CN108718919A - A kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima - Google Patents

A kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108718919A
CN108718919A CN201810879074.5A CN201810879074A CN108718919A CN 108718919 A CN108718919 A CN 108718919A CN 201810879074 A CN201810879074 A CN 201810879074A CN 108718919 A CN108718919 A CN 108718919A
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mushroom
culture material
liquid fertilizer
clitocybe maxima
parts
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杨伟
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Guangxi Rentaiiron Biological Technology Co Ltd
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Guangxi Rentaiiron Biological Technology Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • A01G18/20Culture media, e.g. compost
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms

Abstract

A kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima, cultivation step are:(1)Prepare culture material:Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution is added in culture material, and is uniformly mixed;The weight ratio of Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution and culture material is 20:500;Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution is mixed to get with clear water using Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer, and the volume ratio of Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer and clear water is 3:2000;Culture material water content is adjusted to 55%~65% again;Then it is packed with polybag, sack obtains bacterium bag using plastic sheath ring taps cotton or with yarn tying;(2)Bacterium bag sterilizes:(3)Inoculation;(4)Bacterium germination management;(5)Management of producing mushroom;(6)Insect pest preventing and controlling;(7)Picking and post-processing.This pig method cultivates clitocybe maxima yield height and quality is good.

Description

A kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima
Technical field
The present invention relates to fungus growing technique field, specially a kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima.
Background technology
Clitocybe maxima (Classification systemClitocybe maxima) also known as Clitocybe Maxima, big funnel bacterium;Popular name clitocybe maxima, bamboo shoot mushroom (Fujian), red silver plate (Shanxi).Clitocybe maxima is a kind of more typical wild edible fungus, is grown in woods on the ground, is produced in a cluster Area people acquisition is edible.Because of its unique flavor, have like clear and melodious as bamboo shoots, it is satiny as pork tripe, thus it is referred to as " bamboo shoot mushroom " " clitocybe maxima ".
The fructification of clitocybe maxima has clear and melodious, refreshing tender, delicious mouthfeel, and protein content and needle mushroom etc. are similar.Its bacterium Amino acid content is 17% or so of dry matter in lid, wherein 8 kinds of essential amino acids account for the 45% of total amino acid content, more generally Edible mushroom wants high, and leucine, isoleucine content occupy the hat of general edible mushroom;Fat content is 11% or so;Its stem converts Sugared content is up to 48%, knows the abundant and comprehensive of its nutrition enough.In addition, also having to human body containing several in mug destroying angel The trace element of benefit, such as cobalt, barium, copper, zinc and phosphorus, iron, calcium, wherein most elements are for adjusting human nutrition balance, promoting Metabolism, offer function etc., there is the important function that other elements are irreplaceable.Such as a long period, popular in society Benefit iron, replenish the calcium, the food such as zinc supplementation include oral solution etc., be substantially difficult to be played " benefit " to human body wherein having synthetic Effect, and the mentioned component contained in edible mushroom, then natural sex, it is vegetal due to, elemental substance molecular structure Small, can directly be absorbed by the body utilization, this be other kinds of same element it is incomparable.Pork tripe massee fruiting bodies are clear and melodious fresh Tender, marketing fresh and tank processed can be in artificial cultivations, and fructification, which is formed from former base to full maturity, undergoes stick phase → ailhead phase → cup 4 stages of shape phase → maturity period.Former base forms initial white, spherical or oval, is afterwards stick, is embedded in earthing, after being unearthed Become grey and constantly deepen to dark brown, then former base differentiates cap and stem, is in ailhead shape, enters fast-growth later Phase stretches out long handle funnel-form, enters fast growing period later, stretches out the cap of long handle funnel-form or goblet shape.
Chinese medicine thinks that clitocybe maxima has blood pressure lowering, elimination oedema and other effects:1. in terms of extra-nutrition:Clitocybe maxima contains largely Amino acid and mineral matter element needed by human, often feeding can supplement the nutrients, it is very beneficial to health.2. tool diuresis disappears It is swollen:The trace element contained in clitocybe maxima can play good therapeutic effect to oedema, the symptoms such as frequent micturition.3. can reduce blood pressure: Clitocybe maxima is full of nutrition, and protein and vitamin equal size are very high, and fat content is but very low, and often feeding can have hypertension certain Therapeutic effect.
