag: nutrient bag is launched 25 days, is taken away after covering with mycelia in nutrient bag, takes away external source battalion It supports bag and carries out first time moisturizing 2L/m2, after mended water every 7 days and carry out spun lacing and swash, until former base occurs, moisturizing Shi Xiangshui Middle addition potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, the sharp speed of spun lacing are 250mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre 2,12 hours every time, the drying that soil will be opposite before spun lacing swashs, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%% of water, air humidity 85%, 16 DEG C of temperature.
(8) hickory chick management of producing mushroom
After Morciiella Esculeuta Mycelia is differentiated to form former base to the immature fructification with stem and cap, into hickory chick fruiting rank Section, former base occur to being a crucial this period in period during growing to 3cm, and soil moisture control in compartment face is in field capacity 50%, air humidity control 85%, 15~22 DEG C of temperature, there is not the phenomenon that former base mortality.
(9) it harvests
After sporophore growth 5~10 days, when color becomes sallow by grey, fructification surface begins with a small amount of white spore Reach ripeness standard when powder occurs to be harvested in time, mature one harvests one, every morning, noon, picking in afternoon 1 It is secondary.When picking, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion and soil, neat cutting not pulled out from soil directly with hand It rises, in order to avoid immature former base and immature fructification around damage.Respectively on June 18th, 2014, October 13,2 months 20 Day quantity occurs to fructification in canopy successively to investigate, the survey showed that, the quantity of each canopy every season fructification of 18 canopies To be respectively 34~45/m2, 38~58/m2, 44~70/m2, the anniversary fructification quantity be 124~171/m2, single The weight of a mature sporophore is 2.25~20.42g, average to calculate according to 4.0g/, and the annual output of each each canopy of canopy is 330.83kg/ mus~456.22kg/ mus, each canopy average annual productivity is 438.5kg/ mus.
Embodiment 3
Enforcement place: 20, village, Ledu County township, Qinghai Province canopy, the gross area are 19.3 mu.
The time: on May 22,24 days~2016 April in 2015 is implemented in plantation.
(1) test tube of various specifications: 20mm × 200mm;(2) raw material: hickory chick footing soil, decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, Wheat, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corncob, wheat bran, crushes waste paper, urea, vitamin B at farming straw powder;(3) technical essential: test tube Culture base-material divides five layers of setting, according to mass fraction, each layer in a reservoir specifically: first layer is 50 parts of hickory chick footing soil + 4 parts of+46 parts of quick lime decomposed oxen, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer are+25 parts of weed tree sawdusts of 75 parts of agricultural residues powders, third layer 20 Part+75 parts of wheat+2 parts of agricultural residues powder+3 parts of plant ash of vitamin B complex, the 4th layer is 75 parts+25 parts of agricultural residues powder Weed tree sawdust, layer 5 are 25 parts of+20 parts of corncob+48 parts of weed tree sawdust crushing+7 parts of urea of waste paper, and first layer loading amount is test tube appearance Product 15%, water content are 50~75%, and second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, third layer loading amount For test tube volume 15%, water content is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, the Five layers of loading amount are test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves 5% space in favor of inner air tube stream Logical, tampon on test tube plug sterilizes 1 hour, at room temperature natural cooling in the pressure cooker at 125 DEG C.By wild or cultivation sheep Tripe mushroom solid tissue block is with adopting with being seeded on moist soil, and it is at 16~20 DEG C that test tube, which is placed on temperature, and air humidity is 60%~95%, under be protected from light culture, start within the 2nd day after inoculation to grow mycelia, cover with mycelia in 10~15 days test tubes or grow bacterium Can use test tube after core has the culture medium of mycelia, sclerotium to be directly seeded on cultivar compost.
