CN105993613A - Method for multi-season toadstool planting in high, cold and high-altitude areas - Google Patents

Method for multi-season toadstool planting in high, cold and high-altitude areas Download PDF

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CN105993613A
CN105993613A CN201610657674.8A CN201610657674A CN105993613A CN 105993613 A CN105993613 A CN 105993613A CN 201610657674 A CN201610657674 A CN 201610657674A CN 105993613 A CN105993613 A CN 105993613A
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pers
soil
morchella esculenta
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mycelia
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CN105993613B (en
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常毓巍
何淑玲
马令法
杨敬军
李瑛萍
马军
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Guangxi Normal University for Nationalities
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National College Of Education In Gansu
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for multi-season toadstool planting in high, cold and high-altitude areas. The method includes the following steps of 1 separation and cloning of toadstool fruiting bodies, 2 making of cultivated species, 3 making of externally aided nutrition bags. The method is not limited by natural conditions such as high and cold conditions and high altitude, toadstool can be planted in an all-year, large-scale and standardized mode, used materials are wide in source, quick and convenient, waste can be turned into wealth, life and production waste such as waste paper, waste paper boxes, plant ash, crop straws, plant ash and decomposed poultry and livestock manure is recycled, and the method is a sunlight greenhouse out-of-season toadstool planting technology which is high in fruiting repeatability, high and stable in yield, economic and environmentally friendly.

Description

One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods
Technical field
The invention belongs to industrialized agriculture planting edible mushroom technical field, particularly to a kind of high altitudes and cold area sheep Tripe bacterium many seasons implantation methods.
Background technology
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers (Morchella esculenta) is a kind of famous and precious edible and medicinal fungi, and Morchellaceae, morchella are many The general name of kind of fungus, especially nutrition and the highest fungus of medical value.Wild species often occur in the end of spring and the beginning of summer, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is nutritious, plants aminoacid containing multiple proteins, polysaccharide, vitamin, mineral element and more than 20, It is identified as the senior tonic of human nutrition, becomes one of the most foremost Precious Edible Fungi.And, sheep Tripe bacterium also has stronger antitumor, strengthens body immunity, kidney invigorating and YANG supporting, preventing cold, building body etc. Effect.In addition to edible, medical value, modern society is also directed to its special dietary composition and develops business-like Flavoring agent, health promoting beverage, food (aminoacid) additive, a series of products such as steep in wine.As can be seen here, sheep Tripe bacterium is the rare edible and medical fungi that a kind of DEVELOPMENT PROSPECT is wide.More domestic high-grade hotels and electricity business market are equal Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers recipe or hard-cover merchandise sales can be seen, such as Taobao's 196 yuan/50 grams dry products of marked price, Alibaba Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers dry product wholesale price at 800~2000 yuan/jin, its demand is the biggest.And current Chinese Wild sheep Tripe bacterium is affected by bad environments change and artificial wantonly excavating, and wild toadstool yield is drastically reduced, and is often only product About 10 tons, the every year output of artificial culture is less than 500 tons, and whole world Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers aggregate demand is estimated to exceed 100000 tons, therefore, only can not satisfy social needs the most far away by collection wild toadstool, and anti-season is planted Training Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers brings good economic well-being of workers and staff surely.Additionally Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is many at food, health product, medication chemistry etc. Field has broad application prospects, and is China's main exit edible fungus to European countries such as France, and And along with the demand of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is increased by the countries such as moral, method, meaning, U.S., its price constantly rises.But by Big in Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers artificial culture difficulty, artificial culture progress is slow, wild toadstool its can not meet far away The domestic demand with international market, and owing to wild toadstool is excavated in transition in recent years, heavy damage Gaster caprae seu Ovis The bio-diversity of bacterium and forest, Grassland ecosystems balance.Therefore, the artificial or Semi-artificial cultivation of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers The focus of technology the most international edible fungi research, experiment in cultivation is even to be had successfully, but its poor repeatability, fruiting is not Stable, yield poorly, it is impossible to carry out commercialization cultivation.Therefore, the artificial culture that the high yield of research Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is of fine quality Then there are huge market prospect and economic benefit, ecological benefits, simultaneously for the exploitation of minimizing wild mushrooms, Preserve the ecological environment, have great importance.
In recent years, the tame research of China's Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is concentrated mainly on strain production technology, various greatly Field, forest land, Semen Tritici aestivi, ground bionic cultivation technology, Interplanting technique aspect Radix Ophiopogonis, the most then be concentrated mainly on indoor Industrial cultivation technique aspect.On the Sichuan of China, Chongqing, Yunnan, Hubei and other places, substantially carry out sheep The scale of tripe bacterium, commercially produce, at present, both at home and abroad to Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers (M.esculenta), balck vein hickory chick (M.angusticeps), the cultivation condition of Morchellaconica (M.conica) have been carried out studying widely and. The Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers cultivated area gone into operation for 2014~2015 has reached more than 8000 mu, and per mu yield reaches 10~150kg/ Mu.The history of the existing last 100 years of the research and probe of artificial culture Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers, state at san francisco, usa in 1986 University Ron Ower has been authorized to the United States Patent (USP) of two Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers cultivations nineteen eighty-two and 1986.? The 1950's, Liu Bo carried out Semi-artificial cultivation aspect experimental study, and used fresh natural bacterium The mycelium cultivation etc. of pure culture is cultivated, cultivated with fresh and dry sporophore, use to filament, can be the longest Go out sporophore.Simultaneously.Semi-artificial cultivation aspect, Taiwan Province is by bacterium soil inocalation method, sporophore inocalation method also Carry out Semi-artificial cultivation test;Abroad, at 1898 5~Baron dyvoire in June by Gaster caprae seu Ovis The sporophore block of bacterium is seeded in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) cave, seedbed, and autumn is at Jerusalem artichoke basal part of stem four Executing people's pomace week, 1~2 Zhou Houzai cover dry branches and fallen leaves, and the method removing dry branches and fallen leaves spring in next year is carried out Semi-artificial cultivation test, finds under conditions of moister, the mycelium of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers spreads life in substrate Long, there is Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore to grow the most every year;At Repin in 1892 by the Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers through cultivating many months Mycelium is sprinkling upon the cultivation on the ground of kind of flower as strain, obtains mycelium, and processing to alkalescence through calcium carbonate after 4 years Cured leaf composition seedbed on and from the gully that the residual thing of Fructus Mali pumilae fills up, also grow Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore;J.Pelmas Report, with pH value, < apple pulp of 7 or old newspaper all can plant out sporophore, but experiment can not repeat;1904~ Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore has been planted out on Molliard pomaces in 1905;1909~1910Matruchat paper pulp, Rotten wood mixture cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers, also obtain sporophore.Outdoor planting aspect, China has carried out numerous studies. The Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers cultural method in 1997 Zhu Dou stannum reported first.Qingchuan County, Sichuan was also entered in the nineties in last century Went Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers field production experiment, fruiting is not the most stable.Therefore, find one and there is stable high yield Especially stablize the Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers artificial cultivation technique of high yield at extremely frigid zones, it appears the most urgent.Therefore, this grinds The purpose studied carefully is to solve in Qinghai, Tibet, Gannan, Gansu etc. are high and cold, how high altitude localities better profits from Day-light greenhouse carries out the off-season cultivation of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers, to realize extremely frigid zones Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers yield height, quality better And promote extremely frigid zones economic development and peasants and herdsmen to increase income with this, create the purpose of benefit.
1. Chinese patent application CN201310113092.X, discloses a kind of Semen Tritici aestivi interplanting Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers artificial bionic The method of cultivation, the method includes: the 1) production of hybrid seeds;2) furrow are done;3) inoculation and earthing;4) hair tube reason; 5) Additional nutrient solution;6) management of producing mushroom.
2. Chinese patent application 201310129134.9, disclose the cultural method of a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
3. Chinese patent application CN201310152370.2, discloses the cultivation under woods side of a kind of big legs Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers Method.
4. Chinese patent application CN201210339140.2, discloses the new method for cultivating of a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
5. Chinese patent application CN201310115468.0 discloses the cultural method of ladder rib Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
6. Chinese patent application CN201310597665.0 discloses the method utilizing cultivation in raw material Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
7. Chinese patent application CN200910060399.1 discloses Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers culture material formula and toadstool natural Cultural method.
8. Chinese patent application CN200810058482.0 discloses a kind of ecological cultivation method for spire morel,.
9. Chinese patent application CN201310549990.X discloses a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers compost and cultivation skill thereof Art.
10. Chinese patent application CN201010148565.6 disclose a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma and Greenhouse used by it.
11. Chinese patent application CN200610010962.0 disclose method for breeding and reproduction of hickory chick.
12. Chinese patent application CN201010287662.3 disclose New method for commercial field cultivation of toadstool.
13. according to agriculture networking (http://www.agrilink.cn) 2013-03=21, Sichuan Province's agriculture in 2013 The industry Room combine academy of agricultural sciences of province in Shifang, Jintang, the ground such as Chongzhou City, use the cultivation of rice dish bacterium Compound Planting Model Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers, per mu yield reaches 300~500 jin, is a kind of new cropping pattern of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
14. Chinese patent application CN105218252 A disclose a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers cultivation special solid nutritional solution and cover The preparation method of soil material.
15. Chinese patent application CN 105154342 A disclose the cultivation side of a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers liquid strain Method.
16. Chinese patent application CN 105191667 A disclose Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers nutrient formulation, nutrient bag and preparation thereof Method and Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers cultural method.
17. Chinese patent application CN 103907471 A disclose the side of naked interplanting a kind of Radix Ophiopogonis Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers Method.
18. Chinese patent application CN 103907481 A disclose the production technology of a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers good quality strain.
19. Chinese patent application CN 103583232 A disclose a kind of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers compost and cultivation technique thereof.
20. Chinese patent application CN 103190292 A disclose the cultivation under woods method of big legs Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
But, said method all has a disadvantage in that by its technology and method regional at high altitudes and cold, plantation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers yield is the lowest, even because of limited by low temperature and can not fruiting, the most all can not be at extremely frigid zones Realize anniversary metaplasia to produce.