Full of nutrition in view of clitocybe maxima, protein content and needle mushroom etc. are similar, especially amino acid content in cap It is 17% or so of dry matter, is a kind of nutraceutical rich in high protein, wherein to account for amino acid total for 8 kinds of essential amino acids 45% (more general edible mushroom want high) of amount also contains the several trace element beneficial to human body in pork tripe massee fruiting bodies, although The fructification of clitocybe maxima has clear and melodious, refreshing tender, delicious mouthfeel, and unique flavor is fresh and tender, and having become cities and towns in many places occupies The people on hotel's dining table together with the menu that is loved by consumers(Clitocybe maxima thalline hypertrophy, crisp in taste, slightly sweet flavor, dry There is the first-class selection of unique fragrance, especially chafing dish seasoning when the roasting or cooking, it is very popular).Due to consumption demand Vigorous, wild clitocybe maxima cannot be satisfied consumption demand, and therefore, people use artificial cultivation clitocybe maxima.Open source literature is also reported The cultivation techniques of some clitocybe maximas, such as:
1, Chinese patent:A kind of special plant formulation of high yield high-quality clitocybe maxima and industrial planting method, application number: 201610291393.5 the applying date:2016.05.05 applicant:University Of Agriculture and Forestry In Fujian, address:350007 Fuzhou City, Fujian Province The Cangshan District towns Jian Xin Kingsoft school district, inventor:Liu Penghu, clock wish rotten, Yu Shenkai, Huang Xiusheng, Weng Baiqi, river branch and, abstract:One The special plant formulation of kind high yield high-quality clitocybe maxima and industrial planting method, it is characterised in that plant formulation is by following original Material is formulated according to following parts by weight:29.5-39.5 parts of bacteria residue, 29.5-39.5 parts of cotton seed hulls, 10 parts of wheat skin, calcium carbonate 1 Part and 10-30 parts of bedding and padding of cultivation;Its industrial planting method comprises the following steps that:Cultivation area is selected;Raw material preparation; Feedstock processing;Mushroom house culture and fruiting harvesting.The present invention can meet the growth requirement that clitocybe maxima carries out Efficient Cultivation, clitocybe maxima production Amount improves 45.46%, piece heavy 18.61%, aromatic amino acid total amount improves 8.93%, advantageous cultivation bedding and padding of realizing Recycling, raw material sources are easy, at low cost, are not added cow dung and straw, can be realized non-harmful high-quality high-yield culturing, It favorably solves the problems, such as that raw material is in short supply, realizes quality-high and inexpensive purpose.
2, Chinese patent:Improve the culture material and its cultural method of clitocybe maxima yield and amino acid content, application number: 201610980029.X the applying date:2016.11.08 applicant:University Of Agriculture and Forestry In Fujian, address:350002 Fuzhou City, Fujian Province It puts up at an inn on Cangshan District road 15, inventor Liu Peng tigers, clock wish rotten, Yan Zhenlan, Huang Xiaoli, Weng Baiqi, Lei Jingui, make a summary:This hair It is bright to be related to a kind of culture material improving clitocybe maxima yield and amino acid content, by the mixing of the raw material of water and following weight proportion At the raw material includes:10-15 parts of bacteria residue, 22-25 parts of sawdust, 28-32 parts of cotton seed hulls, 8-12 parts of ash of chicken manure power generation, wheat bran 20-25 parts, 0.5-1.5 parts of calcium carbonate, 0.5-1.5 parts of lime, the mass percentage of water is 62-68%, pH in the culture material Value is 7.5-8.The invention overcomes the culture material and cultural method bad caused yield and amino of existing clitocybe maxima production Acid content is relatively low(Delicious degree is bad)The shortcomings that, clitocybe maxima yield and amino acid content and low-cost can be improved simultaneously by having Advantage.
3, Chinese patent:A kind of preparation method of pork tripe mushroom compost, application number:201110149835.X the applying date: 2011.05.25 applicant:Li Mingyuan, address:221100 4 teams of the Xuzhou City of Jiangsu Province Tongshan County thatch villages and small towns villages Mao Cun 734, hair A person of good sense:Li Mingyuan, abstract:A kind of preparation method of pork tripe mushroom compost, it be by:Coarse colza meal, jowar cake powder, wheat straw powder, Dry rabbit excrement, sawdust, sucrose, calcium carbonate, wheat bran, land plaster, corn protein powder, swelling powder, hawthorn powder composition, the percentage It is weight percentage;The compost is low-cost, and material easily takes, and formula and preparation method are simple, generated a large amount of in dispensing Granular organic fertilizer in beneficial microbe and dispensing can meet the growth and development demand of clitocybe maxima, the clitocybe maxima head produced Greatly, weight foot, the speed of growth is fast, and the clitocybe maxima grown is delicate, and delicious flavour is full of nutrition.
4, Chinese patent:A kind of clitocybe maxima cultivation base and preparation method thereof, application number 201310508985.4, the applying date: 2013.10.24 applicant:Shao Youde, address:Shao organizes No. 13 behind the 234000 Xiuzhou City, Anhui Province Yongqiao District townshiies the Tao Gou villages Geng Jia, Inventor:Shao Youde, abstract:The present invention relates to a kind of clitocybe maxima cultivation bases to be prepared by the component raw material of following parts by weight: Broad-leaved wood chip 28-35, wheat bran 15-20, soybean residue 7-14, monosodium glutamate mycoprotein 3-5, lichee nuclear particle 5-10, pineapple peel 12- 15, silkworm excrement 4-6, dry poultry-dung 13-18, pine needle meal 5-8, montmorillonite powder 1-2, quick lime 1-2, calcium superphosphate 0.5-1, diatomite 1-2, nourishing additive agent 5-10.The cultivation base of the present invention, major ingredient derives from a wealth of sources, at low cost, and nutrient is polynary, ingredient is rich Richness acts synergistically with nourishing additive agent, is easily absorbed by thalline, improves biological transformation ratio, nutrition is more rich, per kilogram cultivation base stock Plating efficiency improve 60-75% than conventional cultivation material, obtain that thalline plumpness is sturdy, resistance is strong.
