CN105248233B - Oil tea seedling is inoculated with the method for AM bacterium and the high-yield planting method of oil tea - Google Patents

Oil tea seedling is inoculated with the method for AM bacterium and the high-yield planting method of oil tea Download PDF

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CN105248233B
CN105248233B CN201510817353.5A CN201510817353A CN105248233B CN 105248233 B CN105248233 B CN 105248233B CN 201510817353 A CN201510817353 A CN 201510817353A CN 105248233 B CN105248233 B CN 105248233B
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oil tea
bacterium
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seedling
legume
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全宏靖
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The method of AM bacterium and the high-yield planting method of oil tea are inoculated with the present invention provides a kind of oil tea seedling.The method that oil tea seedling is inoculated with AM bacterium, includes the following steps:Taking legume parasitism has the root segment and its related spore soil of AM bacterium, smashs to pieces, is seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, blinding, and inoculation is completed in cultivation four months or more.AM mycorhiza can be successfully seeded on oil tea seedling by this method, which is lifelong, and always with the growth of oil tea, and the inoculation method also has higher AM bacterium rate of vaccination, and new way is provided for high-yield planting oil tea.The Growth of Camellia oleifera period is long, it is necessary to which maintenance of soil fertility can be only achieved the purpose of Sustainable high yield.Preferably go out wormcast in oil tea whole process production process and earthworm makees the special fertilizer in oil tea garden, the reasonable agronomic measures in being produced as oil tea.

Description

Oil tea seedling is inoculated with the method for AM bacterium and the high-yield planting method of oil tea
Technical field
The present invention relates to arable farming fields, and the method for AM bacterium and the high yield of oil tea are inoculated in particular to oil tea seedling Implantation methods.
Background technology
Tea oil tree is one of four big woody oleiferous plants of the world, it is grown in the high mountain and hilly ground of southern china subtropical zone Band is the distinctive pure natural advanced oil plant of one kind of China, is that one kind is evergreen, broad-leaved, long-lived ecological economy seeds, primary kind It plants, is benefited for many years.The seed of oil tea can extract oil (tea oil) it is edible, it is therefore named.Tea oil is a kind of green non-pollution product, insatiable hunger With content of fatty acid up to 90% or more, it is better than olive oil, is a kind of advanced edible vegetable oil of health type, by the United Nations's grain farmer's group Knit emphasis popularization.Its color clear flavor incense, it is full of nutrition, be rich in the active material extremely beneficial to human body, as vitamin A, D, K, E, Squalene, the functional components such as tea polyphenols and beta carotene, tea oil are free of aflatoxin, and storage tolerance is high quality food oil;Tea Oil also can be used as lubricating oil, antirust oil for industry.Tea cake is both pesticide and fertilizer and the raw material of industry, and aqueous enzymatic method refines Tea oil by-product can make nuisanceless detergent liquid, protect water environment, it is capable of using as feed, avoid entering cultivation industry using antibiotic., As it can be seen that camellia oleiferaindustry chain length, comprehensive utilization value is high, and oil tea collects ecological benefits, economic benefit and social benefit, for It safeguards national food and oil safety, promotes Integrated Development of The Mountainous Region, peasant employment is promoted to increase income, improve people's health situation, accelerate territory Greening process all has a very important role.But current cultural method yield is generally relatively low, seriously constrains oil tea Extensive use.
AM (group planting mycorhiza) bacterium can promote, as the absorption to nutrient, to improve crop to the adverse circumstances such as low temperature, arid, saline and alkaline Resistance, and reduce the infection of soil-borne disease and nematode, to improve yield, therefore improving quality is increasingly subject to the pass of people Note.Strengthen and earthworm and wormcast are introduced the oil tea ecosystem, plays earthworm and wormcast and the growth of oil tea is contributed.
There is presently no the relevant reports that AM mycorhiza is successfully inoculated into oil tea seedling.There is presently no by earthworm and wormcast Introduce the report of the oil tea ecosystem.