The raw material mentioned in above technology and method is extremely limited at extremely frigid zones, it is impossible to recycle useless Work, the domestic refuses such as paper, litter decoration, agricultural crop straw, need put into lot of materials expense, meanwhile, For plantation family, needing to produce sophisticated equipment and the place of strain, technology requires that height, plantation family are difficult to operation, Therefore its production cost is made to increase;When implant mass only uses sunshade net cool canopy, due to high altitudes and cold Area wind-force is big, it is easy to thrown by strong wind, and ultraviolet is very strong in addition, and sunshade net is prone to aging, often Changing, cause management trouble and cost to increase, meanwhile, in cold season, plantation does not has thermal effect;Gaster caprae seu Ovis After bacterium is plucked, shading screen also needs to carry out manual recovery, and reclaiming later material can not recycle, and takes During expenses of labour, sunshade net material remains in soil, soil also can cause pollution further, affect next batch of sheep Tripe strain is planted.
In sum, currently used Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers artificial method for planting is generally selected raw material and recipe ratio are more multiple Miscellaneous, especially as 6~the medicine such as benzyladenine, gibberellins plant family obtain more difficult and relatively costly, with Time during the production of hybrid seeds, need advanced person, high-end equipment, price is much more expensive, and meanwhile, large area is useless after using The sunshade net abandoned, can cause difficult management, pollute the problems such as environment.Therefore, at present in the urgent need to a kind of new Method, to solve the problems referred to above.
Summary of the invention
For solving the problem that above-mentioned prior art exists, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of high altitudes and cold ground District's Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers implantation methods of many seasons, is not limited by natural conditions in natural conditions badly areas such as high and cold, High aititude, Can anniversary scale, standardized planting Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers, material therefor wide material sources, convenient, can turn waste into wealth, and Recycle junk such as waste paper, litter decoration, plant ash, agricultural crop straw, fallen leaves, the corruption such as life, production Ripe poultry, animal waste etc., this technology not only fruiting repeatability is high, and yield is high and stable, and economical, The heliogreenhouse Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers off-season cultivation technology of environmental protection.
For reaching above-mentioned purpose, the technical scheme is that
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods, is made up of following steps:
Step 1: the separating clone of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore:
Culture base-material divides five layers of setting in a reservoir, and according to mass fraction, each layer is particularly as follows: ground floor is 25~80 parts of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footings+3~5 parts of quick lime+72 of soil~15 parts of cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, third layer is 10~30 portions of Semen Tritici aestivis+85~65 parts Agricultural residues powder+1~3 parts of vitamin B complexes+4~2 parts of plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 portions of crops Powder of straw+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, layer 5 is 10~35 parts of corn cobs+10~30 parts of weed tree sawdusts+70~30 Part pulverizes waste paper+10~5 parts of carbamide, vessel port tampon beyond the Great Wall, is 125 DEG C in temperature, and pressure is 0.15Mpa Lower autoclaving 1 hour, at room temperature natural cooling;Wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore are taken wheat grain big 1~2 little block organizations are seeded on above-mentioned test tube the first layered material, are placed on by test tube at 12~28 DEG C, and air is wet Degree is 60%~95%, and lower lucifuge is cultivated, and after inoculation the 2nd day starts to grow mycelia, within 10~15 days, treat test tube In cover with mycelia until take after growing sclerotium the mycelia bottom test tube or sclerotium or have mycelia, sclerotium culture medium straight It is seeded on cultigen compost;
Step 2: the making of cultigen
Cultivating major ingredient formula is 10%~35% Semen Tritici aestivi+75%~30% diameter 0.2~the corn straw of 0.5 centimetre Granule+10%~30% plant ash+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% phosphate fertilizer+1% Calx;2. 24~48 will be soaked little Time Semen Tritici aestivi boil to the inside non-whitening but do not pull out after bark rot and drain away the water, add corn stalk pellets, plant ash Mix thoroughly;3. it is dissolved completely in water to mix by potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and Calx in said mixture, makes cultivation Material, water content 50%~65%;4. compost sealing compound formula is: 60%~82% Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, 38%~ 14% plant ash, 1%~3% quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, water content 30%~45%, pH be 7.0~ 7.5;5. sealing compound bottling or pack: first compost major ingredient is loaded in bottle or bag, bottle or pack, refilling Enter sealing compound;6. sterilizing is sealed: 121 DEG C~125 DEG C, 0.12Mpa~0.15Mpa autoclaving 4~2 hours; 7. inoculation: cooled down by the material after sterilizing, the mycelia or the sclerotium that access step 1 isolated in gnotobasis connect Take soybean grain size with compost to be seeded on sealing compound and compress and be fully contacted with material, 20mm × 200 Mm test tube depending on mycelia and sclerotium growing way can connect 30~55 bottles or bag, wherein orlop connect 15~25 bottles or bag, The second layer connects 10~20 bottles, and ground floor connects 5 bottles~10 bottles;8. cultivate: lucifuge at temperature is 10~28 DEG C Cultivating, air humidity is 55%~90%, and after inoculation the 2nd~4 day starts to grow mycelia, 10~20 days mycelia Full bottle or purseful are cultigen until growing sclerotium;
Step 3: the making of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 60%~85% waste paper, 35%~10% carbamide, 1% di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% Gypsum Fibrosum;
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed is planted, and Zhou Nianjun can plant, and this step includes:
(1) whole ground and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal as base manure, 2. soil disinfection: By soil scarifying in railway carriage or compartment, leveling, first comprehensively sterilizing with Calx, lime consumption is 250kg/ mu~350kg/ Mu, water the most permeable after, dry in the sun 2-5 days, then spread the plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick and one layer of 5 cm thick Medium sand, spray concentration is the phoxim mixed aqueous solution parasite killing of 0.5% cypermethrin and 50%;3. greenhouse booth Sterilizing: ground is ploughed deeply after soil disinfection airtight booth potassium permanganate and formaldehyde after once again and carries out suffocating sterilization 3 My god, then ventilation process 2 days;4. playing railway carriage or compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth offers face, railway carriage or compartment, railway carriage or compartment face width degree is 80~120cm, then offer irrigation ditch, railway carriage or compartment in face, railway carriage or compartment surrounding, the width 15~30cm of irrigation ditch, irrigation ditch The degree of depth is 15~20cm, is then sown in by cultigen on face, railway carriage or compartment, and this technology requires big application rate, point spring, Autumn, the sowing of season in winter three;
(2) sterilization: use the ethanol of 75% strain is taken utensil, hold basin, inoculation personnel's both hands etc. enter After row sterilization, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers strain is placed in holds in utensil by taking utensil by inoculation personnel;
(3) seed dressing: triglyceride and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1~3:1) are mixed and made into seed dressing solution with water, Being mixed thoroughly by cultigen, the consumption of seed dressing solution is 25% the 35% of cultivation quality, because Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is in nutrition Growth stage must store enough nutrition, and triglyceride can be stored in mycelia as nutrient substance with full The needs of foot Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers reproductive growth, therefore, extend reproductive growth period, decrease the generation of pest and disease damage, Fruiting is stable, greatly increases plantation yield;This technology is the three of the core technology of the present invention;
(4) sowing: first with 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+1% gibberellins+0.5% magnesium sulfate+0.5% sulfur on face, railway carriage or compartment The mixotrophism liquid of acid zinc+10% plant ash spills face, wet whole railway carriage or compartment, more directly broadcasts sowing on face, railway carriage or compartment, after cover The soil of lid 2~4cm, then soil in railway carriage or compartment is carried out the sprinkling irrigation of 4~6 hours, until making soil moisture reach 95%, On face, railway carriage or compartment, cover the crop material of a layer (2~3cm is thick) again, be beneficial to moisturizing;Purpose is by carrying out Primary spun lacing swashs makes the mycelia grown enter reproductive growth;If the first season was sowed at the beginning of 2 months, bacterium Silk is nourished and grown 2,3 and April, and sporophore reproductive growth is at the beginning of mid-May to 6 month, and 25~40 is born Long period terminates, and in whole growth stage, is not less than Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers life cycle at extremely frigid zones temperature of shed Low growth temperature, sporophore growth finishes whole life cycle for about 1 month, and the first season, fruiting yield was about 100~150kg/ mus;Then carrying out the sowing second season at the beginning of 6 months summer, mycelia nourishes and grows 6,7 and 8 Month, start fruiting, this season at the beginning of mid-August to 9 month, be not more than its life in extremely frigid zones temperature The maximum growth temperature of history, sporophore growth 30~complete whole life cycle for 50 days, the second season fruiting yield Be about 150~kg/ mus, then at the beginning of October, carry out third quarter sowing, mycelia nourishes and grows 10,11, 12 and January, owing to the morning and evening temperature difference is relatively big, in one day in canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be minimum~5 DEG C~ 3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, sporophore reproductive growth at Second Year by the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, this season, Also bottom growth temperature, the sporophore growth of its life cycle it is not less than in high altitudes and cold area greenhouse booth temperature Within 40~55 days, complete whole life cycle, the second season fruiting yield 170~200kg/ mu;It is thereby achieved that The whole year production in 1 year three season, and due to, high altitudes and cold area, almost without the season higher than 30 DEG C, goes out Mushroom can extend to 30~40 days, and is only 10~15 days at temperature district's Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore fruiting higher;Add Big application rate is one of key improving yield, and additionally spraying face, railway carriage or compartment with nutritional solution can be that mycelial growth offer must The materials such as the inorganic salt wanted, hormone, additionally Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers continuous cropping more can enrich the microbiota of soil, thus compares Nonoculture greatly increases yield;
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is thrown in
In step 4 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting the: 7~10 days, nutriment bag is pricked hole, rests the side of pocket perforate Lie against soil surface, be depressed into all with soil be fully contacted, if hole exposed in atmosphere, just porose with institute The nutriment bacteria infection in nutrient bag can be caused to go mouldy, and the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm~45cm, Line-spacing 30cm~50cm;
(6) vegetative stage management
In step 5 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting, it is necessary to carry out soil when causing soil to turn white because of soil water evaporation Ground irrigation ditch flood irrigation and the sprinkling irrigation of face, railway carriage or compartment process, when irrigating, plus triglyceride 0.5mL/L, phosphoric acid in water Potassium dihydrogen 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, keeps to provide the nutrition of mycelial growth, meanwhile Face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture 50%~70%, air humidity 70%~95%, temperature 12~22 DEG C;
(7) foreign aid's nutrient bag is taken away: nutrient bag is thrown in 7~40 days, covers with mycelia in Nutrient bag, and Take away after mycelia is the most intensive, take away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia and enter one of inducement of reproductive growth, after carry out the Moisturizing 2L/m2Carry out spun lacing every water of 7 days benefits after, to swash, until former base occurs, to water during moisturizing Middle addition potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, spun lacing swash speed be 250~ 1000mL/ hour square metre, each 12 hours to 40 hours, before spun lacing swashs, soil wanted relative being dried, The post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%~65%, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C;
(8) Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers management of producing mushroom
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. Mycelium is differentiated to form former base to after having the immature sporophore of stem and cap, enters Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers and goes out The mushroom stage, former base occur to during growing to 3cm be a crucial period during this period of time, face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture Controlling at the 50%~60% of field capacity, air humidity controls 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C, Condition is the most uncomfortable, and former base will mortality;
(9) gather
Sporophore growth 5~after 10 days, when color is become sallow by Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt, sporophore surface begins with a small amount of white Color spore powder reaches ripeness standard when occurring and gathers in time, gathers one for ripe one, every morning, in Noon, afternoon respectively pluck 1 time;During harvesting, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion Yu soil, neatly Cut off, directly do not pull up from soil with hands, in order to avoid the immature former base around damage and immature sporophore.