5, Chinese patent:A kind of cultural method of selenium-rich clitocybe maxima, application number:201710102195.4 the applying date: 2017.02.24 applicant:537000 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Yulin City Yu Zhou of Guangxi Feng Xiong agricultural developments Co., Ltd address B5, the homes the Sheng Ye room 1102 of Unit 5 of area education Road 386, inventor:Chen Gengxin, abstract:The present invention relates to agricultural production kinds A kind of planting technology field, and in particular to cultural method of selenium-rich clitocybe maxima.A kind of plantation of selenium-rich clitocybe maxima provided by the invention Method adds inorganic selenium solution in the cultural method for making clitocybe maxima, ferments, add to culture material by using Mixed Microbes Prompt drop solution raw material has the rapid conversion of inorganic selenium substance, makes full use of the nutrient content of the culture material containing selenium, keeps clitocybe maxima rich containing selenium Richness improves clitocybe maxima nutritive value, increases the economic benefit of peasant.Compared with prior art, the pork tripe that the present invention plants out Mushroom selenium content height, unique flavor in good taste, there is very high edible nutritional value.
6, Chinese patent:A kind of implantation methods of clitocybe maxima, application number:201711035684.9 the applying date: 2017.10.30 applicant:Longzhou North Sea modern agriculture Co., Ltd, address:532400 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are high The left towns city's Longzhou County Xia Dong corn field, inventor:Huang Xin, Yang Qing, abstract:The invention discloses a kind of plantation sides of clitocybe maxima Method includes following steps:(1) compost is prepared;(2) bacterium bag is prepared:Using polybag, the compost is wrapped, so Afterwards toward watering on the compost, then exposes the polybag and allow extra water to flow out until the compost is that moistening degree is Only, then the polybag equipped with compost is sterilized, carries out clitocybe maxima inoculation immediately after having killed bacterium, is done at bacterium germination after the completion of inoculation Reason, to obtain clitocybe maxima mycelia;(3) it transplants:It is transplanted after mycelia covers with polybag, mycelia is transplanted on furrow, and covered Earthing, and water to soil and moisten;(4) final-period management:Mycelia transplanting after sunshade net is built above mycelia, and water in time with Soil moistening is protected, waits for that clitocybe maxima grows up to cup-shaped and can harvest.The present invention proposes a kind of plantation side of efficient, science clitocybe maxima Method, by refining the plantation parameter of various clitocybe maximas, to realize the scientic planting of clitocybe maxima.
As the improvement of people's living standards, the demand of the clitocybe maxima of high-quality is also increasing.How to cultivate to obtain The project of the consistent people's research of high-quality clitocybe maxima.It has been investigated that culture material, which is cultivation, obtains the premise of high-quality clitocybe maxima.
Invention content
The mesh of the present invention is to provide a kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima.The high, pork tripe using this method cultivation clitocybe maxima yield Mushroom quality is good.
