CN105309198A - Shiitake mushroom compost and planting method of shiitake mushrooms - Google Patents

Shiitake mushroom compost and planting method of shiitake mushrooms Download PDF

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CN105309198A
CN105309198A CN201410365689.8A CN201410365689A CN105309198A CN 105309198 A CN105309198 A CN 105309198A CN 201410365689 A CN201410365689 A CN 201410365689A CN 105309198 A CN105309198 A CN 105309198A
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mushroom
temperature
wood chip
planting
fruiting
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李志刚
方袁
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李志刚
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Abstract

The invention provides shiitake mushroom compost and a planting method of shiitake mushrooms, belongs to the technical field of vegetable planting and particularly relates to a planting method of the shiitake mushrooms. The planting method of the shiitake mushrooms comprises steps as follows: 1, arrangement of sowing time and selection of strains: medium-temperature-type or moderate-to-high-temperature strains are adopted; 2, preparation of the compost: the compost is a matrix and a material basis for growth and development of the shiitake mushrooms; different kinds of compost are adopted for production of the shiitake mushrooms due to the fact that organic substance resources in different places are different; firstly, gypsum and wheat bran are uniformly mixed and then uniformly mixed with wood flour, sugar and urea are dissolved in water and uniformly sprayed on the materials, the materials are turned over with a shovel while the mixture of the sugar and the urea are sprayed, and material surfaces are swept repeatedly and uniformly through a bamboo broom; 3, a nutrient growth state is switched to a reproductive growth state quickly under the irritation of certain conditions, and primordium differentiation and growth development of sporocarp are realized, that is, the fruiting period is started.

Description

The implantation methods of a kind of Mushroom cultivation material and mushroom
Technical field
The invention belongs to growing vegetables technical field, particularly relate to the implantation methods of mushroom.
Background technology
Mushroom has another name called mushroom, fragrant letter, fragrant wild rice, vertebra young pilose antler, belongs to Basidiomycetes Agaricales Pleurotaceae Lentinus.The artificial cultivation of mushroom has the history of more than 800 year in China, mushroom culture is all used " cutting colored method " for a long time, is a kind of segment wood cultivated method of inoculation naturally.Just start to cultivate pure culture up to the mid-1960s, use the segment wood cultivated method of artificial infection instead.There is generation material briquetting cultivation in the mid-1970s, after develop into again plastic bag cultivation method, output significantly increases.China has been the first big country of Lentnus edodes in the world at present.
Mushroom, having another name called flower mushroom, mushroom, fragrant letter, fragrant bacterium, dried mushroom, fragrant wild rice, is the fruit body of Pleurotaceae plant mushroom.Mushroom is second-biggest-in-the-world edible mushroom, one of Ye Shi China special product, at the title have " mountain delicacy " among the people.It is the fungi of a kind of growth on timber.Delicious flavour, fragrance oozes people, nutritious.Mushroom is rich in Cobastab group, iron, potassium, provitamin D (changing into vitamin D after Exposure to Sunlight), taste are sweet, and property is put down.Cure mainly anorexia, weak breath is weak.
The title that mushroom have " king of mountain delicacy " is high protein, low-fat nutritional health food.Chinese dynasties physician all has famous discussion to mushroom.Modern medicine and alimentology deepen continuously research, and the medical value of mushroom is also constantly excavated.In mushroom, Quantitative Determination of Ergosterol is very high, effective to preventing and treating rickets; Lentinan (β ~ 1,3 glucans) can strengthen cell immunocompetent, thus the growth of inhibition cancer cell; Mushroom contains more than 40 kind of enzyme of six large enzymes, can correct human chitinase deficiency disease; Fatty institute fatty acids in mushroom, reduces blood fat to human body useful.Mushroom--fungi queen.Mushroom, also known as mushroom, dried mushroom, is the Mycophyta of a kind of growth on timber.Because its taste is more fragrant, pleasant aroma, nutritious, not only rank on straw mushroom, flat mushroom, white mushroom, and have the reputation of " fungi queen ".
Mushroom delicious flavour, nutritious, be a kind of food materials that human body is highly profitable, but existing mushroom planting technology is perfect not, is unfavorable for the spread of mushroom.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is exactly for the problems referred to above, provides a kind of implantation methods increasing a kind of perfect mushroom of mushroom production.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme.