Further, in described step one, ground floor loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 50~75%, Second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, Water content is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, layer 5 Loading amount is test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves the space of 5% and is beneficial to manage interior sky Air-flow leads to.
Further, in described step 2, compost major ingredient loading amount standard is no more than 3/5, reinstalls sealing Material, sealing compound loading amount standard is no less than 1/5, and charging can not be too real, plugs a batten, and bottle in the middle of material Or bag to reserve the space of 1/5, to guarantee the aeration of material.
Further, in described step 3, mixing thoroughly with water after being mixed by each raw material, water content is 45%~60%, Obtain foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, carry out nutriment successively packing, sealing, it is not necessary to autoclaving, obtain nutriment Bag.
Further, in described step 4, the usage amount of fertilizer is 800~1200kg/ mus, Rapeseed meal Usage amount be 120~130kg/ mus.
Further, in described step 4, carrying out moisturizing for the first time after taking away foreign aid's nutrient bag, rate of water make-up is 2L/m2Carry out spun lacing every water of 7 days benefits after, to swash, until former base occurs.
Further, in described step 4, in water, during moisturizing, add potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and cell Mitogen 0.05mL/L, the speed that spun lacing swashs is 250~1000mL/ hour square metre, each 12 hours By 40 hours, what before spun lacing swashs, soil will be relative was dried, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%~65%, Air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C.
Relative to prior art, the invention have the benefit that
1. the separating clone technology of the sporophore that the present invention wild (or cultivation) plants have employed five layers special and different Composition of raw materials because mycelia has reached the mesh of purification and rejuvenation through the growth of five layers of different compost , can be used directly to produce cultigen, eliminate female kind and the making of original seed, significantly shorten production of hybrid seeds week Phase.2. raw material mainly, plant ash native with Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing, the cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or sheep, chicken) when cultigen makes Excrement, farming powder of straw, corn cob, wheat bran are main, and material therefor source is the most convenient, extensive, cheap, throw Enter few, greatly reduce cost, but improve yield.3. with shredded paper and carbamide in nutrient bag nutriment formula It is that main material therefor source used is the most convenient, extensive, cheap, less investment, greatly reduce cost, And follow and badly make use of life, work waste product, also protect ecological environment.4. carried out when whole ground basal dressing, Soil disinfection, three links of greenhouse booth sterilizing, therefore, do not have pest and disease damage to occur during planting, and improve Yield.When 5. dressing seed, the mixed liquor of employing triglyceride and potassium dihydrogen phosphate is as seed dressing liquid, because triglyceride Can be stored in mycelia to meet the needs of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers reproductive growth as nutrient substance, therefore, extend life Reproductive growth period, and decrease the generation of pest and disease damage, improve plantation yield.6. sow front nutritional solution to spray Spilling face, railway carriage or compartment can be that mycelial growth provides the materials such as the inorganic salt of necessity, hormone, is after planting carried out by face, railway carriage or compartment soil The sprinkling irrigation of 4~6 hours, it is therefore an objective to the mycelia entrance reproduction making growing by carrying out primary spun lacing to swash Growth, thus fruiting in advance, can shorten crop cycle, then covers one layer (2~3cm is thick) on face, railway carriage or compartment Crop material, be beneficial to moisturizing and indirectly improve yield.7. Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers continuous cropping more can enrich micro-life of soil Thing fauna, thus greatly increase yield than nonoculture.8. the Best Times throwing in foreign aid's nutrient bag is Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers After planting the 7th~10 day.9. taking away foreign aid's nutrient bag optimum time is 16 days, because in nutrient bag now Through overgrowing with intensive mycelia, now take away exogenous nutrition and Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers can be induced to enter reproductive growth earlier, Carry out moisturizing 2L/m for the first time simultaneously2Carry out spun lacing every water of 7 days benefits after, to swash, until former base occurs, In water, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, the speed that spun lacing swashs is added during moisturizing Being 250~1000mL/ hour square metre 2, each 12 hours to 40 hours, before spun lacing swashs, soil will Relative is dried, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%~65%, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~ 22℃.10. when vegetative stage is irrigated, plus triglyceride 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate in water 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelial growth, it is crucial that former base grows to 3cm Period time, face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture controls at the 50%~60% of field capacity, and air humidity controls 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C, optimum temperature 18 DEG C, condition is the most uncomfortable, and former base will be the most dead Die.
In sum, beneficial effects of the present invention: 1) at high altitudes and cold area whole year production Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers, and Annual production is up to 422kg~520kg/ mu.2) it is average that sporophore piece shape is rectified, size is uniform, bacterium emits girth 2.5cm~4.0cm, bacterium emits length 2.0~3.5cm, stem girth 0.5~1.5cm, stem length 1~2cm, bacterium Emitting meat plump, all good rate of quality may be up to 92%.
3) fully recycled life, work waste product and leftover bits and pieces, reduced planting cost, improve product Amount, protects and has repaired ecological environment.
Meanwhile, the present invention eliminates technology in production of hybrid seeds program and requires the highest female making planted, and wild species gram Grand, make original seed, cultigen, planting material and select during foreign aid's nutrient bag waste paper common in life, litter decoration, The cheap compost such as corn cob, Semen Tritici aestivi, corn straw, wheat bran, fallen leaves, chicken manure, cattle manure, fully circulates profit Get a foothold with local production, life and material garbage etc. had both managed simple to operation, had ecological, environmental protective, investment Little and substantially increase the yield of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with detailed description of the invention, technical solution of the present invention is described in further detail:
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods, is made up of following steps:
Step 1: the separating clone of the sporophore that wild (or cultivation) plants
Equipment used and technical essential: the test tube of (1) all size: 10mm × l00mm, 12mm × l00 mm、15mm×l50mm、18mm×180mm、20mm×200mm;(2) raw material: Gaster caprae seu Ovis Bacterium footing soil, cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or sheep, chicken) excrement, Semen Tritici aestivi, farming powder of straw, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corn cob, Wheat bran, pulverizing waste paper, carbamide, vitamin B1;(3) technical essential: test tube ground floor is 25~80 portions of sheep Tripe bacterium footing+3~5 parts of quick lime+72 of soil~15 parts of cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer is 85~65 parts Agricultural residues powder+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, third layer is 10~30 portions of Semen Tritici aestivis+85~65 parts of crops straw Stalk powder+1~3 parts of vitamin B complexes+4~2 parts of plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder + 15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, layer 5 is 10~35 parts of corn cobs+10~30 parts of weed tree sawdusts+70~30 parts of pulverizing Waste paper+10~5 parts of carbamide, ground floor loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 50~75%, the second layer Loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, aqueous Amount is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, layer 5 loading amount For test tube volume 20%, water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves the space of 5% and is beneficial to inner air tube stream Logical.Vessel port tampon beyond the Great Wall, is 125 DEG C in temperature, and pressure is autoclaving 1 hour under 0.15Mpa, Natural cooling under room temperature;1~2 block organizations that wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore take wheat grain size are seeded in On above-mentioned test tube the first layered material, being placed on by test tube at 12~28 DEG C, air humidity is 60%~95%, under keep away Light is cultivated, and after inoculation the 2nd day starts to grow mycelia, within 10~15 days, treats to cover with mycelia in test tube until growing bacterium Take after core the mycelia bottom test tube or sclerotium or have mycelia, sclerotium culture medium direct inoculation at cultigen compost On;Because mycelia has reached the purpose of purification and rejuvenation, Ke Yizhi through the growth of three layers of different compost Connect for producing cultigen, eliminate female kind and the making of original seed, significantly shorten the production of hybrid seeds cycle.
Becoming dry because piece of tissue is dehydrated for a long time when ground floor Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil content is less than 25%, causing can not Send out bacterium;Become thoroughly decomposed cattle, sheep or chicken manure content less than 15% time mycelia mycelia do not twist together, poor growth, even stop Growth;When quick lime content is less than 3%, material easily goes mouldy, and even separates failure.Third layer is 10%~30% Semen Tritici aestivi;Third layer Semen Tritici aestivi content 10%, vitamin B complex less than 1% and plant ash content less than 2% time at this Layer mycelia also will not be twisted together, and the most minimal amount of mycelia could enter the 4th layer.Layer 5 is pulverized waste paper and is contained Amount less than 30% and urea content less than 5% time, mycelial growth is slow, is also formed without sclerotium, causes yield to drop Low, when corn cob content is less than 10%, compost aeration is poor, easily goes mouldy.