In view of this, special propose the present invention.
Invention content
The first object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of oil tea seedling inoculation AM bacterium, and this method can be successfully by AM mycorhiza It is seeded on oil tea seedling, which is lifelong, and always with the growth of oil tea, and the inoculation method also has higher AM Bacterium rate of vaccination.
The second object of the present invention is to provide a kind of high-yield planting method of oil tea, and the implantation methods are due to being vaccinated with AM Bacterium, and the use of wormcast and earthworm this committed step on oil tea is introduced in whole production process, therefore tea oil tree Disease resistance power is strong, high to the absorptivity of nutritional ingredient, and yield improves therewith.
In order to realize that the above-mentioned purpose of the present invention, spy use following technical scheme:
The method that oil tea seedling is inoculated with AM bacterium, includes the following steps:
Taking legume parasitism has the root segment and its related spore soil of AM bacterium, smashs to pieces, is seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, Blinding, cultivate four months or more, complete inoculation.
First, above-mentioned inoculation method is different from other crop inoculation methods of AM bacterium in traditional technology.
Traditional method is directly to be seeded in pure AM bacterium in target crop, and this method has selection to crop species Property, the crop of the only parts such as pulse family kind could succeed the AM bacterium of seeded with pure, the main reason is that:AM fungies are selective, Parasitic survival rate on variety classes host is different, therefore the inoculation rate on variety classes crop is different, production effect Fruit is also just different.
And the present invention is in order to avoid problem above, is that will be inoculated with together with AM bacterium host-legume high with its survival rate On the root side of oil tea seedling, the AM bacterium infection oil tea seedling root of high viability on legume root segment is borrowed, primary stage of inoculation is improved Infection rate, while it being mixed into the soil (i.e. spore soil) containing a large amount of AM spores, it is continuously bred in seeded process a large amount of AM bacterium, rhizobium leguminosarum, such double inoculations improve the infection rate of inoculation later stage AM mycorrhizal fungi.It can be seen that this hair Bright is by maintaining continual high infection rate, successfully AM bacterium being seeded on oil tea seedling root.
Secondly as the physiological property of legume itself determines that it comes with rhizobium, therefore oil tea seedling is infected with it When, it is the effect of acquirement kills two birds with one stone used in oil tea that can also make the produced nitrogenous fertilizer of rhizobium, is provided to improve tea-oil tree yield Another advantage.
In addition, it is generally the case that there is the root segment of AM bacterium and its related spore soil to sow parasitism and cultivated after oil tea seedling After four months, it is inoculated with success, if the field planting that can go again can also extend cultivation again certainly in order to obtain higher infection rate It trains the time, such as is transplanted again after five months or second year.
The plant that common cultivation method is cultivated may be used in legume root segment used in above-mentioned inoculation method, because Root of legume itself is also spontaneous AM bacterium, and the infection rate after being only inoculated with this plant is low.Following spy can also be used Different cultural method, to be enriched with the content of the root AM bacterium of legume:
Cultivation one:Preferably, the legume is cultivated using following methods:
The legume root segment for having root nodule pre-saved is crushed, is then total to the seed of itself and legume of the same race With being soaked in water, until seed breaks chest, seed is sowed later, harvests plant;Wherein, the legume root segment for having root nodule For fresh root segment or the root segment through drying.
It can make a large amount of AM bacterium of the seed infection of legume in advance in this way, then constantly breeding in the course of cultivation, It is superimposed seed again to take root from the AM bacterium born, the seedling root AM bacterial contents cultivated at this time are very high, meet inoculation need enough It asks.
The root segment of Rhizobium Inoculation both can be used it is fresh, can also use it is outmoded, the two difference lies in:Upper one year The root segment of acquisition carries convenient for preserving, introduces the clover rhizobia of different regions, enrich root nodule germ plasm resource.Fresh can It gathers materials on the spot, inoculation efficiency is high.