To achieve the goals above, the technical proposal of the invention is realized in this way:
A kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima, cultivation step are:
(1)Prepare culture material:Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution is added in culture material, and is uniformly mixed;Chelating state selemium nutrition The weight ratio of liquid fertilizer solution and culture material is 20:500;Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution be using Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer with Clear water is mixed to get, and the volume ratio of Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer and clear water is 3:2000;Culture material water content is adjusted to 55% again ~65%;Then it is packed with polybag, sack obtains bacterium bag using plastic sheath ring taps cotton or with yarn tying, 2.5 jin in bacterium bag Left and right;
(2)Bacterium bag sterilizes:Sterilizing of doing the cooking in time after bacterium bag is obtained, it is small to be placed in sterilizing 16~20 in 100 DEG C of high-temperature pressure sterilizing kitchens When;
(3)Inoculation:When material temperature is reduced to 60 DEG C naturally, bacterium bag is moved on in desinfection chamber while hot, when material temperature is cooled to 28 DEG C, It can be inoculated with;800 liters of strains can connect 20,000 bacterium bags;
(4)Bacterium germination management:Bacterium bag after inoculation, which is stood in culturing room's layer frame, is protected from light culture, and indoor temperature grasps 25 DEG C ~ 28 DEG C, Relative air humidity 75% ~ 85%;Cultural hypha stage, early period close the doors and windows, and avoid fluctuations in indoor temperature amplitude excessive;Later stage answers Reinforce it is ventilated, keep room air it is pure and fresh;In incubation, respectively at mycelia grow to bag it is high 1/3 and 4/5 when, carry out Bacterium is looked into twice, rejects pollution, dead kind or the abnormal bacterium bag of growth;Under normal circumstances, 40 ~ 45 days mycelia can walk full bacterium bag;
(5)Management of producing mushroom:Mycelia walked full cultivating bag after 10 days, and temperature is stablized at 20 DEG C or more, can solve opened mouth, train Nutriment face earthing;Thickness of earth covering is 3 ~ 4 centimetres;First earthing should be placed under the sun before use and shone to whitening, then plus water is adjusted Grogs humidity is pinched flat without dissipating for degree with grogs;Bacterium bag top after earthing is rolled over down, make sack edge height be unearthed face 2 ~ 3 centimetres, and the bacterium bag handled well is equably vertically arranged in outdoor furrow face or indoor fruiting bedstead;Pay attention to keeping after earthing Earthing moistens, and more shutdown windows or more epiphragmas, and stimulation former base is broken up;7 ~ 10 days former bases can expose native face after general earthing;Former base After being unearthed, place relative air humidity is controlled 80% ~ 90%;Relative air humidity is less than 75%, is easily cracked at the top of former base, causes Make cap that can not break up;Meanwhile reinforcing ventilation, keep place with fresh air, and pay attention to that place is made to have certain scattering light;Dioxy Change the divergaence time that concentration of carbon is excessively high, insufficient light can postpone cap, causes stem long;Entire fruiting stage place temperature is answered Control is at 23 DEG C ~ 32 DEG C;Water spray is specifically grasped according to mushroom body size, the humidity of earthing and climatic condition, and mushroom is the more sprayed water;Mushroom Few water spray, fine day spray more, cloudy day few spray;Different phase is grown according to mushroom body, flexibly controls ventilation quantity, stem is unearthed, cap shape At, growth each stage successively stronger ventilation amount;Mushroom house relative air humidity keeps 85 ~ 95%;In the soil of culture charge level covering Be using cow dung, bone meal, humic acid and soil together room temperature stack fermentation one week after obtain, cow dung, bone meal, humic acid and The weight ratio of soil is:5:1:0.1:(50~80);A diameter of 1.5 ~ 2.0 centimetres of grogs is crushed to after fermentation;Bone meal is to utilize pig The sieve that bone or ox bone crushed 80 mesh or more obtains;
(6)Insect pest preventing and controlling:The prevention of pest and disease damage should follow put prevention first, the principle of integrated control;Vegetative stage, emphasis are anti- Only various moulds invade people's culture medium and pollute;In addition to production environment, raw and auxiliary material, production process will be carried out strictly as required, It should not excessively frequently it is noted that looking into bacterium;It when due to looking into bacterium, stirs bacterium bag and bag inner air and outer air is caused to exchange, can increase contaminated general Rate;If there is chain to embrace mould pollution, should be covered with the gauze of dipped 75% alcohol or cloth after embracing sub- heap, gently before Bao Zidui does not change colour Pollution bacterium bag is gently removed into outdoor processing;Prevent that embrace son drifts in space, leads to pollution in wide area;Sporophore growth stage, weight Point prevents various pests;Mainly all kinds of mushroom flies, mushroom mosquito;Control method mainly does environmental sanitation well, prevents worm sources;Mushroom house Door, window are fixed with the nylon yarn of 60 mesh, cut off pest route of entry;The yellow plate of place suspension, trapping fly, mosquito, or use electronic mosquito-killing Device, high-pressure electrostatic deinsectization lamp, black light lamps;The sporophore growth stage of development must not spray insecticide, it is ensured that product is innoxious;
(7)Picking and post-processing:It is harvested in time when mushroom body maturation, earthing should be filled in time after having been adopted per damp mushroom, bacteria 3 of cutting off the water After ~ 5 days, lower damp management of producing mushroom is carried out.
Step(1)Culture material include that the raw materials of following parts by weight is made:30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls 15~25 Part, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, perlite particle 0.5~1 part;The corncob particle is that remaining slag is less than 0.5 through being ground into granule size after being processed with corn rod threshing Centimetre;Perlite particle is that the particle for being less than 3mm in granularity is crushed using perlite.
Step(1)Before middle adjusting culture material water content, mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud, mashed carrot, pineapple peel mud is first added Weight ratio with culture material is(3~8):(5~15):100;The mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud is respectively by carrot and spinach The skin of trailing plants is smashed to obtain using cooking machine.