Step 2: the making of cultigen
Equipment used and technical essential: (1) 450~the seed bottle of 750mL or polypropylene strain bag or clean Discarded Cans, infusion bottle;(2) raw material: Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, plant ash, cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or sheep, chicken) Excrement, farming powder of straw, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corn cob, wheat bran, carbamide;(3) technical essential: 1. cultivate master Material material formula is 10%~35% Semen Tritici aestivi+75%~30% diameter 0.2~the corn stalk pellets of 0.5 centimetre + 10%~30% plant ash+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% phosphate fertilizer+1% Calx.Semen Tritici aestivi content and plant ash content Sending out bacterium during less than 10% very slow, mycelia is not twisted together, and the sclerotium of formation is less, does not even form sclerotium, causes Fruiting is few, yields poorly.When Semen Tritici aestivi Content is higher than 30%, the overnutrition of mycelial growth, causes resource wave Taking, improve production cost simultaneously, when corn stalk pellets is less than 10%, the aeration of raw material is poor, material Mould variability increases.2. boil soaking the Semen Tritici aestivi of 24~48 hours to the inside non-whitening but do not pull out after bark rot and drain Moisture, adds that corn stalk pellets, weed tree sawdust, wheat bran are mixed thoroughly.3. by complete to potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and Calx CL is mixed in water and is made compost in said mixture, water content 50%~65%, and pH is nature. 4. compost sealing compound formula is: 60%~82% Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, 38%~14% plant ash, 1%~3% Quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, water content 30%~45%, pH is 7.0~7.5;Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil contains Amount is less than 60% and plant ash content is less than 14%, sends out bacterium and waits a moment late, and the water retention property of material is poor, and moisture evaporates Hurry up, be unfavorable for Sclerotia forming.When quick lime content is less than 1%, the most raw nematicide of sealing compound, higher than 3%, material PH value will be above 7.5, alkalescence is too strong, is unfavorable for mycelial growth.5. sealing compound bottling or pack: first will Compost major ingredient loads in bottle or bag, bottles or packs, and loading amount standard is 3/5, reinstalls sealing compound, loading amount Standard is 1/5, and charging can not be too real, plugs a batten in the middle of material, to guarantee the aeration of material.6. seal Sterilizing: 121 DEG C~125 DEG C, 0.12Mpa~0.15Mpa autoclaving 2~4 hours.7. inoculation: by sterilizing After material cooling, gnotobasis accesses the mycelia of step 1 isolated or sclerotium, a test tube can connect 30~55 bottles or bag, wherein orlop connect 15~25 bottles or bag, the second layer connects 10~20 bottles, and ground floor connects 5 Bottle~10 bottles.8. cultivate: at temperature is 10~28 DEG C, lucifuge is cultivated, and optimum temperature is 18~20 DEG C, empty Air humidity degree is 55%~90%, and optimum humidity is 65%~75%, and after inoculation, starts to grow mycelia for 2-4 days, 10~20 days mycelia bottles or purseful are cultigen until growing sclerotium.
Step 3: the making of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 60%~85% waste paper, 35%~10% carbamide, 1% phosphoric acid Potassium dihydrogen, 0.5% magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% Gypsum Fibrosum;Waste paper content is less than 60% and urea content is low In 10% time, mycelia enters the time lengthening of nutrient bag, extends the time taking away foreign aid's inter space, thus prolongs Having grown the vegetative growth phase of mycelia, postponed the reproductive growth time, therefore, fruiting is later, makes the life of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers Long period extends, it is impossible to realizes the production in 1 year three season, indirectly reduces yield.(2) each raw material is mixed Mixing thoroughly with water afterwards, water content is 45%~60%, obtains foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, carry out nutriment successively packing, Sealing, it is not necessary to autoclaving, obtains nutriment bag.Nutrient bag food material source is convenient, extensive, cheap, The highest to equipment requirements, less investment, greatly reduce cost, technology is simple.
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed (having ventilation, irrigation equipment) is planted, and Zhou Nianjun can plant, this step bag Include procedure below: (stereo planting can also be carried out with plantation layer frame in canopy, spatial planting technology is researched and developed)
(1) whole ground and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal are as base manure, making of fertilizer Consumption is 800~1200kg/ mus, and the usage amount of Rapeseed meal is 120~130kg/ mus;2. soil disinfection: will Soil scarifying in railway carriage or compartment, leveling, first comprehensively to sterilize with Calx, lime consumption is 250kg/ mu~350kg/ Mu, water the most permeable after, dry in the sun 2-5 days, then spread the plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick and one layer of 5 cm thick Medium sand, spray 0.5% cypermethrin and 50% phoxim mixed aqueous solution parasite killing;3. greenhouse booth sterilizing: soil Ground is ploughed deeply after earth sterilization airtight booth potassium permanganate and formaldehyde after once again and carries out suffocating sterilization 3 days, then Ventilation process 2 days;4. play railway carriage or compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth offers face, railway carriage or compartment, railway carriage or compartment face width degree be 80~ 120cm, then offer irrigation ditch, railway carriage or compartment in face, railway carriage or compartment surrounding, the width 15~30cm of irrigation ditch, the degree of depth of irrigation ditch Being 15~20cm, be then sown in by cultigen on face, railway carriage or compartment, this technology requires big application rate, point spring, the autumn, Season in winter three is sowed.
(2) sterilization: use the ethanol of 75% strain is taken utensil, hold basin, inoculation personnel's hands etc. is carried out After sterilization, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers strain is placed in holds in utensil by taking utensil by inoculation personnel.
(3) seed dressing: triglyceride and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1~3:1) are mixed and made into seed dressing solution with water, Being mixed thoroughly by cultigen, the consumption of seed dressing solution is 25% the 35% of cultivation quality, because Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers is in nutrition Growth stage must store enough nutrition, and triglyceride can be stored in mycelia as nutrient substance with full The needs of foot Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers reproductive growth, therefore, extend reproductive growth period, decrease the generation of pest and disease damage, Fruiting is stable, greatly increases plantation yield.This technology is the three of the core technology of the present invention.
(4) sowing: first with 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+1% gibberellins+0.5% magnesium sulfate+0.5% sulfur on face, railway carriage or compartment The mixotrophism liquid of acid zinc+10% plant ash spills face, suitable whole railway carriage or compartment, sprays this nutritional solution, can effectively break mycelia Dormancy, provide mycelia to nourish and grow required various salt simultaneously.Directly broadcast sowing on face, railway carriage or compartment again, after cover The soil of lid 2~4cm, then railway carriage or compartment soil is carried out the sprinkling irrigation of 4~6 hours, until making soil moisture reach 95%, On face, railway carriage or compartment, cover the crop material of a layer (2~3cm is thick) again, be beneficial to moisturizing.Purpose is by carrying out Primary spun lacing swashs makes the mycelia grown enter reproductive growth.If the first season was sowed at the beginning of 2 months, bacterium Silk is nourished and grown 2,3 and April, and sporophore reproductive growth is at the beginning of mid-May to 6 month, and 25~40 is born Long period terminates, and in whole growth stage, is not less than Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers life cycle at extremely frigid zones temperature of shed Low growth temperature, sporophore growth finishes whole life cycle for about 1 month, and the first season, fruiting yield was about 100~150kg/ mus.Then carrying out the sowing second season at the beginning of 6 months summer, mycelia nourishes and grows 6,7 and 8 Month, start fruiting, this season at the beginning of mid-August to 9 month, be not more than its life in extremely frigid zones temperature The maximum growth temperature of history, sporophore growth 30~complete whole life cycle for 50 days, the second season fruiting yield Be about 150~kg/ mus, then at the beginning of October, carry out third quarter sowing, mycelia nourishes and grows 10,11, 12 and January, owing to the morning and evening temperature difference is relatively big, in one day in canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be minimum~5 DEG C~ 3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, sporophore reproductive growth at Second Year by the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, this season, Also bottom growth temperature, the sporophore growth of its life cycle it is not less than in high altitudes and cold area greenhouse booth temperature 40~55 complete whole life cycle, the second season fruiting yield 170~200kg/ mu.It is thereby achieved that one The whole year production of Nian Sanji, and due to, high altitudes and cold area is almost without the season higher than 30 DEG C, fruiting 30~40 days can be extended to, and only have 10~15 days at temperature district's Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore fruiting higher.Strengthen Application rate is one of key improving yield, and additionally spraying face, railway carriage or compartment with nutritional solution can be that mycelial growth provides necessity Inorganic salt, the material such as hormone, additionally Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers continuous cropping more can enrich the microbiota of soil, thus than single Greatly increase yield.
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is thrown in
In step 4 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting the: 7~10 days, nutriment bag is pricked hole, rests the side of pocket perforate Lie against soil surface, be depressed into all with soil be fully contacted, if hole exposed in atmosphere, just porose with institute The nutriment bacteria infection in nutrient bag can be caused to go mouldy, and the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm~45cm, Line-spacing 30cm~50cm.
(6) vegetative stage management
In step 5 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting, it is necessary to carry out soil when causing soil to turn white because of soil water evaporation Ground irrigation ditch flood irrigation and the sprinkling irrigation of face, railway carriage or compartment process, when irrigating, plus triglyceride 0.5mL/L, phosphoric acid in water Potassium dihydrogen 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, keeps to provide the nutrition of mycelial growth, meanwhile Face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture 50%~70%, the suitableeest soil moisture 65%, air humidity 70%~95%, the suitableeest sky Air humidity degree 75%, temperature 12~22 DEG C, optimum temperature 20 DEG C.
(7) foreign aid's nutrient bag is taken away: nutrient bag is thrown in 7~40 days, covers with mycelia in Nutrient bag, and Exogenous nutrition bag is taken away after mycelia is the most intensive;Take away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia enter reproductive growth inducement it One, after carry out for the first time moisturizing 2L/m2Carry out spun lacing every water of 7 days benefits after, to swash, until former base occurs, In water, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, the speed that spun lacing swashs is added during moisturizing Being 250~1000mL/ hour square metre, each 12 hours to 40 hours, before spun lacing swashs, soil wanted phase To be dried, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%~65%, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~ 22℃;
(8) Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers management of producing mushroom
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. Mycelium is differentiated to form former base to after having the immature sporophore of stem and cap, enters Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers and goes out The mushroom stage, former base occur to during growing to 3cm be a crucial period during this period of time, face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture Controlling at the 50%~60% of field capacity, air humidity controls 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C, Condition is the most uncomfortable, and former base will mortality;
(9) gather
Sporophore growth 5~after 10 days, when color is become sallow by Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt, sporophore surface begins with a small amount of white Color spore powder reaches ripeness standard when occurring and gathers in time, gathers one for ripe one, every morning, in Noon, afternoon pluck 1 time.During harvesting, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion Yu soil, neatly Cut off, directly do not pull up from soil with hands, in order to avoid the immature former base around damage and immature sporophore.
Embodiment 1
Enforcement place: Gansu nationality normal college height fungal pathogens research and teaching practice base, Hezuo City, Gansu Province, sea Pulling out 3090 meters, average annual temperature 1.7 DEG C, without absolute frost-free period.
On April 15th, 2013 is learned in Gansu normal school of nationality after the Hezuo City soil of high altitudes and cold just thaws Institute's height fungal pathogens research and teaching practice base sunshade net cool canopy conventional method 3 cloudy canopies of plantation, each canopy area 600m2, see in each canopy less than 10 sporophore to August, and sporophore be little.Then in JIUYUE Within 15th, carry out two quarterly test kinds with same cool canopy, until on April 20th, 2014 to May 20,3 the moon Canopy has grown 40 sporophore altogether.On March 15th, 2013 carries out planting technology in heliogreenhouse shed simultaneously Improve test, achieve beyond thought technique effect, 2013~so far, annual 3 seasons through 4 years Repeating test, result of the test can repeat and obtain successfully.