In addition, in the above seeding process, following item is paid attention to:It after planting to keep bed surface to moisten, be caused so as not to water shortage The seed of sprouting bounces back and dead, sowing just failure.For the period of cultivation, as long as legume growth situation is good, you can For being inoculated with oil tea.Certainly, in order to which management can be continued, analytical technology detection legume root AM bacterium and rhizobium can also be used Infection rate, as reference.
Cultivation two:Preferably, the legume is cultivated using following methods:In the seed for sowing the legume or Application AM bacterium in the soil of the seedling of the legume are colonized, continue to cultivate;And base fertilizer used in cultivation contains above Phosphate fertilizer.
This method is directly to infect legume root with AM microbial inoculums, and the phosphate fertilizer that arrange in pairs or groups, phosphate fertilizer are conducive to invading for AM Dye improves infection rate.Equally, for the period of cultivation, as long as legume growth situation is good, you can for being inoculated with oil tea.
Preferably, base fertilizer used in the cultivation also contains wormcast and/or charcoal powder.Wormcast has as organic fertilizer Conducive to the breeding of AM.Charcoal powder can absorb the carbon dioxide discharged into the atmosphere when organic substance rots, and helps plant effective Store the carbon dioxide needed for its photosynthesis;And charcoal powder is loose porous, is in alkalescent, is the ideal family of microorganism, makes AM mycelia can enter inside charcoal and produce spore, and charcoal is embedded to underground, can rehabilitating soil, culture fertility, i.e. charcoal to plant, Soil and microorganism are all advantageous, and can integrate the infection rate and proliferative speed for improving AM.Wherein, wormcast, charcoal powder and When phosphate fertilizer combines, with 12:7:1 weight ratio is preferred.
Preferably, during cultivating the legume, apply the fertile soil from oil tea root side.It so both can be with Abundant organic matter is provided for plant growth and microbial reproduction, and rhizobium, AM bacterium can be made to adapt to the growing environment of oil tea, Advantage is provided for the later stage with oil tea symbiotic co-existence for two kinds.
Preferably, the legume is clover.The AM strain classes of clover root parasitism are more, the outer bacterium of root of AM fungies Silk can provide 70% phosphorus and 30% nitrogen to plant, establish oil tea-Mycorrhizal Symbiosiss system.Therefore oil tea is inoculated with it to obtain The disease resistance power of the kind arrived is stronger, to the absorptivity higher of nutritional ingredient, yield higher.
Preferably, when cultivating oil tea seedling in the step A, apply the base fertilizer mainly consisted of the following compositions:By weight, 2.5-3.5 parts of wormcasts, 4-6 parts of soil, 1.5-2.5 parts of charcoal powders, 0.01 part of phosphate fertilizer.The fertilizer of the ratio can promote invading for AM Rate and appeal are contaminated, transfer period is shortened, improves infection rate.
A kind of high-yield planting method of oil tea, includes the following steps:
Oil tea seedling is cultivated using the method that oil tea seedling described above is inoculated with AM bacterium;
By oil tea seedling field planting in field, daily management is carried out, completes plantation, harvesting.
With it is described above, due to being vaccinated with AM bacterium in the implantation methods, the disease resistance power of tea oil tree is strong, to nutrition at The absorptivity divided is high, and yield improves therewith.Through investigating, compared with the oil tea seedling of common variety, implantation methods tea oil of the invention Annual output can be improved 30% or so, per acre 50-100 kilograms of oil production.
Preferably, base fertilizer used when the field planting is:The weight ratio of wormcast, charcoal powder, the two is 3.5-4.5:1. The ratio more meets the growth characteristics of oil tea, balances each other with its nutrient absorption property.In addition, using this base fertilizer, tea oil tree is to gas That waits is adaptable, and in addition to freezing season, can go up a hill whole year plantation tea oil tree.Certainly, the above base fertilizer can also grown Later stage periodically applies, and fertilizer application frequency can see oil tea whole year production daily record, can also autumn it is disposably that 1 year wormcast is whole It applies in oil tea ground, oil tea plant next year apply by opposite, to promote oil tea root system to develop.