An implantation methods for Mushroom cultivation material and mushroom, comprises the following steps.
One, the arrangement in sowing time and the selection of bacterial classification, at present, Lentnus edodes many employings greenhouse, the northern area of China is as fruiting place, and the impact of climate condition is large, and seasonality is very strong.Various places mushroom should be determined according to the weather conditions of locality sowing time.Beijing area Lentnus edodes many employings summer sowing, autumn, winter, spring fruiting, because fruiting in autumn begins the phase in mid-September, so the concrete sowing time should at the beginning of 7 months, making at the beginning of 6 months is produced and is planted.Middle warm type or middle warm type temperature bacterial strain on the low side should be selected.But because summer sowing mushroom bacteria developing period is just in time in, temperature is high, the season of high humidity, and living contaminants is difficult to control, so winter sowing mushroom develops to some extent in recent years.Be generally make by the end of November, at the beginning of 12 months to produce to plant, sow by the end of December, at the beginning of 1 month, enter canopy fruiting mid-March.Warm type or the partially megathermal bacterial strain of middle temperature in many employings.
Two, the preparation planting material of planting material is the matrix that mushroom growth is grown, and the material base of life, so the quality of planting material directly has influence on the success or failure of Lentnus edodes and the height of seed output and quality.Because the organic substance resource of various places is different, the planting material that Lentnus edodes adopts also is not quite similar.
(1) its batching of preparation of several planting material is in double centner, increases and decreases depending on production scale size.
1. wood chip 78%, wheat bran 30%, gypsum 5%, sugar 3%, separately add urea 0.3%.The water content 35% ~ 50% of material.
2. wood chip 58%, wheat bran 25%, corn flour 2%, sugar 1.2%, gypsum 2% ~ 2.5%, urea 0.3%, superphosphate 0.5%.The water content 45% ~ 50% of material.
3. wood chip 48%, wheat bran 38%, gypsum 2%, superphosphate 0.5%, magnesium sulfate 0.2%, urea 0.3%, brown sugar 1%.The water content 45% ~ 70% of material.The preparation of above-mentioned 3 kinds of planting materials: first gypsum and wheat bran are dry mixed and mix thoroughly, then be dry mixed with wood chip and mix evenly, sugar and urea are first dissolved in water, splashes equably on expecting, spill with shovel limit flange, and repeatedly sweep even on charge level with bamboo broom.4. cotton seed hull 50%, wood chip 32%, wheat bran 15%, gypsum 1%, superphosphate 0.5%, urea 0.5%, sugar 1%.The water content about 60% of material.5. beanstalk 46%, wood chip 32%, wheat bran 20%, gypsum 1%, sugar 1%.The water content 60% of material.
6. wood chip 56%, cotton seed hull 16%, corncob 20%, wheat bran 15%, gypsum 1%, superphosphate 0.5%, urea 0.5%, sugar 1%.The water content 40% of material.
Three, management of producing mushroom; After mushroom bacterial spawn annesl, mycelium full maturity, and have accumulated abundant nutrition,
Under the stimulation of certain condition, entering reproductive growth by nourishing and growing rapidly, fruit body primordium differentiation occurring and grows, namely entering the fruiting phase.A. urge flower bud: mushroom belongs to the mushroom of alternating temperature fecundity, certain temperature difference, scattered light and ozone are conducive to the differentiation of fruit body primordium.This period generally all throws off furrow upper cover film, and the temperature in fruiting greenhouse preferably controls at 10 ~ 22 DEG C, can have the temperature difference of 5 ~ 10 DEG C round the clock.If natural temperature differential is little, also the temperature difference can be widened artificially by means of the chance of daytime and night ventilation.Relative air humidity maintains about 90%.When condition is suitable for, the mycoderm of 3 ~ 4 days bacterial spawn surface brown just there will be the crackle of white, shortly president's fruiting flower bud.Prevent high temperature, high humidity, to prevent living contaminants, rotten bacterial spawn.Once there is high temperature, high humidity, forced ventilation be added, reducing temperature and humidity.B., the budding management of sporophore growth: after mushroom flower bud differentiates, enter growth and development stage.The temperature that the Xianggu mushroom strain sporophore growth of different temperatures type is grown is different, and most bacterial strain fruit body in the temperature range of 8 ~ 25 DEG C can be grown, and optimum temperature is at 15 ~ 20 DEG C, and under constant temperature, sporophore growth is grown very well.Require relative air humidity 85% ~ 90%.Along with fruit body is constantly grown up, breathe and strengthen, carbon dioxide buildup is accelerated, and add forced ventilation, keep with fresh air, also will have certain scattered light.Summer sowing mushroom fruiting begins the phase in the fall.North the clear and crisp days of autumn in autumn, dry, variations in temperature is large, and bacterial spawn just starts fruiting, and moisture is sufficient, nutritious, and mycelia is healthy and strong.