Equipment used and technical essential: (1) seed bottle (2) raw material of 750mL: hickory chick footing soil, plant ash, decomposed ox (or sheep, chicken) excrement, farming straw powder, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corncob, wheat bran, urea;(3) it technical essential: 1. cultivates major ingredient material and matches Square+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate of+20% wheat bran of+20% plant ash of corn stalk pellets for 0.5 centimetre of+35% diameter of 20% wheat+ + 1% lime of 3% phosphate fertilizer.It drains away the water 2. being pulled out after the wheat impregnated 36 hours is boiled to the inside non-whitening but not rotten skin, in addition Corn stalk pellets, weed tree sawdust, wheat bran are mixed thoroughly.It mixes 3. potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and lime are dissolved completely in water above-mentioned Compost, water content 65% are made into mixture, pH is nature.4. compost seals material formula are as follows: 85% hickory chick footing soil, 15% plant ash, 1% quick lime, 1% sugar contain hydraulic quantity 30%~45%, pH is nature.5. sealing compound bottling or pack: first Compost major ingredient is fitted into bottle or bag, bottling or pack, loading amount standard are 3/5, are reloaded into sealing compound, and loading amount standard is 1/5, Charging cannot be too real, and material is intermediate to plug a batten, to ensure the aeration expected.6. sealing sterilizing: 121 DEG C of high pressure sterilizations 2 are small When.7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooling, step 1 isolated mycelia or sclerotium, a test tube are accessed in gnotobasis 30~40 bottles are connect, wherein lowest level connects 15~20 bottles, and the second layer connects 10~15 bottles, and first layer connects 5 bottles~10 bottles.8. culture: Temperature is to be protected from light culture at 10~28 DEG C, and air humidity is 55%~65%, starts within the 36th hour after inoculation to grow mycelia, 10~ 20 days mycelia bottle and to grow sclerotium be cultivar.
Step 3: the production of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 85% waste paper, 10% urea, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% gypsum (2) will each raw material mix after be mixed thoroughly with water, water content is 60% to get foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, Nutriment is successively packed, is sealed, does not need high pressure sterilization to get nutriment bag.
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed (having ventilation, irrigation equipment) plantation, Zhou Nianjun can be planted, this step includes following mistake Journey: (solid growth can also be carried out with plantation layer frame in canopy, spatial planting technology is being researched and developed)
(1) site preparation and sowing: 1. basal dressing: as base manure, the usage amount of organic fertilizer is for organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal 1200kg/ mus, the usage amount of Rapeseed meal is 130kg/ mus;2. soil disinfection: by soil scarifying in compartment, lime is first used in leveling Comprehensively sterilized, lime consumption is 350kg/ mu, pour it is primary it is permeable after, sunning 4 days, then spread the vegetation of one layer of 1 cm thick The middle sand of ash and one layer of 5 cm thick sprays 0.5% cypermethrin and 50% phoxim mixed aqueous solution desinsection;3. greenhouse booth goes out Bacterium: primary rear closed greenhouse potassium permanganate is ploughed deeply on ground again after soil disinfection and formaldehyde carries out suffocating sterilization 3 days, is then divulged information Processing 2 days;4. playing compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth opens up compartment face, and compartment face width is 120cm, then is opened up in compartment face surrounding The depth of compartment irrigation ditch, the width 30cm of irrigation ditch, irrigation ditch is 20cm, and then cultivar is sown on the face of compartment.Strain amount For 2 bottles/m2
(2) it sterilizes: utensil being taken to strain using 75% alcohol, holds basin, after inoculation personnel's hand etc. carries out disinfection, is connect Hickory chick strain is placed in by taking utensil and is held in utensil by kind of personnel.
(3) it dresses seed: triglycerides and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1~3) and water being mixed and made into seed dressing solution, cultivar is mixed Even, the dosage for solution of dressing seed is cultivate quality 35%.