Preferably, the daily management is using one or more in following six kinds of modes:
Mode one:It is soaked in water and impregnates nettle cauline leaf 10 days or more, nettle slurry is obtained by filtration;Nettle slurry is splashed Oil tea or tea oil tree on;Nettle slurry had not only increased soil fertilizer, but also control pest.The especially morning of high temperature season and dusk applies With with obvious effects.
Mode two:Earthworm is bred in oil tea ground, and the fertilizer used in the breeding is preferably:Farm manure;Earthworm is just Be it is free loosen the soil, apply fertilizer worker.Every earthworm is all the combination of a marvellous loosenning tiller and fertilizer processing factory.Earthworm is on the spot Expand numerous, connects earthworm after earthworm breeding is more and wormcast is placed in oil tea green manure ground.Most of soil because of kind of oil tea is that engineering is whole Ground, growing surface are mostly uncooked new soil, and nutrient content is low, do not have at these in decomposed new soil, are repaiied with earthworm reacting ring Its multiple ecosystem function.Because thering is earthworm, dead soil therefore to become fertile.Earthworm and wormcast are introduced oil tea ecosystem System makes the oil tea ecosystem more stablize.
Mode three:In oil tea inner room is every in plantation rape, soya bean, clover, rye grass, goa bean, hybrid Chinese pennisetum It is one or more, and these green manure crops are periodically cut into green earth backing;These are very environmentally friendly, inexpensive organic matter, humic Matter can optimize the ecosphere of Growth of Camellia oleifera.In addition, the green manuring that can also be dressed seed with wormcast when cultivating the above crop.
Mode four:To oil tea apply the soya bean slurry of fermentation;
Soya bean slurry fertilizer mainly for oil tea provides available nutrient, oil tea rudiment, bloom, lamina season, the season of bearing fruit, Oil tea nutrient consumption is big, needs liquid manure more, is beaten after soybean soaking, to fermenting after being watered, splashes after decomposed in oil tea ground, High potassium, middle nitrogen and the low-phosphorous fertilizer needed to fruit transport carbohydrate, increases fruit fat content.
Mode five:To oil tea apply EM bacterium;
EM bacterium can comparatively fast and steadily occupy the ecologic niche in soil, form the advantage group of beneficial microbial bacteria, To control the breeding of pathogenic microorganism and to the invasion of crop.
Mode six:It puts Pollinating Insect in a suitable place to breed in oil tea ground, helps pollination of oil tea tree.
It is trimly sent out furthermore it is also possible to spray Na Shi during Growth of Camellia oleifera, improves the photosynthesis of oil tea.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effects of the present invention are:
(1) successful incubation goes out a kind of oil tea seedling kind of the high infection rate of AM bacterium.
(2) a kind of cultural method of amplification AM bacterium is developed.
(3) a kind of Fertilizer Combination with microecosystem circulating ring is worked out:Wormcast, charcoal powder, phosphate fertilizer.
(4) cultivation steps such as water and fertilizer management, weeding deinsectization, the pollination in oil tea plantation are optimized.
Specific implementation mode
Embodiment of the present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with embodiment, but those skilled in the art will Understand, the following example is merely to illustrate the present invention, and is not construed as limiting the scope of the invention.It is not specified in embodiment specific Condition person carries out according to conventional conditions or manufacturer's recommended conditions.Reagents or instruments used without specified manufacturer is The conventional products that can be obtained by commercially available purchase.