The preparation process of the culture material is:
(1)Take by weight 30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, 15~25 parts of cotton seed hulls, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, 0.5~1 part of perlite particle;
(2)The wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls and corncob particle are uniformly mixed, is placed on cement court and builds heap;Water spray uniformly irrigates, and is allowed to Spontaneous fermentation;After 3~5 days, the 1st turning is carried out, turning is made every effort to inside and outside, upper and lower material position and exchanged, uniform to reach fermentation; It waters later at interval of turning in 3 days primary, wood fibre expansion is made to soften and tentatively divide using the fermentation of microorganism in heap Fiber is solved, entire fermentation process needs 15~20 days, obtains fermentation material;
(3)Fermentation material is uniformly mixed to obtain culture material with wheat bran, lime, precipitated calcium carbonate and perlite particle.
Preferably:The sawdust that the wooden chaff is obtained using mulberry tree after pulverizer crushes can also use the sawdust of pine tree.
Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer is to use poly- good fortune selenium Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer, is that Guilin osmanthus pearl biotechnology is limited The novel selenium-enriched foliar fertilizer of company's development and production, address:The Guilin industry parks the Su Qiao roads Hong Yuan 2, poly- good fortune selenium Chelating state selemium nutrition Liquid fertilizer is also Guangxi scientific research and technology development planning item developing products, Guangxi Se-rich farm products association recommended products.
The culture material that the cultural method of clitocybe maxima of the present invention uses be using the wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, corncob particle, Lime, precipitated calcium carbonate and perlite particle are made;First the wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls and corncob particle are uniformly mixed and sent out Ferment material;Fermentation material is uniformly mixed to obtain premix with wheat bran, lime, precipitated calcium carbonate and perlite particle;Chela is again conjunction state Selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution, which is added to be uniformly mixed in premix, obtains mixture;Chela is added again conjunction state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution So that selenium-rich in culture material, the clitocybe maxima Se content cultivated should be stablized within the scope of 0.15~2.0mg/kg, meet selenium-rich Edible mushroom Se content standard.Clitocybe maxima fruiting is in high temperature season, and moisture evaporation is big, and dehydration is serious, and after bacterium bag dehydration, bacterium bag is received Contracting mycelia is broken, and often results in the tide time clitocybe maxima of production one, two because bacterium bag water shortage is to making yield drastically decline;The application clitocybe maxima After cultural method adds acinous perlite, because its fertilizer conservation performance that absorbs water is strong, the water content of bacterium bag can be improved, increase having for selenium fertilizer Effect property, and the aeration etc. of bacterium bag can be increased, be conducive to the growth of mycelia and increase clitocybe maxima yield, the clitocybe maxima fertilizer produced Thickness, weight foot, the averagely heavy 58.8g of single clitocybe maxima can harvest five tide time clitocybe maximas, and defect rate is less than 3%.This clitocybe maxima Mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud is also further added in cultural method, and adding mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud keeps cultivation matrix nutrition richer Richness is clitocybe maxima replenishing vitamins, and the selenium-rich clitocybe maxima produced is fresher and tenderer, and mouthfeel is more preferably.
Specific implementation mode
For the more detailed introduction present invention, with reference to embodiment, the present invention is described further.
Embodiment 1
It can cultivate to obtain high-quality clitocybe maxima using following steps:
(1)Prepare culture material:Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution is added in culture material, and is uniformly mixed;Chelating state selemium nutrition The weight ratio of liquid fertilizer solution and culture material is 20:500;Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution be using Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer with Clear water is mixed to get, and the volume ratio of Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer and clear water is 3:2000;Culture material water content is adjusted to 55% again ~65%;Then it is packed with polybag, sack obtains bacterium bag using plastic sheath ring taps cotton or with yarn tying;
(2)Bacterium bag sterilizes:Sterilizing of doing the cooking in time after bacterium bag is obtained, it is small to be placed in sterilizing 16~20 in 100 DEG C of high-temperature pressure sterilizing kitchens When;
(3)Inoculation:When material temperature is reduced to 60 DEG C naturally, bacterium bag is moved on in desinfection chamber while hot, when material temperature is cooled to 28 DEG C, It can be inoculated with;
(4)Bacterium germination management:Bacterium bag after inoculation, which is stood in culturing room's layer frame, is protected from light culture, and indoor temperature grasps 25 DEG C ~ 28 DEG C, Relative air humidity 75% ~ 85%;Cultural hypha stage, early period close the doors and windows, and avoid fluctuations in indoor temperature amplitude excessive;Later stage answers Reinforce it is ventilated, keep room air it is pure and fresh;In incubation, respectively at mycelia grow to bag it is high 1/3 and 4/5 when, carry out Bacterium is looked into twice, rejects pollution, dead kind or the abnormal bacterium bag of growth;
(5)Management of producing mushroom:Mycelia walked full cultivating bag after 10 days, and temperature is stablized at 20 DEG C or more, can solve opened mouth, train Nutriment face earthing;Thickness of earth covering is 3 ~ 4 centimetres;Pay attention to keeping earthing moistening after earthing, and more shutdown windows or more epiphragmas, stimulation are former Base breaks up;7 ~ 10 days former bases can expose native face after general earthing;After former base is unearthed, by the control of place relative air humidity 80% ~ 90%;Relative air humidity is less than 75%, is easily cracked at the top of former base, causes cap that can not break up;Meanwhile reinforcing ventilation, keep field Ground is with fresh air, and pays attention to that place is made to have certain scattering light;Gas concentration lwevel is excessively high, insufficient light can postpone dividing for cap Change the time, causes stem long;Entire fruiting stage place temperature should be controlled at 23 DEG C ~ 32 DEG C;Water spray according to mushroom body size, The humidity and climatic condition of earthing are specifically grasped, and mushroom is the more sprayed water;Mushroom is sprayed water less, and fine day sprays more, cloudy day few spray;It is given birth to according to mushroom body Long different phase, flexibly controls ventilation quantity, and stem is unearthed, cap is formed, grow each stage stronger ventilation amount successively;Mushroom house air Relative humidity keeps 85 ~ 95%;
(6)Insect pest preventing and controlling:The prevention of pest and disease damage should follow put prevention first, the principle of integrated control;Vegetative stage, emphasis are anti- Only various moulds invade people's culture medium and pollute;Sporophore growth stage, the various pests of keypoint control;Sporophore growth develops rank Section must not spray insecticide, it is ensured that product is innoxious;
(7)Picking and post-processing:It is harvested in time when mushroom body maturation, earthing should be filled in time after having been adopted per damp mushroom, bacteria 3 of cutting off the water After ~ 5 days, lower damp management of producing mushroom is carried out.