(4) sow: on the face of compartment first with+0.5% zinc sulfate of+0.5% magnesium sulfate of+1% gibberellin of 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+ The mixed nutrient solution of 10% plant ash spills entire compartment face of fitting, then is directly broadcasted sowing on the face of compartment, covers the soil of 2~4cm afterwards, then Compartment soil is carried out to sprinkling irrigation in 6 hours, until soil moisture is made to reach 95%, then covers the work of one layer (3cm is thick) on the face of compartment Object stalk, in favor of moisturizing.Purpose is that the spun lacing of first time is sharp to make the mycelia being growing enter reproductive growth by carrying out.Such as The fruit first season is sowed in April 24, and mycelia nutrient growth is in 5,6 and July, and fructification reproductive growth is in 18~July 10 June, and 8 On the moon 20 or so, growth cycle terminates, 138~155kg/ mus of first season fruiting yield.Then summer carried out second at September 10th Season sowing, mycelia nutrient growth is in 10,11 and December, and in 19 days on the 10th beginning fruitings, December 5, fructification completed entire life History living, 161~180kg/ mus of second season fruiting yield, then progress on December 20 third quarter sowing, mycelia nutrient growth exist 2015 1,2 and March, since the morning and evening temperature difference is larger, in one day in canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be it is minimum~4 DEG C~4 DEG C, Growth period of hypha extends, and beginning on March 6 fruiting completed the entire history of life on April 26, and fruiting phase is up to 55 days, and the third quarter goes out 172~200kg/ mus of mushroom yield.Therefore, the whole year production of a Nian Sanji is also achieved, gross annual output amount is about 472kg/ mus~ 535kg/ mus, it is thereby achieved that the whole year production of a Nian Sanji, and obtain high yield.
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is launched
At step 4 hickory chick after planting the: 10 days, hole is pricked on nutriment bag, the side for resting material bag aperture lies against soil Earth surface is depressed into and comes into full contact with all Kong Junyu soil, if in air by hole exposure, will cause supporting in nutrient bag Material infects miscellaneous bacteria and goes mouldy, and the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 45cm, line-spacing 50cm.
(6) vegetative stage management
Step 5 hickory chick after planting, as long as occur soil whiten it is necessary to carry out the flood irrigation of soil irrigation ditch and compartment face sprinkling irrigation Processing when being irrigated, adds triglycerides 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/ in water L, to provide the nutrition of mycelia growth, meanwhile, keep compartment face soil moisture 50%~70%, air humidity 70%~95%, temperature 12~22 DEG C of degree.
(7) take away foreign aid's nutrient bag: nutrient bag is launched 40 days, covers with mycelia in Nutrient bag, and mycelia is very intensive After take away, take away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia and enter one of inducement of reproductive growth, it is rear to carry out first time moisturizing 2L/m2, after every 7 It is mended a water progress spun lacing and swashs, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and cell point are added into water when former base appearance, moisturizing Plain 0.05mL/L is split, the sharp speed of spun lacing is 250~1000mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre 2,20 hours every time, swashs preceding soil in spun lacing Drying that will be opposite, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65% of water, air humidity 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature. (8) hickory chick management of producing mushroom
After Morciiella Esculeuta Mycelia is differentiated to form former base to the immature fructification with stem and cap, into hickory chick fruiting rank Section, former base occur to being a crucial this period in period during growing to 3cm, and soil moisture control in compartment face is in field capacity 50%~60%, air humidity control 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature, there is not former base mortality.
(9) it harvests
After sporophore growth 5~10 days, when color becomes sallow by grey, fructification surface begins with a small amount of white spore Reach ripeness standard when powder occurs to be harvested in time, mature one harvests one, every morning, noon, picking in afternoon 1 It is secondary.When picking, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion and soil, neat cutting not pulled out from soil directly with hand It rises, in order to avoid immature former base and immature fructification around damage.
Quantity is occurred to fructification in canopy and is successively investigated in August in 2015 23 days, December 8, April 28 respectively, The survey showed that, and the total quantity of each canopy every season fructification of 18 canopies is respectively 35~50/m2, 44~60/m2、50 ~72/m2, the anniversary fructification quantity be 129~182/m2, the weight of single mature sporophore is 2.75~17.66g, Average to calculate according to 4.0g/, the annual output of each canopy is about 344.17kg/ mus~485.58kg/ mus, and each canopy is averagely produced per year About 468.8kg/ mus of amount.It is thereby achieved that the whole year production of a Nian Sanji, and obtain high yield.