Embodiment 2
Enforcement place: village of Zhuoni County township of Gansu Province, between mean sea level 2000-2920 rice, average annual gas Temperature 4.6 DEG C, annual precipitation 584 millimeters, heliogreenhouse shed plantation sum is 18 canopies, and area is 18 mu.Kind Plant the enforcement time: on March 10th, 2014~on March 20th, 2016.
Specific implementation process is as follows.
Step 1: the separating clone of the sporophore that wild (or cultivation) plants
(1) test tube used by: 15mm × l50mm (2) raw material: Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or Sheep, chicken) excrement, Semen Tritici aestivi, farming powder of straw, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corn cob, wheat bran, pulverizing waste paper, carbamide, Vitamin B;(3) technical essential: test tube ground floor is 80 parts of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing+5 parts of quick lime of soil+15 parts Become thoroughly decomposed cattle, sheep or chicken manure, and the second layer is+35 parts of weed tree sawdusts of 65 parts of agricultural residues powder, and third layer is 30 parts + 65 parts of agricultural residues powder of Semen Tritici aestivi+2 parts of plant ash of+3 parts of vitamin B complexes, the 4th layer is 65 portions of crops + 35 parts of weed tree sawdusts of powder of straw, layer 5 is that+30 parts of weed tree sawdusts of 35 parts of corn cobs+30 parts pulverize+5 parts of waste paper Carbamide, tampon on test tube plug, sterilizing 1 hour, at room temperature natural cooling in 121 DEG C of pressure cookers.By open country Life or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore piece of tissue are with adopting with on the soil being seeded in humidity, and the method has reached simply to open Put formula operation, not by the limitation and restriction of ambient environmental conditions.Being placed on by test tube at 20 DEG C, air humidity is 75%, optimum humidity is that 80% time lucifuge is cultivated, and after inoculation the 2nd day starts to grow mycelia, within 13 days, treat test tube In cover with mycelia and grow sclerotium after take mycelia, sclerotium culture medium direct inoculation on cultigen compost.
Step 2: the making of cultigen
(1) the discarded Cans cleaned of 450mL, infusion bottle are selected;(2) raw material: Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing Soil, plant ash, cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or sheep, chicken) excrement, farming powder of straw, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corn cob, wheat bran, Carbamide;(3) technical essential: 1. cultivate the Semen Maydis that major ingredient material formula is 35% Semen Tritici aestivi+30% diameter 0.5 centimetre Stalk particle+30% plant ash+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% phosphate fertilizer+1% Calx.2. 48 hours little will be soaked Wheat is boiled to the inside non-whitening but is not pulled out after bark rot and drain away the water, and adds corn stalk pellets, weed tree sawdust, wheat bran Mix thoroughly.3. it is dissolved completely in water to mix by potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and Calx in said mixture, makes cultivation Material, water content 50%, pH is nature.4. compost sealing compound formula is: 82% Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, 14% Plant ash, 3% quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, containing hydraulic quantity 40%, pH is nature.5. sealing compound dress Bottle or pack: first being loaded in bottle or bag by compost major ingredient, bottle or pack, loading amount standard is 3/5, refills Entering sealing compound, loading amount standard is 1/5, and charging can not be too real, plugs a batten in the middle of material, to guarantee material Aeration.6. sterilizing is sealed: 121 DEG C of autoclavings 3 hours.7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooled down, In mycelia or the sclerotium of access step 1 isolated in gnotobasis, a test tube can connect 35 bottles, wherein Orlop connect 15 bottles or bag, the second layer connects 10 bottles, and ground floor connects 5 bottles.8. cultivate: be 18 DEG C in temperature, Air humidity is 55%, and optimum humidity is 75%, and after inoculation the 2nd day starts to grow mycelia, 13 days mycelia bottles And grow sclerotium and be cultigen.
Step 3: the making of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 85% waste paper, 10% carbamide, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% Magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% Gypsum Fibrosum;(2) mixing thoroughly with water after being mixed by each raw material, water content is 45%, Obtain foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, carry out nutriment successively packing, sealing, it is not necessary to autoclaving, obtain nutriment Bag.
Step 4: having ventilation, the plantation of irrigation equipment heliogreenhouse shed, this step includes procedure below:
(1) whole ground and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal are as base manure, making of fertilizer Consumption is 800kg/ mu, and the usage amount of Rapeseed meal is 120kg/ mu;2. soil disinfection: soil in railway carriage or compartment is turned over Pine, leveling, first comprehensively sterilize with Calx, lime consumption is 250kg/ mu, water the most permeable after, dry in the air Shine 2 days, then spread plant ash and the medium sand of one layer of 5 cm thick of one layer of 1 cm thick, spray 0.5% chlorine cyanogen chrysanthemum Ester and 50% phoxim mixed aqueous solution parasite killing;3. greenhouse booth sterilizing: again ground is ploughed deeply once after soil disinfection Rear airtight booth potassium permanganate and formaldehyde carry out suffocating sterilization 3 days, then ventilation process 2 days;4. railway carriage or compartment is played: Planting soil ground surface after smooth offers face, railway carriage or compartment, and railway carriage or compartment face width degree is 80cm, then offers railway carriage or compartment in face, railway carriage or compartment surrounding and pour water Ditch, the width 15~30cm of irrigation ditch, the degree of depth of irrigation ditch is 15cm, then cultigen is sown in railway carriage or compartment On face.Strain amount is 1 bottle/m2
(2) sterilization: use the ethanol of 75% strain is taken utensil, hold basin, inoculation personnel's hands etc. is carried out After sterilization, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers strain is placed in holds in utensil by taking utensil by inoculation personnel.
(3) seed dressing: with water, triglyceride and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1:1) are mixed and made into seed dressing solution, will Cultigen is mixed thoroughly, and the consumption of seed dressing solution is the 25% of cultivation quality.
(4) sowing: first with 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+1% gibberellins+0.5% magnesium sulfate+0.5% sulfur on face, railway carriage or compartment The mixotrophism liquid of acid zinc+10% plant ash spills face, suitable whole railway carriage or compartment, more directly broadcasts sowing on face, railway carriage or compartment, after cover The soil of lid 2cm, then railway carriage or compartment soil is carried out the sprinkling irrigation of 4 hours, until making soil moisture reach 95%, then The crop material of one layer (2cm is thick) is covered on face, railway carriage or compartment.The first season was sowed February 8, and mycelia nourishes and grows 2,3 and April, May 2 started fruiting, and June 15, growth cycle terminates substantially, in whole life In the long stage, in extremely frigid zones canopy, minimum temperature controls at 3~12 DEG C, and maximum temperature controls at 14 DEG C~26 DEG C, Sporophore growth finishes whole life cycle for nearly about 40 days, the first season fruiting yield 124kg/ mu~135kg/ Mu.Then carrying out the sowing second season June 10 summer, mycelia nourishes and grows 6,7 and August, JIUYUE 1 starts fruiting, and in this season, in extremely frigid zones canopy, maximum temperature controls at 12 DEG C~24 DEG C, sporophore Grow and within 48 days, complete whole life cycle, the second season fruiting yield 139kg/ mu~148kg/ mu, then October Within 15th, carrying out third quarter sowing, mycelia nourishes and grows 10,11,12, owing to the morning and evening temperature difference is relatively big, and one day In middle canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be minimum-5 DEG C~3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, and sporophore reproduction is raw Long in the January 24 of Second Year, sporophore growth completes whole life cycle for 55 days, the third quarter fruiting yield 155kg/ mu~172kg/ mu.Gross annual output amount is about 419kg/ mu~445kg/ mu it is thereby achieved that 1 year three The whole year production in season.
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is thrown in
In step 4 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting the: 7 days, pricking hole on nutriment bag, the side resting pocket perforate keeps flat In soil surface, it is depressed into all with soil be fully contacted, if hole exposed in atmosphere, Jiu Huiyin porose with institute Playing the nutriment bacteria infection in nutrient bag and go mouldy, the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm, line-spacing 30cm。
(6) vegetative stage management
After strain sowing, as long as occurring that soil turns white, just carrying out the flood irrigation of irrigation ditch, soil and the sprinkling irrigation of face, railway carriage or compartment process, When irrigating, plus triglyceride 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and the basic element of cell division in water 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelial growth, meanwhile, keeps face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture 50%%, the adaptability of soil Earth humidity 65%, air humidity 70%, the suitableeest air humidity 75%, temperature 16 DEG C, optimum temperature 20 DEG C.
(7) foreign aid's nutrient bag is taken away: nutrient bag is thrown in 25 days, takes away, take after covering with mycelia in nutrient bag Fall exogenous nutrition bag and carry out moisturizing 2L/m for the first time2Carry out spun lacing every water of 7 days benefits after, to swash, until Former base occurs, adds potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, water during moisturizing in water The speed stimulated is 250mL/ hour square metre 2, each 12 hours, and before spun lacing swashs, soil wants relative It is dried, the post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%%, air humidity 85%, temperature 16 DEG C.
(8) Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers management of producing mushroom
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. Mycelium is differentiated to form former base to after having the immature sporophore of stem and cap, enters Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers and goes out The mushroom stage, former base occur to during growing to 3cm be a crucial period during this period of time, face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture Controlling at the 50% of field capacity, air humidity controls 85%, temperature 15~22 DEG C, does not occur former The phenomenon of base mortality.
(9) gather
Sporophore growth 5~after 10 days, when color is become sallow by Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt, sporophore surface begins with a small amount of white Color spore powder reaches ripeness standard when occurring and gathers in time, gathers one for ripe one, every morning, in Noon, afternoon pluck 1 time.During harvesting, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion Yu soil, neatly Cut off, directly do not pull up from soil with hands, in order to avoid the immature former base around damage and immature sporophore. Respectively on June 18th, 2014, October 13, February 20 to canopy in sporophore generation quantity enter successively Row investigation, the survey showed that, 18 canopy each canopy per season sporophore quantity be respectively 34~45 /m2, 38~58/m2, 44~70/m2, the quantity of anniversary sporophore is 124~171/m2, single The weight of mature sporophore is 2.25~20.42g, averagely according to 4.0g/ calculating, and the year of each canopy of each canopy Yield is 330.83kg/ mu~456.22kg/ mu, and each canopy average annual productivity is 438.5kg/ mu.
Embodiment 3
Implement place: 20, village of Ledu County township of Qinghai Province canopy, the gross area is 19.3 mu.
The plantation enforcement time: on April 24th, 2015~on May 22nd, 2016.