Further, wood chip refers to the wood chip of broad-leaved tree, namely hardwood wood chip.Outmoded wood chip is better than fresh wood chip.Wood chip should be sieved before batching, sieve removes thick wood chip, prevents from puncturing plastic sack, and thickness wants appropriateness, and meticulous wood chip affects ventilation in bag.In wood dust culture material, the cotton seed hull of 10% ~ 30% should be added, have production-increasing function; But the ratio that cotton seed hull, corncob account in planting material is excessive, easily broken bacterial spawn during de-bag fruiting.Wheat bran in planting material, urea should not add too much, otherwise easily cause over growth of hyphae, are difficult to annesl fruiting.Wheat bran, rice bran are fresh, can not lump, can not be infested mouldy.Beanstalk wants powder to become chaff shape, and maize cob meal becomes the graininess of beans size.
Beneficial effect of the present invention.
The present invention utilizes scientific and reasonable mushroom implantation methods to accelerate the growth rate of quickening.The resistance against diseases of mushroom is strengthened, and adds mushroom production, and utilize method of the present invention plantation and management can make the Fresh & Tender in Texture of mushroom.Mouthfeel is better, increases later stage output and economic benefit.
Embodiment
The implantation methods of a kind of Mushroom cultivation material of the present invention and mushroom, comprises the following steps.
One, the arrangement in sowing time and the selection of bacterial classification, at present, Lentnus edodes many employings greenhouse, the northern area of China is as fruiting place, and the impact of climate condition is large, and seasonality is very strong.Various places mushroom should be determined according to the weather conditions of locality sowing time.Beijing area Lentnus edodes many employings summer sowing, autumn, winter, spring fruiting, because fruiting in autumn begins the phase in mid-September, so the concrete sowing time should at the beginning of 7 months, making at the beginning of 6 months is produced and is planted.Middle warm type or middle warm type temperature bacterial strain on the low side should be selected.But because summer sowing mushroom bacteria developing period is just in time in, temperature is high, the season of high humidity, and living contaminants is difficult to control, so winter sowing mushroom develops to some extent in recent years.Be generally make by the end of November, at the beginning of 12 months to produce to plant, sow by the end of December, at the beginning of 1 month, enter canopy fruiting mid-March.Warm type or the partially megathermal bacterial strain of middle temperature in many employings.
Two, the preparation planting material of planting material is the matrix that mushroom growth is grown, and the material base of life, so the quality of planting material directly has influence on the success or failure of Lentnus edodes and the height of seed output and quality.Because the organic substance resource of various places is different, the planting material that Lentnus edodes adopts also is not quite similar.
(1) its batching of preparation of several planting material is in double centner, increases and decreases depending on production scale size.
1. wood chip 78%, wheat bran 30%, gypsum 5%, sugar 3%, separately add urea 0.3%.The water content 35% ~ 50% of material.
2. wood chip 58%, wheat bran 25%, corn flour 2%, sugar 1.2%, gypsum 2% ~ 2.5%, urea 0.3%, superphosphate 0.5%.The water content 45% ~ 50% of material.