Step(1)Culture material include that the raw materials of following parts by weight is made:30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls 15~25 Part, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, perlite particle 0.5~1 part;The corncob particle is that remaining slag is less than 0.5 through being ground into granule size after being processed with corn rod threshing Centimetre;Perlite particle is that the particle for being less than 3mm in granularity is crushed using perlite.
The preparation process of the culture material is:
(1)Take by weight 30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, 15~25 parts of cotton seed hulls, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, 0.5~1 part of perlite particle;
(2)The wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls and corncob particle are uniformly mixed, is placed on cement court and builds heap;Water spray uniformly irrigates, and is allowed to Spontaneous fermentation;After 3~5 days, the 1st turning is carried out, turning is made every effort to inside and outside, upper and lower material position and exchanged, uniform to reach fermentation; It waters later at interval of turning in 3 days primary, wood fibre expansion is made to soften and tentatively divide using the fermentation of microorganism in heap Fiber is solved, entire fermentation process needs 15~20 days, obtains fermentation material;
(3)Fermentation material is uniformly mixed to obtain culture material with wheat bran, lime, precipitated calcium carbonate and perlite particle.
Embodiment 2
It can cultivate to obtain high-quality clitocybe maxima using following steps:
(1)Prepare culture material:Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution is added in culture material, and is uniformly mixed;Chelating state selemium nutrition The weight ratio of liquid fertilizer solution and culture material is 20:500;Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution be using Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer with Clear water is mixed to get, and the volume ratio of Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer and clear water is 3:2000;It is mixed with mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud again It closes, the weight ratio of mashed carrot, pineapple peel mud and culture material is(3~8):(5~15):100;The mashed carrot and pineapple peel Mud is to smash to obtain using cooking machine by the skin of carrot and pineapple respectively;Culture material water content is finally adjusted to 55%~65%; It is used in combination polybag to pack, sack obtains bacterium bag using plastic sheath ring taps cotton or with yarn tying;
(2)Bacterium bag sterilizes:Sterilizing of doing the cooking in time after bacterium bag is obtained, it is small to be placed in sterilizing 16~20 in 100 DEG C of high-temperature pressure sterilizing kitchens When;
(3)Inoculation:When material temperature is reduced to 60 DEG C naturally, bacterium bag is moved on in desinfection chamber while hot, when material temperature is cooled to 28 DEG C, It can be inoculated with;
(4)Bacterium germination management:Bacterium bag after inoculation, which is stood in culturing room's layer frame, is protected from light culture, and indoor temperature grasps 25 DEG C ~ 28 DEG C, Relative air humidity 75% ~ 85%;Cultural hypha stage, early period close the doors and windows, and avoid fluctuations in indoor temperature amplitude excessive;Later stage answers Reinforce it is ventilated, keep room air it is pure and fresh;In incubation, respectively at mycelia grow to bag it is high 1/3 and 4/5 when, carry out Bacterium is looked into twice, rejects pollution, dead kind or the abnormal bacterium bag of growth;
(5)Management of producing mushroom:Mycelia walked full cultivating bag after 10 days, and temperature is stablized at 20 DEG C or more, can solve opened mouth, train Nutriment face earthing;Thickness of earth covering is 3 ~ 4 centimetres;Pay attention to keeping earthing moistening after earthing, and more shutdown windows or more epiphragmas, stimulation are former Base breaks up;7 ~ 10 days former bases can expose native face after general earthing;After former base is unearthed, by the control of place relative air humidity 80% ~ 90%;Relative air humidity is less than 75%, is easily cracked at the top of former base, causes cap that can not break up;Meanwhile reinforcing ventilation, keep field Ground is with fresh air, and pays attention to that place is made to have certain scattering light;Gas concentration lwevel is excessively high, insufficient light can postpone dividing for cap Change the time, causes stem long;Entire fruiting stage place temperature should be controlled at 23 DEG C ~ 32 DEG C;Water spray according to mushroom body size, The humidity and climatic condition of earthing are specifically grasped, and mushroom is the more sprayed water;Mushroom is sprayed water less, and fine day sprays more, cloudy day few spray;It is given birth to according to mushroom body Long different phase, flexibly controls ventilation quantity, and stem is unearthed, cap is formed, grow each stage stronger ventilation amount successively;Mushroom house air Relative humidity keeps 85 ~ 95%;
(6)Insect pest preventing and controlling:The prevention of pest and disease damage should follow put prevention first, the principle of integrated control;Vegetative stage, emphasis are anti- Only various moulds invade people's culture medium and pollute;Sporophore growth stage, the various pests of keypoint control;Sporophore growth develops rank Section must not spray insecticide, it is ensured that product is innoxious;
(7)Picking and post-processing:It is harvested in time when mushroom body maturation, earthing should be filled in time after having been adopted per damp mushroom, bacteria 3 of cutting off the water After ~ 5 days, lower damp management of producing mushroom is carried out.