Embodiment 4, other are the same as embodiment 3
In step 1, culture base-material divides five layers of setting, according to mass fraction, each layer in a reservoir specifically: first layer is Native+3 parts of+72 parts of the quick lime decomposed oxen of 25 parts of hickory chick footings, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer are 85 parts+15 parts of agricultural residues powder Weed tree sawdust, third layer are 10 parts of+85 parts of wheat+1 part of agricultural residues powder+4 parts of plant ash of vitamin B complex, and the 4th layer is 85 parts + 15 parts of weed tree sawdusts of agricultural residues powder, layer 5 are 10 parts of+10 parts of corncob+70 parts of weed tree sawdust crushing+10 parts of urea of waste paper;
Quantity is occurred to fructification in canopy and is successively investigated in August in 2015 23 days, December 8, April 28 respectively, The survey showed that, and the total quantity of each canopy every season fructification of 18 canopies is respectively 30~40/m2, 40~50/m2、40 ~60/m2, the anniversary fructification quantity be 100~153/m2, the weight of single mature sporophore is 2.75~17.66g, Yield is slightly reduced compared to embodiment 3, but remains to the high yield for reaching a Nian Sanji.
Embodiment 5, other are the same as embodiment 3
In step 1, test tube first layer is native+2 parts of+12 parts of the quick lime decomposed oxen of 20 parts of hickory chick footings, sheep or chicken manure, The second layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdusts, and third layer is 8 parts of wheat+85~65 part crops straw + 0.5 part of stalk powder+1 part of vitamin B complex plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdusts, the Five layers are+70~30 parts of crushing waste paper+10~5 part urea of 10~35 parts of corncob+10~30 part weed tree sawdusts, and first layer loading amount is Test tube volume 15%, water content are 50~75%, and second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, third Layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, water content is 35~ 50%, layer 5 loading amount is test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves 5% space in favor of in pipe Air circulation.
Dry out when first layer hickory chick footing soil content is less than 25% because tissue block is dehydrated for a long time, causes to send out Bacterium;Mycelia mycelia is not twisted together when decomposed ox, sheep or chicken manure content are lower than 15%, slow growth, or even is stopped growing;Quick lime contains Material is easy mildew, or even separation failure when amount is lower than 3%.Third layer is 10%~30% wheat;Third layer wheat content 10%, Vitamin B complex will not be twisted together lower than 1% and when vegetation ash content is lower than 2% in this layer of mycelia, only minimal amount of bacterium Silk just can enter the 4th layer.Layer 5 crushes waste paper content lower than 30% and when urea content is lower than 5%, mycelia slow growth, Also sclerotium is not formed, yield is caused to reduce, when corncob content is lower than 10%, compost aeration is poor, is easy mildew.
In step 2, culture major ingredient material formula be 0.2~0.5 centimetre of+79% diameter of 8% wheat corn stalk pellets+ + 1% lime of+3% phosphate fertilizer of+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 8% plant ash.Bacterium germination is very when wheat content and vegetation ash content are lower than 10% Slowly, mycelia is not also twisted together, and the sclerotium of formation is less, or even does not form sclerotium, causes fruiting few, low output.Wheat Content When higher than 30%, the overnutrition of mycelia growth results in waste of resources, while improving production cost, corn stalk pellets are low When 10%, the aeration of raw material is poor, and the mildew rate of material increases.
Compost seals material formula are as follows: 55% hickory chick footing soil, 43.5% plant ash, 0.5% quick lime, 1% phosphoric acid Potassium dihydrogen, water content 30%~45%, pH are 7.0~7.5;Hickory chick footing soil content is lower than lower than 60% with vegetation ash content 14%, bacterium germination is waited a moment late, and the water retention property of material is poor, and moisture evaporation is fast, is unfavorable for Sclerotia forming.When quick lime content is lower than 1%, The easily raw nematode of sealing compound is higher than 3%, and the pH value of material will be above 7.5, and alkalinity is too strong, be unfavorable for mycelia growth.
Step 3: the production of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 56% waste paper, 39% urea, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% gypsum;For waste paper content lower than 60% and when urea content is lower than 10%, mycelia enters the time of nutrient bag Extend, the time for taking away foreign aid's inter space is extended, so that the vegetative growth phase of mycelia is extended, when having postponed reproductive growth Between, therefore, fruiting is later, extends the growth cycle of hickory chick, can not achieve the production of a Nian Sanji, reduces production indirectly Amount.
Because condition of culture is not up to standard, in Gansu college of education, nationality after the Hezuo City soil of high altitudes and cold just thaws High fungal pathogens research and teaching practice base sunshade net screenhouse 3 negative canopies, each canopy area 600m2, to August part each Less than 20 fructifications are seen in canopy, and fructification is small.Difference on effect is obvious.