3. wood chip 48%, wheat bran 38%, gypsum 2%, superphosphate 0.5%, magnesium sulfate 0.2%, urea 0.3%, brown sugar 1%.The water content 45% ~ 70% of material.The preparation of above-mentioned 3 kinds of planting materials: first gypsum and wheat bran are dry mixed and mix thoroughly, then be dry mixed with wood chip and mix evenly, sugar and urea are first dissolved in water, splashes equably on expecting, spill with shovel limit flange, and repeatedly sweep even on charge level with bamboo broom.4. cotton seed hull 50%, wood chip 32%, wheat bran 15%, gypsum 1%, superphosphate 0.5%, urea 0.5%, sugar 1%.The water content about 60% of material.5. beanstalk 46%, wood chip 32%, wheat bran 20%, gypsum 1%, sugar 1%.The water content 60% of material.
6. wood chip 56%, cotton seed hull 16%, corncob 20%, wheat bran 15%, gypsum 1%, superphosphate 0.5%, urea 0.5%, sugar 1%.The water content 40% of material.
Three, management of producing mushroom; After mushroom bacterial spawn annesl, mycelium full maturity, and have accumulated abundant nutrition,
Under the stimulation of certain condition, entering reproductive growth by nourishing and growing rapidly, fruit body primordium differentiation occurring and grows, namely entering the fruiting phase.A. urge flower bud: mushroom belongs to the mushroom of alternating temperature fecundity, certain temperature difference, scattered light and ozone are conducive to the differentiation of fruit body primordium.This period generally all throws off furrow upper cover film, and the temperature in fruiting greenhouse preferably controls at 10 ~ 22 DEG C, can have the temperature difference of 5 ~ 10 DEG C round the clock.If natural temperature differential is little, also the temperature difference can be widened artificially by means of the chance of daytime and night ventilation.Relative air humidity maintains about 90%.When condition is suitable for, the mycoderm of 3 ~ 4 days bacterial spawn surface brown just there will be the crackle of white, shortly president's fruiting flower bud.Prevent high temperature, high humidity, to prevent living contaminants, rotten bacterial spawn.Once there is high temperature, high humidity, forced ventilation be added, reducing temperature and humidity.B., the budding management of sporophore growth: after mushroom flower bud differentiates, enter growth and development stage.The temperature that the Xianggu mushroom strain sporophore growth of different temperatures type is grown is different, and most bacterial strain fruit body in the temperature range of 8 ~ 25 DEG C can be grown, and optimum temperature is at 15 ~ 20 DEG C, and under constant temperature, sporophore growth is grown very well.Require relative air humidity 85% ~ 90%.Along with fruit body is constantly grown up, breathe and strengthen, carbon dioxide buildup is accelerated, and add forced ventilation, keep with fresh air, also will have certain scattered light.Summer sowing mushroom fruiting begins the phase in the fall.North the clear and crisp days of autumn in autumn, dry, variations in temperature is large, and bacterial spawn just starts fruiting, and moisture is sufficient, nutritious, and mycelia is healthy and strong.
Wood chip refers to the wood chip of broad-leaved tree, namely hardwood wood chip.Outmoded wood chip is better than fresh wood chip.Wood chip should be sieved before batching, sieve removes thick wood chip, prevents from puncturing plastic sack, and thickness wants appropriateness, and meticulous wood chip affects ventilation in bag.In wood dust culture material, the cotton seed hull of 10% ~ 30% should be added, have production-increasing function; But the ratio that cotton seed hull, corncob account in planting material is excessive, easily broken bacterial spawn during de-bag fruiting.Wheat bran in planting material, urea should not add too much, otherwise easily cause over growth of hyphae, are difficult to annesl fruiting.Wheat bran, rice bran are fresh, can not lump, can not be infested mouldy.Beanstalk wants powder to become chaff shape, and maize cob meal becomes the graininess of beans size.