(1) test tube of all size: 20mm × 200mm;(2) raw material: Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or sheep, chicken) excrement, Semen Tritici aestivi, farming powder of straw, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corn cob, wheat bran, pulverizing waste paper, Carbamide, vitamin B;(3) technical essential: Tube propagation base material divides five layers of setting in a reservoir, according to quality Number, each layer particularly as follows: ground floor be 50 parts of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footings soil+46 parts of cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed of+4 parts of quick lime, Sheep or chicken manure, the second layer is+25 parts of weed tree sawdusts of 75 parts of agricultural residues powder, and third layer is 20 portions of Semen Tritici aestivis+75 Part agricultural residues powder+3 parts of plant ash of+2 parts of vitamin B complexes, the 4th layer is 75 parts of agricultural residues powder+25 Part weed tree sawdust, layer 5 is+20 parts of weed tree sawdusts of 25 parts of corn cobs+48 parts pulverizing+7 parts of carbamide of waste paper, first Layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 50~75%, and second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, contains The water yield is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 40~55%, the 4th layer of dress Amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, and layer 5 loading amount is test tube volume 20%, water content Being 55~80%, test tube mouth reserves the space of 5% and is beneficial to inner air tube circulation, and tampon on test tube plug, at 125 DEG C Under pressure cooker in sterilizing 1 hour, at room temperature natural cooling.By wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore group Knit block with adopt be seeded in humidity soil on, it is at 16~20 DEG C that test tube is placed on temperature, and air humidity is 60%~95%, lower lucifuge is cultivated, and after inoculation the 2nd day starts to grow mycelia, cover with bacterium in 10~15 days test tubes Silk or after growing sclerotium desirable test tube have mycelia, sclerotium culture medium direct inoculation on cultigen compost.
Equipment used and technical essential: seed bottle (2) raw material of (1) 750mL: Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing is native, careless Wood ash, cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed (or sheep, chicken) excrement, farming powder of straw, phosphate fertilizer, white sugar, corn cob, wheat bran, carbamide; (3) technical essential: 1. cultivate the corn straw that major ingredient material formula is 20% Semen Tritici aestivi+35% diameter 0.5 centimetre Granule+20% plant ash+20% wheat bran+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% phosphate fertilizer+1% Calx.2. 36 will be soaked little Time Semen Tritici aestivi boil to the inside non-whitening but do not pull out after bark rot and drain away the water, add corn stalk pellets, weed tree sawdust, Wheat bran is mixed thoroughly.3. it is dissolved completely in water to mix by potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and Calx and makes in said mixture Compost, water content 65%, pH is nature.4. compost sealing compound formula is: 85% Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, 15% plant ash, 1% quick lime, 1% sugar, containing hydraulic quantity 30%~45%, pH is nature.5. sealing compound Bottling or pack: first being loaded in bottle or bag by compost major ingredient, bottle or pack, loading amount standard is 3/5, then Loading sealing compound, loading amount standard is 1/5, and charging can not be too real, plugs a batten in the middle of material, to guarantee material Aeration.6. sterilizing is sealed: 121 DEG C of autoclavings 2 hours.7. inoculation: the material after sterilizing is cooled down, Accessing mycelia or the sclerotium of step 1 isolated in gnotobasis, a test tube connects 30~40 bottles, wherein Orlop connects 15~20 bottles, and the second layer connects 10~15 bottles, and ground floor connects 5 bottles~10 bottles.8. cultivate: Temperature is that at 10~28 DEG C, lucifuge is cultivated, and air humidity is 55%~65%, within after inoculation the 36th hour, starts long Going out mycelia, 10~20 days mycelia bottles also grow sclerotium and are cultigen.
Step 3: the making of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 85% waste paper, 10% carbamide, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% Magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% Gypsum Fibrosum (2) by each raw material mix after mix thoroughly with water, water content is 60%, Obtain foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, carry out nutriment successively packing, sealing, it is not necessary to autoclaving, obtain nutriment Bag.
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed (having ventilation, irrigation equipment) is planted, and Zhou Nianjun can plant, this step bag Include procedure below: (stereo planting can also be carried out with plantation layer frame in canopy, spatial planting technology is researched and developed)
(1) whole ground and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal are as base manure, making of fertilizer Consumption is 1200kg/ mu, and the usage amount of Rapeseed meal is 130kg/ mu;2. soil disinfection: soil in railway carriage or compartment is turned over Pine, leveling, first comprehensively sterilize with Calx, lime consumption is 350kg/ mu, water the most permeable after, dry in the air Shine 4 days, then spread plant ash and the medium sand of one layer of 5 cm thick of one layer of 1 cm thick, spray 0.5% chlorine cyanogen chrysanthemum Ester and 50% phoxim mixed aqueous solution parasite killing;3. greenhouse booth sterilizing: again ground is ploughed deeply once after soil disinfection Rear airtight booth potassium permanganate and formaldehyde carry out suffocating sterilization 3 days, then ventilation process 2 days;4. railway carriage or compartment is played: Planting soil ground surface after smooth offers face, railway carriage or compartment, and railway carriage or compartment face width degree is 120cm, then offers railway carriage or compartment filling in face, railway carriage or compartment surrounding Ditch, the width 30cm of irrigation ditch, the degree of depth of irrigation ditch is 20cm, is then sown on face, railway carriage or compartment by cultigen. Strain amount is 2 bottles/m2
(2) sterilization: use the ethanol of 75% strain is taken utensil, hold basin, inoculation personnel's hands etc. is carried out After sterilization, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers strain is placed in holds in utensil by taking utensil by inoculation personnel.
(3) seed dressing: with water, triglyceride and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (1~3) are mixed and made into seed dressing solution, will Cultigen is mixed thoroughly, and the consumption of seed dressing solution is the 35% of cultivation quality.
(4) sowing: first with 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+1% gibberellins+0.5% magnesium sulfate+0.5% sulfur on face, railway carriage or compartment The mixotrophism liquid of acid zinc+10% plant ash spills face, suitable whole railway carriage or compartment, more directly broadcasts sowing on face, railway carriage or compartment, after cover The soil of lid 2~4cm, then railway carriage or compartment soil is carried out the sprinkling irrigation of 6 hours, until making soil moisture reach 95%, then Face, railway carriage or compartment covers the crop material of a layer (3cm is thick), is beneficial to moisturizing.Purpose is by carrying out for the first time Spun lacing swash and make the mycelia that growing enter reproductive growth.If the first season was sowed in April 24, mycelia is sought Supporting and be grown in 5,6 and July, sporophore reproductive growth is in June 18~July 10, and August 20 is left The right side, growth cycle terminates, the first season fruiting yield 138~155kg/ mu.Then within 10th, carry out in JIUYUE summer The second season is sowed, and mycelia nourishes and grows 10,11 and December, starts fruiting, December 5 at 19 days on the 10th Day sporophore completes whole life cycle, the second season fruiting yield 161~180kg/ mu, then December 20 days Carrying out third quarter sowing, mycelia nourishes and grows 2015 1,2 and March, owing to the morning and evening temperature difference is relatively big, and one In it in canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be minimum~4 DEG C~4 DEG C, growth period of hypha extend, opened March 6 Beginning fruiting, completed whole life cycle April 26, and the fruiting phase is up to 55 days, the third quarter fruiting yield 172~ 200kg/ mu.Therefore, also achieve the whole year production in 1 year three season, gross annual output amount be about 472kg/ mu~ 535kg/ mu, it is thereby achieved that the whole year production in 1 year three season, and obtain high yield.
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is thrown in
In step 4 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting the: 10 days, pricking hole on nutriment bag, the side resting pocket perforate is put down It is put in soil surface, is depressed into and porose is all fully contacted with soil with institute, if by hole exposure in atmosphere, will Causing the nutriment bacteria infection in nutrient bag to go mouldy, the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 45cm, line-spacing 50cm。
(6) vegetative stage management
In step 5 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting, if occur soil turn white it is necessary to carry out the flood irrigation of irrigation ditch, soil and The sprinkling irrigation of face, railway carriage or compartment processes, when irrigating, plus triglyceride 0.5mL/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L in water With basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, to provide the nutrition of mycelial growth, meanwhile, keep face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture 50%~70%, air humidity 70%~95%, temperature 12~22 DEG C.
(7) foreign aid's nutrient bag is taken away: nutrient bag is thrown in 40 days, covers with mycelia, and mycelia in Nutrient bag Take away after the most intensive, take away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia and enter one of inducement of reproductive growth, after carry out for the first time Moisturizing 2L/m2Carry out spun lacing every water of 7 days benefits after, to swash, until former base occurs, add in water during moisturizing Entering potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, the speed that spun lacing swashs is 250~1000mL/ Hours square metres 2, each 20 hours, before spun lacing swashs, soil wanted relative dry, the post-stimulatory soil of water Earth water content 50%~65%, air humidity 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C.(8) Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers fruiting pipe Reason
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. Mycelium is differentiated to form former base to after having the immature sporophore of stem and cap, enters Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers and goes out The mushroom stage, former base occur to during growing to 3cm be a crucial period during this period of time, face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture Controlling at the 50%~60% of field capacity, air humidity controls 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C, Former base mortality does not occur.
(9) gather
Sporophore growth 5~after 10 days, when color is become sallow by Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt, sporophore surface begins with a small amount of white Color spore powder reaches ripeness standard when occurring and gathers in time, gathers one for ripe one, every morning, in Noon, afternoon pluck 1 time.During harvesting, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion Yu soil, neatly Cut off, directly do not pull up from soil with hands, in order to avoid the immature former base around damage and immature sporophore.
Respectively on August 23rd, 2015, December 8 days, April 28 to canopy in sporophore generation quantity depend on Secondary investigating, the survey showed that, 18 canopy each canopy per season sporophore total quantity be respectively 35~ 50/m2, 44~60/m2, 50~72/m2, the quantity of anniversary sporophore is 129~182/m2, The weight of single mature sporophore is 2.75~17.66g, averagely according to 4.0g/ calculating, the annual output of each canopy Amount is about 344.17kg/ mu~485.58kg/ mu, and each canopy average annual productivity is about 468.8kg/ mu.Therefore, real Show the whole year production in 1 year three season, and obtain high yield.