The above description is merely a specific embodiment, but scope of protection of the present invention is not limited thereto, any The change or replacement expected without creative work, should be covered by the protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, of the invention Protection scope should be determined by the scope of protection defined in the claims.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick multilayer base-material implantation methods, which is characterized in that be made of following steps:
Step 1: the separation clone of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore:
Culture base-material divides five layers of setting, according to mass fraction, each layer in test tube specifically: first layer is 25~80 parts of sheep tripes The decomposed ox in native+3~5 parts of quick lime+72~15 part of bacterium footing, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer are 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powders+15 ~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, third layer are+1~3 parts of vitamin B complex+4~2 part of 10~30 parts of wheat+85~65 part agricultural residues powders Plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 part weed tree sawdusts, and layer 5 is 10~35 parts of corncobs+10 ~30 parts of weed tree sawdust+70~30 part crush waste paper+10~5 part urea, and test tube mouth tampon beyond the Great Wall, is 125 DEG C in temperature, pressure is High pressure sterilization 1 hour under 0.15Mpa, at room temperature natural cooling;Wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore is taken into wheat size 1~2 piece of tissue is seeded on above-mentioned the first layered material of test tube, and test tube is placed at 12~28 DEG C, and air humidity is 60%~95%, is kept away Optical culture starts to grow mycelia, takes test tube bottom after covering with mycelia in test tube until growing sclerotium within 10~15 days for the 2nd day after inoculation The mycelia in portion or sclerotium have the culture medium of mycelia, sclerotium to be directly seeded on cultivar compost;
Step 2: the production of cultivar
Cultivate major ingredient formula be 0.2~0.5 centimetre of+75%~30% diameter of 10%~35% wheat corn stalk pellets+ + 1% lime of+3% phosphate fertilizer of+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 10%~30% plant ash;2. will impregnate 24~48 hours wheats boil to It pulls out and drains away the water after the inside non-whitening but not rotten skin, in addition corn stalk pellets, plant ash are mixed thoroughly;3. phosphate fertilizer and lime is complete Fully dissolved mixes in water and is made into culture major ingredient in said mixture, water content 50%~65%;4. sealing material formula are as follows: 60%~ 82% hickory chick footing soil, 38%~14% plant ash, 1%~3% quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, water content 30%~45%, pH are 7.0~7.5;5. sealing compound bottling or pack: first culture major ingredient being fitted into bottle or bag, is reloaded into sealing compound;6. sealing is gone out Bacterium: 121 DEG C~125 DEG C, 0.12Mpa~0.15Mpa high pressure sterilization 4~2 hours;7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooling, in nothing The culture medium inoculated for having mycelia, sclerotium of step 1 isolated mycelia or sclerotium or soybean grain size is accessed in collarium border On sealing compound and compression comes into full contact with material, and the mm of 20 mm × 200 test tube connects 30~55 bottles depending on mycelia and sclerotium growing way Or bag;8. culture: being protected from light culture at being 10~28 DEG C in temperature, air humidity is 55%~90%, and the 2nd~4 day after inoculation starts Mycelia is grown, 10~20 days mycelia expire bottle or purseful until growing sclerotium is cultivar;
Step 3: the production of exogenous nutrition bag
(1) exogenous nutrition bag nutriment group is divided into waste paper, urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, gypsum;
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed plantation, Zhou Nianjun can be planted, this step includes:
(1) site preparation and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer is as base manure, 2. soil disinfection: by soil scarifying in compartment, leveling, first Comprehensively sterilized with lime, lime consumption is 250kg/ mu~350kg/ mu, pour once it is permeable after, sunning 2-5 days then is spread The plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick and the middle sand of one layer of 5 cm thick, spray concentration are the pungent sulphur of 0.5% cypermethrin and 50% Phosphorus mixed aqueous solution desinsection;3. greenhouse booth sterilizes: after soil disinfection again by ground plough deeply it is primary after closed greenhouse potassium permanganate and Formaldehyde carries out suffocating sterilization 3 days, then ventilation process 2 days;4. playing compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth opens up compartment face, compartment face Width is 80~120cm, then opens up compartment irrigation ditch, 15~30cm of width of irrigation ditch in compartment face surrounding, and the depth of irrigation ditch is Then cultivar is sown on the face of compartment by 15~20cm, increase application rate;
(2) sterilize: using 75% alcohol to strain take utensil, hold basin, inoculation personnel's both hands carry out disinfection after, be inoculated with people Hickory chick strain is placed in by taking utensil and is held in basin by member;