Claims (2)

1. an implantation methods for Mushroom cultivation material and mushroom, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps;
One, the arrangement in sowing time and the selection of bacterial classification, at present, Lentnus edodes many employings greenhouse, the northern area of China is as fruiting place, and the impact of climate condition is large, and seasonality is very strong; Various places mushroom should be determined according to the weather conditions of locality sowing time; Beijing area Lentnus edodes many employings summer sowing, autumn, winter, spring fruiting, because fruiting in autumn begins the phase in mid-September, so the concrete sowing time should at the beginning of 7 months, making at the beginning of 6 months is produced and is planted; Middle warm type or middle warm type temperature bacterial strain on the low side should be selected; But because summer sowing mushroom bacteria developing period is just in time in, temperature is high, the season of high humidity, and living contaminants is difficult to control, so winter sowing mushroom develops to some extent in recent years; Be generally make by the end of November, at the beginning of 12 months to produce to plant, sow by the end of December, at the beginning of 1 month, enter canopy fruiting mid-March; Warm type or the partially megathermal bacterial strain of middle temperature in many employings;
Two, the preparation planting material of planting material is the matrix that mushroom growth is grown, and the material base of life, so the quality of planting material directly has influence on the success or failure of Lentnus edodes and the height of seed output and quality; Because the organic substance resource of various places is different, the planting material that Lentnus edodes adopts also is not quite similar;
(1) its batching of preparation of several planting material is in double centner, increases and decreases depending on production scale size;
1. wood chip 78%, wheat bran 30%, gypsum 5%, sugar 3%, separately add urea 0.3%; The water content 35% ~ 50% of material;
2. wood chip 58%, wheat bran 25%, corn flour 2%, sugar 1.2%, gypsum 2% ~ 2.5%, urea 0.3%, superphosphate 0.5%; The water content 45% ~ 50% of material;
3. wood chip 48%, wheat bran 38%, gypsum 2%, superphosphate 0.5%, magnesium sulfate 0.2%, urea 0.3%, brown sugar 1%; The water content 45% ~ 70% of material; The preparation of above-mentioned 3 kinds of planting materials: first gypsum and wheat bran are dry mixed and mix thoroughly, then be dry mixed with wood chip and mix evenly, sugar and urea are first dissolved in water, splashes equably on expecting, spill with shovel limit flange, and repeatedly sweep even on charge level with bamboo broom; 4. cotton seed hull 50%, wood chip 32%, wheat bran 15%, gypsum 1%, superphosphate 0.5%, urea 0.5%, sugar 1%; The water content about 60% of material; 5. beanstalk 46%, wood chip 32%, wheat bran 20%, gypsum 1%, sugar 1%; The water content 60% of material;
6. wood chip 56%, cotton seed hull 16%, corncob 20%, wheat bran 15%, gypsum 1%, superphosphate 0.5%, urea 0.5%, sugar 1%; The water content 40% of material;
Three, management of producing mushroom; After mushroom bacterial spawn annesl, mycelium full maturity, and have accumulated abundant nutrition,
Under the stimulation of certain condition, entering reproductive growth by nourishing and growing rapidly, fruit body primordium differentiation occurring and grows, namely entering the fruiting phase; A. urge flower bud: mushroom belongs to the mushroom of alternating temperature fecundity, certain temperature difference, scattered light and ozone are conducive to the differentiation of fruit body primordium; This period generally all throws off furrow upper cover film, and the temperature in fruiting greenhouse preferably controls at 10 ~ 22 DEG C, can have the temperature difference of 5 ~ 10 DEG C round the clock; If natural temperature differential is little, also the temperature difference can be widened artificially by means of the chance of daytime and night ventilation; Relative air humidity maintains about 90%; When condition is suitable for, the mycoderm of 3 ~ 4 days bacterial spawn surface brown just there will be the crackle of white, shortly president's fruiting flower bud; Prevent high temperature, high humidity, to prevent living contaminants, rotten bacterial spawn; Once there is high temperature, high humidity, forced ventilation be added, reducing temperature and humidity; B., the budding management of sporophore growth: after mushroom flower bud differentiates, enter growth and development stage; The temperature that the Xianggu mushroom strain sporophore growth of different temperatures type is grown is different, and most bacterial strain fruit body in the temperature range of 8 ~ 25 DEG C can be grown, and optimum temperature is at 15 ~ 20 DEG C, and under constant temperature, sporophore growth is grown very well; Require relative air humidity 85% ~ 90%; Along with fruit body is constantly grown up, breathe and strengthen, carbon dioxide buildup is accelerated, and add forced ventilation, keep with fresh air, also will have certain scattered light; Summer sowing mushroom fruiting begins the phase in the fall; North the clear and crisp days of autumn in autumn, dry, variations in temperature is large, and bacterial spawn just starts fruiting, and moisture is sufficient, nutritious, and mycelia is healthy and strong.