Embodiment 4, other are with embodiment 3
In step 1, culture base-material divides five layers of setting in a reservoir, according to mass fraction, each layer particularly as follows: Ground floor is 25 parts of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil+72 parts of cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed of+3 parts of quick lime, sheep or chicken manure, and the second layer is 85 Part+15 parts of weed tree sawdusts of agricultural residues powder, third layer is 10 portions of Semen Tritici aestivis+1 part of dimension of+85 parts of agricultural residues powder + 4 parts of plant ash of Sheng Su B race, the 4th layer is+15 parts of weed tree sawdusts of 85 parts of agricultural residues powder, and layer 5 is 10 Part+10 parts of weed tree sawdusts of corn cob+70 parts pulverize+10 parts of carbamide of waste paper;
Respectively on August 23rd, 2015, December 8 days, April 28 to canopy in sporophore generation quantity depend on Secondary investigating, the survey showed that, 18 canopy each canopy per season sporophore total quantity be respectively 30~ 40/m2, 40~50/m2, 40~60/m2, the quantity of anniversary sporophore is 100~153/m2, The weight of single mature sporophore is 2.75~17.66g, and yield is compared embodiment 3 and slightly reduced, but remains to reach High yield to 1 year three season.
Embodiment 5, other are with embodiment 3
In step one, test tube ground floor is 20 parts of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footings soil+2 parts of quick lime+12 parts of cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed, sheep Or chicken manure, the second layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, and third layer is 8 parts little Wheat+85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+1 part of plant ash of+0.5 part of vitamin B complex, the 4th layer is 85~65 parts Agricultural residues powder+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, layer 5 is 10~35 parts of corn cobs+10~30 parts of weed tree sawdusts Pulverizing waste paper+10~5 parts of carbamide for+70~30 parts, ground floor loading amount is test tube volume 15%, water content be 50~ 75%, second layer loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, water content is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, the Five layers of loading amount are test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves the space of 5% and is beneficial to pipe Inner air flow.
Becoming dry because piece of tissue is dehydrated for a long time when ground floor Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil content is less than 25%, causing can not Send out bacterium;Become thoroughly decomposed cattle, sheep or chicken manure content less than 15% time mycelia mycelia do not twist together, poor growth, even stop Growth;When quick lime content is less than 3%, material easily goes mouldy, and even separates failure.Third layer is 10%~30% Semen Tritici aestivi;Third layer Semen Tritici aestivi content 10%, vitamin B complex less than 1% and plant ash content less than 2% time at this Layer mycelia also will not be twisted together, and the most minimal amount of mycelia could enter the 4th layer.Layer 5 is pulverized waste paper and is contained Amount less than 30% and urea content less than 5% time, mycelial growth is slow, is also formed without sclerotium, causes yield to drop Low, when corn cob content is less than 10%, compost aeration is poor, easily goes mouldy.
In step 2, cultivating major ingredient material formula is 8% Semen Tritici aestivi+79% diameter 0.2~the corn straw of 0.5 centimetre Granule+8% plant ash+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% phosphate fertilizer+1% Calx.Semen Tritici aestivi content and plant ash content are less than Sending out bacterium when 10% very slow, mycelia is not twisted together, and the sclerotium of formation is less, does not even form sclerotium, causes fruiting Few, yield poorly.When Semen Tritici aestivi Content is higher than 30%, the overnutrition of mycelial growth, cause the wasting of resources, Improve production cost, when corn stalk pellets is less than 10%, the aeration of raw material is poor, going mouldy of material simultaneously Rate increases.
Compost sealing compound formula is: 55% Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, 43.5% plant ash, 0.5% quick lime, 1% Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, water content 30%~45%, pH is 7.0~7.5;Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil content is less than 60% With plant ash content less than 14%, sending out bacterium and wait a moment late, the water retention property of material is poor, and moisture evaporation is fast, is unfavorable for bacterium Karyomorphism becomes.When quick lime content is less than 1%, the most raw nematicide of sealing compound, higher than 3%, the pH value of material will be above 7.5, alkalescence is too strong, is unfavorable for mycelial growth.
Step 3: the making of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: 56% waste paper, 39% carbamide, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% Magnesium sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 3% Gypsum Fibrosum;Waste paper content less than 60% and urea content less than 10% time, bacterium Silk enters the time lengthening of nutrient bag, extends the time taking away foreign aid's inter space, thus extends the battalion of mycelia Health preserving is long-term, has postponed the reproductive growth time, and therefore, fruiting is later, makes the growth cycle of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers extend, The production in 1 year three season can not be realized, indirectly reduce yield.
Because condition of culture is the most up to standard, pedagogical in Gansu nationality after the Hezuo City soil of high altitudes and cold just thaws Institute's height fungal pathogens research and teaching practice base 3 cloudy canopies of sunshade net screenhouse, each canopy area 600m2, See in each canopy less than 20 sporophore to August, and sporophore is little.Difference on effect is obvious.
The above, the only detailed description of the invention of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, Any change expected without creative work or replacement, all should contain within protection scope of the present invention. Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain that claims are limited.

Claims (7)

1. one kind high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods, it is characterised in that by following steps group Become:
Step 1: the separating clone of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore:
Culture base-material divides five layers of setting in a reservoir, and according to mass fraction, each layer is particularly as follows: ground floor is 25~80 parts of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footings+3~5 parts of quick lime+72 of soil~15 parts of cattle of becoming thoroughly decomposed, sheep or chicken manure, the second layer is 85~65 parts of agricultural residues powder+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, third layer is 10~30 portions of Semen Tritici aestivis+85~65 parts Agricultural residues powder+1~3 parts of vitamin B complexes+4~2 parts of plant ash, the 4th layer is 85~65 portions of crops Powder of straw+15~35 parts of weed tree sawdusts, layer 5 is 10~35 parts of corn cobs+10~30 parts of weed tree sawdusts+70~30 Part pulverizes waste paper+10~5 parts of carbamide, vessel port tampon beyond the Great Wall, is 125 DEG C in temperature, and pressure is 0.15Mpa Lower autoclaving 1 hour, at room temperature natural cooling;Wild or cultivation Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore are taken wheat grain big 1~2 little block organizations are seeded on above-mentioned test tube the first layered material, are placed on by test tube at 12~28 DEG C, and air is wet Degree is 60%~95%, and lower lucifuge is cultivated, and after inoculation the 2nd day starts to grow mycelia, within 10~15 days, treat test tube In cover with mycelia until take after growing sclerotium the mycelia bottom test tube or sclerotium or have mycelia, sclerotium culture medium straight It is seeded on cultigen compost;
Step 2: the making of cultigen
Cultivating major ingredient formula is 10%~35% Semen Tritici aestivi+75%~30% diameter 0.2~the corn straw of 0.5 centimetre Granule+10%~30% plant ash+1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+3% phosphate fertilizer+1% Calx;2. 24~48 will be soaked little Time Semen Tritici aestivi boil to the inside non-whitening but do not pull out after bark rot and drain away the water, add corn stalk pellets, plant ash Mix thoroughly;3. it is dissolved completely in water to mix by potassium dihydrogen phosphate, phosphate fertilizer and Calx in said mixture, makes cultivation Material, water content 50%~65%;4. compost sealing compound formula is: 60%~82% Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers footing soil, 38%~ 14% plant ash, 1%~3% quick lime, 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, water content 30%~45%, pH be 7.0~ 7.5;5. sealing compound bottling or pack: first compost major ingredient is loaded in bottle or bag, bottle or pack, refilling Enter sealing compound;6. sterilizing is sealed: 121 DEG C~125 DEG C, 0.12Mpa~0.15Mpa autoclaving 4~2 hours; 7. inoculation: cooled down by the material after sterilizing, the mycelia or the sclerotium that access step 1 isolated in gnotobasis connect Take soybean grain size with compost to be seeded on sealing compound and compress and be fully contacted with material, 20mm × 200 Mm test tube depending on mycelia and sclerotium growing way can connect 30~55 bottles or bag, wherein orlop connect 15~25 bottles or bag, The second layer connects 10~20 bottles, and ground floor connects 5 bottles~10 bottles;8. cultivate: lucifuge at temperature is 10~28 DEG C Cultivating, air humidity is 55%~90%, and after inoculation the 2nd~4 day starts to grow mycelia, 10~20 days mycelia Full bottle or purseful are cultigen until growing sclerotium;
Step 3: the making of foreign aid's nutrient bag
(1) foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment formula: waste paper, carbamide, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, Gypsum Fibrosum;
Step 4: heliogreenhouse shed is planted, and Zhou Nianjun can plant, and this step includes:
(1) whole ground and sowing: 1. basal dressing: organic fertilizer and Rapeseed meal as base manure, 2. soil disinfection: By soil scarifying in railway carriage or compartment, leveling, first comprehensively sterilizing with Calx, lime consumption is 250kg/ mu~350kg/ Mu, water the most permeable after, dry in the sun 2-5 days, then spread the plant ash of one layer of 1 cm thick and one layer of 5 cm thick Medium sand, spray concentration is the phoxim mixed aqueous solution parasite killing of 0.5% cypermethrin and 50%;3. greenhouse booth Sterilizing: ground is ploughed deeply after soil disinfection airtight booth potassium permanganate and formaldehyde after once again and carries out suffocating sterilization 3 My god, then ventilation process 2 days;4. playing railway carriage or compartment: the planting soil ground surface after smooth offers face, railway carriage or compartment, railway carriage or compartment face width degree is 80~120cm, then offer irrigation ditch, railway carriage or compartment in face, railway carriage or compartment surrounding, the width 15~30cm of irrigation ditch, irrigation ditch The degree of depth is 15~20cm, is then sown in by cultigen on face, railway carriage or compartment, and this technology requires big application rate, point spring, Autumn, the sowing of season in winter three;
(2) sterilization: use the ethanol of 75% strain is taken utensil, hold basin, inoculation personnel's both hands etc. enter After row sterilization, Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers strain is placed in holds in utensil by taking utensil by inoculation personnel;
(3) seed dressing: triglyceride and potassium dihydrogen phosphate and water are mixed with the volume ratio of 1~3:1:5 and mix Planting solution, mixed thoroughly by cultigen, the consumption of seed dressing solution is the 25%~35% of cultivation quality, because Gaster caprae seu Ovis Bacterium must store enough nutrition at vegetative growth phase, and triglyceride can be stored in bacterium as nutrient substance To meet the needs of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers reproductive growth in Si, therefore, extend reproductive growth period, decrease pest and disease damage Generation, fruiting is stable, greatly increases plantation yield;This technology is the three of the core technology of the present invention;