(3) it dresses seed: triglycerides and potassium dihydrogen phosphate and water being mixed and made into seed dressing solution with the volume ratio of 1~3:1:5, will be planted It cultivates and mixes thoroughly, the dosage for solution of dressing seed is cultivate quality 25%~35%;
(4) it sows: first with+10% plant ash of+0.5% zinc sulfate of 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.5% magnesium sulfate of+1% gibberellin on the face of compartment Mixed nutrient solution spill wet entire compartment face, then directly broadcasted sowing on the face of compartment, cover the soil of 2~4cm afterwards, then by soil in compartment Sprinkling irrigation in 4~6 hours is carried out, until soil moisture is made to reach 95%, then covers the crop straw of one layer of 2~3cm thickness on the face of compartment Stalk, in favor of moisturizing;If the first season, mycelia nutrient growth was in 2,3 and April, and fructification reproductive growth is 5 in sowing at the beginning of 2 months At the beginning of the middle of the month to 6 months, growth cycle terminates within 25~40 days, in entire growth phase, is not less than in extremely frigid zones temperature of shed The minimum growth temperature of the hickory chick history of life finishes the entire history of life for sporophore growth 1 month or so, first season fruiting yield It is 100~150kg/ mus;Then summer, mycelia nutrient growth was in 6,7 and August, mid-August in progress second season sowing at the beginning of 6 months Just start fruiting to September, this season is not more than the maximum growth temperature of its history of life in extremely frigid zones temperature, and son is real Body, which is grown, completes the entire history of life for 30~50 days, and second season fruiting yield is 150kg/ mus, and third is then carried out at the beginning of October Season sowing, mycelia nutrient growth is in 10,11,12 and January, since the morning and evening temperature difference is larger, morning 3:00~5:00 in canopy in one day Temperature be it is minimum~5 DEG C~3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, fructification reproductive growth in second year by the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, this In season, in high altitudes and cold area, greenhouse booth temperature will not be lower than the minimum growth temperature of its history of life, sporophore growth 40 Complete within~55 days the entire history of life, 170~200kg/ mus of fruiting yield of the third quarter;Realize the whole year production of a Nian Sanji;
(5) exogenous nutrition bag is launched
At step (4) hickory chick after planting the 7th~10 day, hole is pricked on external source nutrient bag, by the side of exogenous nutrition bag aperture Soil surface is lain against, is depressed into and is come into full contact with all Kong Junyu soil, if in air by hole exposure, external source will be caused In nutrient bag nutriment infection miscellaneous bacteria and go mouldy, the distance between exogenous nutrition bag be 25cm~45cm, line-spacing 30cm~ 50cm;
(6) vegetative stage management
Step (4) hickory chick after planting, it is unrestrained to carry out soil irrigation ditch when causing soil to whiten because of soil water evaporation It fills and the sprinkling irrigation of compartment face is handled, when being irrigated, triglycerides 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and cell are added in water Mitogen 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelia growth, meanwhile, keep compartment face soil moisture 50%~70%, air humidity 70%~95%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature;
(7) take away exogenous nutrition bag: exogenous nutrition bag is launched 7~40 days, covers with mycelia in exogenous nutrition bag, and mycelia is very close It is taken away after collection, taking away exogenous nutrition bag is that mycelia enters one of inducement of reproductive growth, and rear to carry out first time moisturizing, rate of water make-up is 2L/m2, after mended water every 7 days and carry out spun lacing and swash, until the drying that former base occurs, and soil will be opposite before spun lacing swashs, water Post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65%, air humidity 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature;
(8) hickory chick management of producing mushroom
After Morciiella Esculeuta Mycelia is differentiated to form former base to the immature fructification with stem and cap, into hickory chick fruiting stage, Former base occurs to being a crucial period during growing to 3cm, and this period, compartment face soil moisture is controlled in field capacity 50%~60%, air humidity is controlled 85%~90%, and 12~22 DEG C of temperature, condition is slightly uncomfortable, and former base will mortality;
(9) it harvests
After sporophore growth 5~10 days, when color becomes sallow by grey, fructification surface begins with a small amount of white conidia powder and goes out Reach ripeness standard now, harvested in time, mature one harvests one, respectively picks in every morning, noon, afternoon 1 time; When picking, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion and soil, neat cutting not pulled up from soil directly with hand, In order to avoid immature former base and immature fructification around damage.