Embodiment 1
Oil tea is planted:
Nursery:The fresh clover root segment for having root nodule is crushed, itself and clover seed are then soaked in water jointly In, until seed breaks chest, seed is sowed later, while Wild Camellia oleifera Abel fertile soil wormcast mix, being sowed at clover seed side, Watering is smashed to pieces until taking its root segment and its related spore soil when seedling, is seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, blinding, cultivation four A month, inoculation is completed, harvests oil tea seedling.
Site preparation, field planting:Mountainous region is selected, is applied fertilizer to the subsoil, the oil tea seedling cultivated is transplanted by regulation seeding row spacing in mountainous region.
Management:Periodically fertilising, weeding deinsectization.
Harvesting:Harvest seed, oil expression.
Embodiment 2
Oil tea is planted:
Nursery:In first year clover season floriferous, clover root is dug, being important to protection has the root of root nodule, cleans, puts It dries in the shade at shady and cool ventilation.The grass roots for having clover root nodule originally is shredded with knife until clover sowing season, uses cold boiling water It impregnates, then clover seed is impregnated wherein, be dipped to seed and break chest, sow seed later, while Wild Camellia oleifera Abel humic Native wormcast mix is sowed at clover seed side, watering, until taking its root segment and its related spore soil when seedling, smashs to pieces, It is seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, blinding is cultivated four months, and inoculation is completed, and harvests oil tea seedling.
Site preparation, field planting:Mountainous region is selected, is applied fertilizer to the subsoil, the oil tea seedling cultivated is transplanted by regulation seeding row spacing in mountainous region.
Management:Periodically fertilising, weeding deinsectization.
Harvesting:Harvest seed, oil expression.
Embodiment 3
Oil tea is planted:
Camellia seedling:Ground is chosen, applies be mixed with farm manure (castor-oil plant cake fertilizer, tung oil tree cake fertilizer) and phosphate fertilizer (every thousand thereto Gram soil matches 40 milligrams of phosphate fertilizer) base fertilizer, sow clover seed, while applying AM bacterium into soil, continue to cultivate;Until seedling When take its root segment and its related spore soil, smash to pieces, be seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, blinding cultivates four months, completes to connect Kind, harvest oil tea seedling.
Site preparation, field planting:Mountainous region is selected, is applied fertilizer to the subsoil, the oil tea seedling cultivated is transplanted by regulation seeding row spacing in mountainous region.
Management:Periodically fertilising, weeding deinsectization.
Harvesting:Harvest seed, oil expression.
Embodiment 4
Oil tea is planted:
Nursery:The field of selection plantation clover, applying base fertilizer thereto, (wormcast, vermiculite, phosphorus, molydbenum fertilizer, weight ratio are 3.5:5.9:0.5:0.01),
Clover seed is sowed, while applying AM bacterium into soil, continues to cultivate;Simultaneously Wild Camellia oleifera Abel fertile soil earthworm Excrement mix is sowed at clover seed side.Until taking its root segment and its related spore soil when clover seedling, smash to pieces.Selection The field of oil tea seedling is cultivated, base fertilizer (wormcast, soil, charcoal powder, phosphate fertilizer) is applied, plants oil tea seedling, the clover root that will be smashed to pieces Section is seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, and blinding is cultivated four months, and inoculation is completed, and harvests oil tea seedling.
Site preparation, field planting:Mountainous region is selected, applying fertilizer to the subsoil, (weight ratio of wormcast, charcoal powder, the two is 4:1) it, will cultivate Oil tea seedling is by regulation seeding row spacing transplanting in mountainous region.
Management:Periodically fertilising, weeding deinsectization.
Harvesting:Harvest seed, oil expression.