(4) sowing: first with 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+1% gibberellins+0.5% magnesium sulfate+0.5% sulfur on face, railway carriage or compartment The mixotrophism liquid of acid zinc+10% plant ash spills face, wet whole railway carriage or compartment, more directly broadcasts sowing on face, railway carriage or compartment, after cover The soil of lid 2~4cm, then soil in railway carriage or compartment is carried out the sprinkling irrigation of 4~6 hours, until making soil moisture reach 95%, On face, railway carriage or compartment, cover the crop material of a layer (2~3cm is thick) again, be beneficial to moisturizing;Purpose is by carrying out Primary spun lacing swashs makes the mycelia grown enter reproductive growth;If the first season was sowed at the beginning of 2 months, bacterium Silk is nourished and grown 2,3 and April, and sporophore reproductive growth is at the beginning of mid-May to 6 month, and 25~40 is born Long period terminates, and in whole growth stage, is not less than Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers life cycle at extremely frigid zones temperature of shed Low growth temperature, sporophore growth finishes whole life cycle for about 1 month, and the first season, fruiting yield was about 100~150kg/ mus;Then carrying out the sowing second season at the beginning of 6 months summer, mycelia nourishes and grows 6,7 and 8 Month, start fruiting, this season at the beginning of mid-August to 9 month, be not more than its life in extremely frigid zones temperature The maximum growth temperature of history, sporophore growth 30~complete whole life cycle for 50 days, the second season fruiting yield Be about 150~kg/ mus, then at the beginning of October, carry out third quarter sowing, mycelia nourishes and grows 10,11, 12 and January, owing to the morning and evening temperature difference is relatively big, in one day in canopy morning 3:00~5:00 temperature be minimum~5 DEG C~ 3 DEG C, growth period of hypha extends, sporophore reproductive growth at Second Year by the end of January at the beginning of 2 months, this season, Also bottom growth temperature, the sporophore growth of its life cycle it is not less than in high altitudes and cold area greenhouse booth temperature Within 40~55 days, complete whole life cycle, the second season fruiting yield 170~200kg/ mu;It is thereby achieved that The whole year production in 1 year three season, and due to, high altitudes and cold area, almost without the season higher than 30 DEG C, goes out Mushroom can extend to 30~40 days, and is only 10~15 days at temperature district's Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore fruiting higher;Add Big application rate is one of key improving yield, and additionally spraying face, railway carriage or compartment with nutritional solution can be that mycelial growth offer must The materials such as the inorganic salt wanted, hormone, additionally Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers continuous cropping more can enrich the microbiota of soil, thus compares Nonoculture greatly increases yield;
(5) foreign aid's nutrient bag is thrown in
In step 4 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting the: 7~10 days, nutriment bag is pricked hole, rests the side of pocket perforate Lie against soil surface, be depressed into all with soil be fully contacted, if hole exposed in atmosphere, just porose with institute The nutriment bacteria infection in nutrient bag can be caused to go mouldy, and the distance between foreign aid's nutrient bag is 25cm~45cm, Line-spacing 30cm~50cm;
(6) vegetative stage management
In step 5 Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers after planting, it is necessary to carry out soil when causing soil to turn white because of soil water evaporation Ground irrigation ditch flood irrigation and the sprinkling irrigation of face, railway carriage or compartment process, when irrigating, plus triglyceride 0.5mL/L, phosphoric acid in water Potassium dihydrogen 0.05mL/L and basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, keeps to provide the nutrition of mycelial growth, meanwhile Face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture 50%~70%, air humidity 70%~95%, temperature 12~22 DEG C;
(7) foreign aid's nutrient bag is taken away: nutrient bag is thrown in 7~40 days, covers with mycelia in Nutrient bag, and Take away after mycelia is the most intensive, take away exogenous nutrition bag mycelia and enter one of inducement of reproductive growth, after mend Water, before spun lacing swashs, soil wants relative being dried, and the post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%~65%, air is wet Degree 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C;
(8) Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers management of producing mushroom
Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. Mycelium is differentiated to form former base to after having the immature sporophore of stem and cap, enters Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers and goes out The mushroom stage, former base occur to during growing to 3cm be a crucial period during this period of time, face, railway carriage or compartment soil moisture Controlling at the 50%~60% of field capacity, air humidity controls 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C, Condition is the most uncomfortable, and former base will mortality;
(9) gather
Sporophore growth 5~after 10 days, when color is become sallow by Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt, sporophore surface begins with a small amount of white Color spore powder reaches ripeness standard when occurring and gathers in time, gathers one for ripe one, every morning, in Noon, afternoon respectively pluck 1 time;During harvesting, with wooden cutter from the junction of stem base portion Yu soil, neatly Cut off, directly do not pull up from soil with hands, in order to avoid the immature former base around damage and immature sporophore.
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods the most according to claim 1, it is special Levying and be, in described step one, ground floor loading amount is test tube volume 15%, and water content is 50~75%, the Two layers of loading amount are test tube volume 25%, and water content is 55~70%, and third layer loading amount is test tube volume 15%, Water content is 40~55%, and the 4th layer of loading amount is test tube volume 25%, and water content is 35~50%, layer 5 Loading amount is test tube volume 20%, and water content is 55~80%, and test tube mouth reserves the space of 5% and is beneficial to manage interior sky Air-flow leads to.
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods the most according to claim 1, it is special Levying and be, in described step 2, compost major ingredient loading amount standard is no more than 3/5, reinstalls sealing compound, envelope Mouth material loading amount standard is no less than 1/5, and charging can not be too real, plug a batten, and bottle or bag will in the middle of material Reserve the space of 1/5, to guarantee the aeration of material.
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods the most according to claim 1, it is special Levying and be, in described step 3, mix thoroughly with water after being mixed by each raw material, water content is 45%~60%, to obtain final product Foreign aid's nutrient bag nutriment, carries out nutriment successively packing, sealing, it is not necessary to autoclaving, obtains nutriment bag.
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods the most according to claim 1, it is special Levying and be, in described step 4, the usage amount of fertilizer is 800~1200kg/ mus, the use of Rapeseed meal Amount is 120~130kg/ mus.
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods the most according to claim 1, it is special Levying and be, in described step 4, carry out moisturizing for the first time after taking away foreign aid's nutrient bag, rate of water make-up is 2L/m2, After mended water every 7 days and carry out spun lacing and swash, until former base occurs.
One high altitudes and cold area Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers many seasons implantation methods the most according to claim 6, it is special Levy and be, in described step 4, in water, during moisturizing, add potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05mL/L and the basic element of cell division 0.05mL/L, the speed that spun lacing swashs is 250~1000mL/ hour square metre, and each 12 hours little to 40 Time, before spun lacing swashs, soil wants relative being dried, and the post-stimulatory soil moisture content of water 50%~65%, air is wet Degree 85%~90%, temperature 12~22 DEG C.
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CN106718019A (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-05-31 西华师范大学 Flat mushroom safe production in summer is planted circulatingly for many years with the cultural method survived the winter
CN107155640A (en) * 2017-07-21 2017-09-15 江油市静远食用菌科技有限责任公司 It is a kind of to make the implantation methods of hickory chick fruiting before year
CN107176863A (en) * 2017-06-13 2017-09-19 贵州省生物研究所 A kind of preparation of hickory chick cultivation foreign aid's nutrient source and adding method
CN107409764A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-01 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 A kind of terraced rib hickory chick autumn planting winter receives cultural method
CN107409763A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-01 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 A kind of standardization Production of Large Fields method of six younger sisters hickory chick
CN107484556A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-19 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 The cultivation of six younger sister hickory chicks and field management method
CN108323374A (en) * 2018-04-04 2018-07-27 四川述吉农业发展有限公司 A kind of hickory chick implantation methods
CN110249916A (en) * 2019-07-26 2019-09-20 黑龙江省科学院微生物研究所 A kind of hickory chick plastic house culture method of severe cold area
CN111373980A (en) * 2020-04-28 2020-07-07 山西林业职业技术学院 Northern morchella fruiting time control method
CN111440021A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-07-24 贵州省农作物品种资源研究所(贵州省现代中药材研究所) Long-acting slow-release nutrient special for morchella, and preparation method and use method thereof
CN112021064A (en) * 2019-06-04 2020-12-04 青海卓辰农业科技发展有限公司 Method suitable for planting morchella in summer in plateau area
CN112154858A (en) * 2020-11-25 2021-01-01 中华全国供销合作总社昆明食用菌研究所 Indoor annual cultivation method for morchella esculenta
CN112266290A (en) * 2020-09-15 2021-01-26 上海健康医学院 Nutrition package for morchella planting and preparation method thereof

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CN106718019A (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-05-31 西华师范大学 Flat mushroom safe production in summer is planted circulatingly for many years with the cultural method survived the winter
CN106718019B (en) * 2016-11-22 2019-09-20 西华师范大学 Plant oyster mushroom safe production in summer and overwintering cultural method circulatingly for many years
CN107176863A (en) * 2017-06-13 2017-09-19 贵州省生物研究所 A kind of preparation of hickory chick cultivation foreign aid's nutrient source and adding method
CN107155640A (en) * 2017-07-21 2017-09-15 江油市静远食用菌科技有限责任公司 It is a kind of to make the implantation methods of hickory chick fruiting before year
CN107409764B (en) * 2017-09-29 2019-07-19 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 A kind of ladder rib hickory chick autumn planting winter receipts cultural method
CN107484556A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-19 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 The cultivation of six younger sister hickory chicks and field management method
CN107484556B (en) * 2017-09-29 2019-07-19 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 The cultivation of six younger sister hickory chicks and field management method
CN107409763A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-01 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 A kind of standardization Production of Large Fields method of six younger sisters hickory chick
CN107409764A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-01 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 A kind of terraced rib hickory chick autumn planting winter receives cultural method
CN108323374A (en) * 2018-04-04 2018-07-27 四川述吉农业发展有限公司 A kind of hickory chick implantation methods
CN112021064A (en) * 2019-06-04 2020-12-04 青海卓辰农业科技发展有限公司 Method suitable for planting morchella in summer in plateau area
CN110249916A (en) * 2019-07-26 2019-09-20 黑龙江省科学院微生物研究所 A kind of hickory chick plastic house culture method of severe cold area
CN111440021A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-07-24 贵州省农作物品种资源研究所(贵州省现代中药材研究所) Long-acting slow-release nutrient special for morchella, and preparation method and use method thereof
CN111373980A (en) * 2020-04-28 2020-07-07 山西林业职业技术学院 Northern morchella fruiting time control method
CN112266290A (en) * 2020-09-15 2021-01-26 上海健康医学院 Nutrition package for morchella planting and preparation method thereof
CN112154858A (en) * 2020-11-25 2021-01-01 中华全国供销合作总社昆明食用菌研究所 Indoor annual cultivation method for morchella esculenta

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