2. a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick multilayer base-material implantation methods according to claim 1, which is characterized in that In the step 1, first layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 50~75%, and second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, Water content is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, water content is 35~50%, and layer 5 loading amount is test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves 5% sky Between in favor of inner air tube circulation.
3. a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick multilayer base-material implantation methods according to claim 1, which is characterized in that In the step 2, culture major ingredient loading amount standard is to be reloaded into sealing compound no more than 3/5, and sealing compound loading amount standard is no less than 1/ 5, charging cannot be too real, and material is intermediate to plug a batten, and bottle or bag will reserve 1/5 space, to ensure the aeration expected.
4. a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick multilayer base-material implantation methods according to claim 1, which is characterized in that It in the step 3, is mixed thoroughly after each raw material is mixed with water, water content is 45%~60% to get exogenous nutrition bag nutriment, by nutriment It packed, sealed, do not need high pressure sterilization to get exogenous nutrition bag.
5. a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick multilayer base-material implantation methods according to claim 1, which is characterized in that In the step 4, the usage amount of organic fertilizer is 800~1200kg/ mus.
6. a kind of high altitudes and cold area hickory chick multilayer base-material implantation methods according to claim 1, which is characterized in that In the step 4, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, spun lacing sharp speed is added when moisturizing into water Degree is 250~1000mL/ little Shi ﹒ square metre, 12 hours to 40 hours every time, swashs the drying that preceding soil will be opposite, water in spun lacing Post-stimulatory soil moisture content 50%~65%, air humidity 85%~90%, 12~22 DEG C of temperature.
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CN112021064A (en) * 2019-06-04 2020-12-04 青海卓辰农业科技发展有限公司 Method suitable for planting morchella in summer in plateau area
CN112021063A (en) * 2019-06-04 2020-12-04 青海卓辰农业科技发展有限公司 Method for planting morchella in open air in plateau area
CN110249916A (en) * 2019-07-26 2019-09-20 黑龙江省科学院微生物研究所 A kind of hickory chick plastic house culture method of severe cold area
CN110419386A (en) * 2019-08-21 2019-11-08 青海卓辰农业科技发展有限公司 Highlands hickory chick annual cultivation
CN111440021A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-07-24 贵州省农作物品种资源研究所(贵州省现代中药材研究所) Long-acting slow-release nutrient special for morchella, and preparation method and use method thereof
CN111373980A (en) * 2020-04-28 2020-07-07 山西林业职业技术学院 Northern morchella fruiting time control method
CN113170702A (en) * 2020-08-18 2021-07-27 山西大同大学 Multi-season morchella planting method and application thereof
CN112266290A (en) * 2020-09-15 2021-01-26 上海健康医学院 Nutrition package for morchella planting and preparation method thereof
CN112154858A (en) * 2020-11-25 2021-01-01 中华全国供销合作总社昆明食用菌研究所 Indoor annual cultivation method for morchella esculenta
CN113330985A (en) * 2021-07-02 2021-09-03 任宝国 Artificial cultivation method of morchella in northeast region
CN114747422B (en) * 2022-04-06 2023-08-01 赵金亮 High-yield and rapid fruiting method for Morchella in north
CN115067150A (en) * 2022-08-08 2022-09-20 吉林省农业科学院 Morchella interplanting method
CN115530008A (en) * 2022-11-03 2022-12-30 段双路 Greenhouse cultivation method for morchella esculenta
CN116530361B (en) * 2023-07-03 2023-09-15 内蒙古绿新园林绿化有限责任公司 Greenhouse planting production method for Morchella in winter and spring

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