Step(1)Culture material include that the raw materials of following parts by weight is made:30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls 15~25 Part, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, perlite particle 0.5~1 part;The corncob particle is that remaining slag is less than 0.5 through being ground into granule size after being processed with corn rod threshing Centimetre;Perlite particle is that the particle for being less than 3mm in granularity is crushed using perlite.
The preparation process of the culture material is:
(1)Take by weight 30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, 15~25 parts of cotton seed hulls, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, 0.5~1 part of perlite particle;
(2)The wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls and corncob particle are uniformly mixed, is placed on cement court and builds heap;Water spray uniformly irrigates, and is allowed to Spontaneous fermentation;After 3~5 days, the 1st turning is carried out, turning is made every effort to inside and outside, upper and lower material position and exchanged, uniform to reach fermentation; It waters later at interval of turning in 3 days primary, wood fibre expansion is made to soften and tentatively divide using the fermentation of microorganism in heap Fiber is solved, entire fermentation process needs 15~20 days, obtains fermentation material;
(3)Fermentation material is uniformly mixed to obtain culture material with wheat bran, lime, precipitated calcium carbonate and perlite particle.
Application Example
1, Guangxi bio tech ltd poplar cultivates clitocybe maxima, according to its logging, it is original using the wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls, Cultivation base is made in wheat bran, corncob particle, lime and precipitated calcium carbonate(Perlite particle is not added), the clitocybe maxima cultivated Defect rate is up to 15% or more;Later, poplar utilized the cultural method of the present embodiment, and the clitocybe maxima color and luster cultivated is more preferable, taste Road is also more fresh and sweet.Poplar will be from added with mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud and the cultivation base for not adding mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud Obtained selenium-rich clitocybe maxima is cultivated, after being cooked using identical cooking methods, is tasted to 10 volunteers, 10 volunteers are consistent Think that the selenium-rich clitocybe maxima that the cultivation matrix added with mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud is cultivated is better tasting.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima, it is characterised in that:Cultivating step is:
(1)Prepare culture material:Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution is added in culture material, and is uniformly mixed;Chelating state selemium nutrition The weight ratio of liquid fertilizer solution and culture material is 20:500;Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer solution be using Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer with Clear water is mixed to get, and the volume ratio of Chelating state selemium nutrition liquid fertilizer and clear water is 3:2000;Culture material water content is adjusted to 55% again ~65%;Then it is packed with polybag, sack obtains bacterium bag using plastic sheath ring taps cotton or with yarn tying;
(2)Bacterium bag sterilizes:Sterilizing of doing the cooking in time after bacterium bag is obtained, it is small to be placed in sterilizing 16~20 in 100 DEG C of high-temperature pressure sterilizing kitchens When;
(3)Inoculation:When material temperature is reduced to 60 DEG C naturally, bacterium bag is moved on in desinfection chamber while hot, when material temperature is cooled to 28 DEG C, It can be inoculated with;
(4)Bacterium germination management:Bacterium bag after inoculation, which is stood in culturing room's layer frame, is protected from light culture, and indoor temperature grasps 25 DEG C ~ 28 DEG C, Relative air humidity 75% ~ 85%;Cultural hypha stage, early period close the doors and windows, and avoid fluctuations in indoor temperature amplitude excessive;Later stage answers Reinforce it is ventilated, keep room air it is pure and fresh;In incubation, respectively at mycelia grow to bag it is high 1/3 and 4/5 when, carry out Bacterium is looked into twice, rejects pollution, dead kind or the abnormal bacterium bag of growth;