2. the implantation methods of a kind of Mushroom cultivation material and mushroom according to claim 1, is characterized in that: wood chip refers to the wood chip of broad-leaved tree, namely hardwood wood chip; Outmoded wood chip is better than fresh wood chip; Wood chip should be sieved before batching, sieve removes thick wood chip, prevents from puncturing plastic sack, and thickness wants appropriateness, and meticulous wood chip affects ventilation in bag; In wood dust culture material, the cotton seed hull of 10% ~ 30% should be added, have production-increasing function; But the ratio that cotton seed hull, corncob account in planting material is excessive, easily broken bacterial spawn during de-bag fruiting; Wheat bran in planting material, urea should not add too much, otherwise easily cause over growth of hyphae, are difficult to annesl fruiting; Wheat bran, rice bran are fresh, can not lump, can not be infested mouldy; Beanstalk wants powder to become chaff shape, and maize cob meal becomes the graininess of beans size.
CN201410365689.8A 2014-07-30 2014-07-30 Shiitake mushroom compost and planting method of shiitake mushrooms Pending CN105309198A (en)

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105777277A (en) * 2016-04-06 2016-07-20 华中农业大学 Compost for inhibiting mushroom from absorbing heavy metal cadmium and arsenic and cultivation method
CN106380245A (en) * 2016-08-26 2017-02-08 郑州市蔬菜研究所 Letinous edodes cultivation substrate and preparation method thereof
CN106386167A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-02-15 惠州市嘉程驾校有限公司 Preparation method for culture medium
CN106431652A (en) * 2016-09-23 2017-02-22 吉林农业大学 Method for preparing lentinus edodes cultivation matrix from corncobs and broad-leaved tree sawdust
CN107148859A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-09-12 南充市高坪区真武庙食用菌种植专业合作社 A kind of organic mushroom cultivating method of high yield
CN107382429A (en) * 2017-09-07 2017-11-24 上海市农业科学院 A kind of culture medium for being used to produce mushroom and the method for producing mushroom
CN107980475A (en) * 2017-12-05 2018-05-04 罗成喜 A kind of implantation methods of mushroom
CN109315224A (en) * 2018-11-29 2019-02-12 罗源县生产力促进中心 Mushroom materials bag cultivating technique
CN109952914A (en) * 2019-03-12 2019-07-02 上海市农业科学院 A kind of culture medium and preparation method, cultural method for cultivating champignon
CN111615993A (en) * 2020-06-15 2020-09-04 贵州大学 Preparation and maintenance method of mushroom sticks of short-age mushrooms sowed in winter and spring

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105777277A (en) * 2016-04-06 2016-07-20 华中农业大学 Compost for inhibiting mushroom from absorbing heavy metal cadmium and arsenic and cultivation method
CN106380245A (en) * 2016-08-26 2017-02-08 郑州市蔬菜研究所 Letinous edodes cultivation substrate and preparation method thereof
CN106386167A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-02-15 惠州市嘉程驾校有限公司 Preparation method for culture medium
CN106431652A (en) * 2016-09-23 2017-02-22 吉林农业大学 Method for preparing lentinus edodes cultivation matrix from corncobs and broad-leaved tree sawdust
CN107148859A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-09-12 南充市高坪区真武庙食用菌种植专业合作社 A kind of organic mushroom cultivating method of high yield
CN107382429A (en) * 2017-09-07 2017-11-24 上海市农业科学院 A kind of culture medium for being used to produce mushroom and the method for producing mushroom
CN107980475A (en) * 2017-12-05 2018-05-04 罗成喜 A kind of implantation methods of mushroom
CN109315224A (en) * 2018-11-29 2019-02-12 罗源县生产力促进中心 Mushroom materials bag cultivating technique
CN109952914A (en) * 2019-03-12 2019-07-02 上海市农业科学院 A kind of culture medium and preparation method, cultural method for cultivating champignon
CN111615993A (en) * 2020-06-15 2020-09-04 贵州大学 Preparation and maintenance method of mushroom sticks of short-age mushrooms sowed in winter and spring

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