Embodiment 5
Oil tea is planted:
Nursery:The field of selection plantation clover, applies base fertilizer (wormcast, the cellular pellet coal dust burnt and phosphorus thereto Fertilizer is with 6:13:1 weight ratio combines), clover seed is sowed, while applying AM bacterium into soil, continues to cultivate;Until when seedling Take its root segment and its related spore soil, smashs to pieces.The field of oil tea seedling is cultivated in selection, applies base fertilizer (wormcast, soil, charcoal Powder, phosphate fertilizer are with 3.5:4:2.5:0.01 weight ratio composition), oil tea seedling is planted, the clover root segment smashed to pieces is seeded in oil tea The root side of seedling, blinding are cultivated four months, and inoculation is completed, and harvest oil tea seedling.
Site preparation, field planting:Mountainous region is selected, applying fertilizer to the subsoil, (weight ratio of wormcast, charcoal powder, the two is 3.5:1) it, will cultivate Oil tea seedling by regulation seeding row spacing transplant in mountainous region.
Management:
It is soaked in water and impregnates nettle cauline leaf 10 days or more, nettle slurry is obtained by filtration;Nettle slurry is splashed in oil tea Or on tea oil tree;
Earthworm is bred in oil tea ground, and the fertilizer used in the breeding is:Farm manure;
In oil tea inner room is every plantation rape, soya bean, and these subsidiary crops are periodically cut green earth backing;
To oil tea apply the soya bean slurry of fermentation;
To oil tea apply EM bacterium;
Pollinating Insect is put in a suitable place to breed in oil tea ground.
Harvesting:Harvest seed, oil expression.
Although illustrate and describing the present invention with specific embodiment, it will be appreciated that without departing substantially from the present invention's Many other change and modification can be made in the case of spirit and scope.It is, therefore, intended that in the following claims Including belonging to all such changes and modifications in the scope of the invention.

Claims (6)

1. the method that oil tea seedling is inoculated with AM bacterium, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
Taking legume parasitism has the root segment and its related spore soil of AM bacterium, smashs to pieces, is seeded in the root side of oil tea seedling, covers Soil, cultivate four months or more, complete inoculation;
The legume is cultivated using following methods:
The legume root segment for having root nodule pre-saved is crushed, then soaks the seed of itself and legume of the same race jointly It steeps in water, until seed breaks chest, sows seed later, harvest plant;It is wherein, described that have the legume root segment of root nodule be new Fresh root segment or the root segment through drying apply the fertile soil from oil tea root side during cultivating the legume.
2. the method for oil tea seedling inoculation AM bacterium according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the legume is three leaves Grass.
3. the method for oil tea seedling according to claim 1 inoculation AM bacterium, which is characterized in that when cultivation oil tea seedling, apply by The base fertilizer of following component composition:By weight, 2.5-3.5 parts of wormcasts, 4-6 parts of soil, 1.5-2.5 parts of charcoal powders, 0.01 part of phosphorus Fertilizer.
4. the high-yield planting method of oil tea, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
Oil tea seedling is cultivated using the method that claim 1-3 any one of them oil tea seedlings are inoculated with AM bacterium;The oil tea seedling is determined It is implanted in field, carries out daily management, completes plantation, harvesting.
5. the high-yield planting method of oil tea according to claim 4, which is characterized in that base fertilizer used when the field planting For:The weight ratio of wormcast, charcoal powder, the two is 3.5-4.5:1.
6. the high-yield planting method of oil tea according to claim 5, which is characterized in that the daily management uses following six It is one or more in kind mode:
Mode one:Be soaked in water nettle cauline leaf 10 days or more, and nettle slurry is obtained by filtration;By the nettle slurry splash in oil tea or On tea oil tree;
Mode two:Earthworm is bred in oil tea ground, and the fertilizer used in the breeding is preferably:Farm manure;
Mode three:In oil tea inner room is every one in plantation rape, soya bean, clover, rye grass, goa bean, hybrid Chinese pennisetum Kind is a variety of, and these subsidiary crops are periodically cut green earth backing;
Mode four:To oil tea apply the soya bean slurry of fermentation;
Mode five:To oil tea apply EM bacterium;
Mode six:Pollinating Insect is put in a suitable place to breed in oil tea ground.
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