(5)Management of producing mushroom:Mycelia walked full cultivating bag after 10 days, and temperature is stablized at 20 DEG C or more, can solve opened mouth, train Nutriment face earthing;Thickness of earth covering is 3 ~ 4 centimetres;Pay attention to keeping earthing moistening after earthing, and more shutdown windows or more epiphragmas, stimulation are former Base breaks up;7 ~ 10 days former bases can expose native face after general earthing;After former base is unearthed, by the control of place relative air humidity 80% ~ 90%;Relative air humidity is less than 75%, is easily cracked at the top of former base, causes cap that can not break up;Meanwhile reinforcing ventilation, keep field Ground is with fresh air, and pays attention to that place is made to have certain scattering light;Gas concentration lwevel is excessively high, insufficient light can postpone dividing for cap Change the time, causes stem long;Entire fruiting stage place temperature should be controlled at 23 DEG C ~ 32 DEG C;Water spray according to mushroom body size, The humidity and climatic condition of earthing are specifically grasped, and mushroom is the more sprayed water;Mushroom is sprayed water less, and fine day sprays more, cloudy day few spray;It is given birth to according to mushroom body Long different phase, flexibly controls ventilation quantity, and stem is unearthed, cap is formed, grow each stage stronger ventilation amount successively;Mushroom house air Relative humidity keeps 85 ~ 95%;
(6)Insect pest preventing and controlling:The prevention of pest and disease damage should follow put prevention first, the principle of integrated control;Vegetative stage, emphasis are anti- Only various moulds invade people's culture medium and pollute;Sporophore growth stage, the various pests of keypoint control;Sporophore growth develops rank Section must not spray insecticide, it is ensured that product is innoxious;
(7)Picking and post-processing:It is harvested in time when mushroom body maturation, earthing should be filled in time after having been adopted per damp mushroom, bacteria 3 of cutting off the water After ~ 5 days, lower damp management of producing mushroom is carried out.
2. the cultural method of clitocybe maxima according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Step(1)Culture material include following The raw material of parts by weight is made:30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, 15~25 parts of cotton seed hulls, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, corncob particle 10~25 Part, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, 0.5~1 part of perlite particle;The corncob particle is with jade Remaining slag is less than 0.5 centimetre through being ground into granule size after rice stick threshing processing;Perlite particle is crushed using perlite It is less than the particle of 3mm in granularity.
3. the cultural method of clitocybe maxima according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:The preparation process of the culture material is:
(1)Take by weight 30~50 parts of the wooden chaff, 15~25 parts of cotton seed hulls, 10~25 parts of wheat bran, 10~25 parts of corncob particle, 1~2 part of lime, 0.5~1.5 part of precipitated calcium carbonate, 0.5~1 part of perlite particle;
(2)The wooden chaff, cotton seed hulls and corncob particle are uniformly mixed, is placed on cement court and builds heap;Water spray uniformly irrigates, and is allowed to Spontaneous fermentation;After 3~5 days, the 1st turning is carried out, turning is made every effort to inside and outside, upper and lower material position and exchanged, uniform to reach fermentation; It waters later at interval of turning in 3 days primary, wood fibre expansion is made to soften and tentatively divide using the fermentation of microorganism in heap Fiber is solved, entire fermentation process needs 15~20 days, obtains fermentation material;
(3)Fermentation material is uniformly mixed to obtain culture material with wheat bran, lime, precipitated calcium carbonate and perlite particle.
4. the cultural method of clitocybe maxima according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Step(1)Middle adjusting culture material is aqueous Before amount, mashed carrot first is added and pineapple peel mud, the weight ratio of mashed carrot, pineapple peel mud and culture material are(3~8):(5~ 15):100;The mashed carrot and pineapple peel mud is to smash to obtain using cooking machine by the skin of carrot and pineapple respectively.
CN201810879074.5A 2018-08-03 2018-08-03 A kind of cultural method of clitocybe maxima Pending CN108718919A (en)

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CN109661973A (en) * 2019-02-20 2019-04-23 文山学院 A method of pork tripe bacterium is cultivated using Radix Notoginseng undesirable root
CN112205908A (en) * 2020-10-09 2021-01-12 四川大学华西医院 Middle-aged and old constipation patient defecates with auxiliary device that squats
CN112806212A (en) * 2021-02-07 2021-05-18 金华市挺美科技有限公司 Method for cultivating clitocybe maxima

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CN103396201A (en) * 2013-06-04 2013-11-20 鲁东大学 Standardized cultivation method of new germplasm of Panus giganteus
CN103626574A (en) * 2013-10-24 2014-03-12 邵友德 Panus giganteus culture medium and preparation method thereof
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CN112205908A (en) * 2020-10-09 2021-01-12 四川大学华西医院 Middle-aged and old constipation patient defecates with auxiliary device that squats
CN112806212A (en) * 2021-02-07 2021-05-18 金华市挺美科技有限公司 Method for cultivating clitocybe maxima

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Application publication date: 20181102