CN104604514B - Chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology - Google Patents

Chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104604514B
CN104604514B CN201510086835.8A CN201510086835A CN104604514B CN 104604514 B CN104604514 B CN 104604514B CN 201510086835 A CN201510086835 A CN 201510086835A CN 104604514 B CN104604514 B CN 104604514B
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soil
dixie cup
ditch
seedling
cup
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CN104604514A (en
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田寿乐
沈广宁
孙晓莉
许林
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Shandong Institute of Pomology
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Shandong Institute of Pomology
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • A01G9/0293Seed or shoot receptacles

Abstract

The invention relates to a chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology and belongs to the technical field of seedling cultivation. The technology includes sowing chestnut seeds, after pregermination, to cups filled with soil; performing pregermination for 8 to 10 days at the daily average temperature ranging from 10 to 15 DEG C after mixing the chestnut seeds and wet sand at the volume ratio of 1 :2; during pregermination, when radicle grows till 0.5cm, removing the growth point by 0.1 to 0.2cm. According to the technology, the pregermination and sowing are performed in opened fields, and the seedling cultivation environment and the growth environment after transplantation are the same; after the transplantation, the survival rate is high, the slowness is avoided, and the growth tendency is fine. The technology is simple and easy to learn, the operability is high, the germination rate can be increased effectively, the germination is uniform, and farm appearance is neat; the seedling quality is high, and the grafting rate of one-year seedlings can be 96% above; the cups are adopted, the environment can be protected, and the chestnut root growth can benefited.

Description

Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling-raising technique
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling-raising technique, belong to seedling-raising technique field.
Background technology
At this stage, Chinese chestnut building well is carried out still by the way of directly being sowed in field, and this mode normally results in seed Rotting rate is high, emergence rate is low, growth of seedling is slow, graftability is low, garden is mutually irregular, into evening in the best fruiting period the problems such as, have influence on Cultivation benefit.
The content of the invention
The Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling-raising technique that field is directly sowed is different from it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of.
A kind of Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling-raising technique, including the step in the dixie cup equipped with soil will be seeded in after Castanea Mollissima Seeds vernalization Suddenly;
The vernalization:Mean daily temperature at 10-15 DEG C, by Castanea Mollissima Seeds and wet sand according to 1:After 2 volume ratio mixing Carry out vernalization;Vernalization 8-10 days;
In pregermination procedure, when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, growing point 0.1-0.2cm is removed.
The advantage of vernalization is:After planting emergence rate is high, and it is neat to emerge.Appropriate removal growing point can growth-promoting lateral root number Amount, makes root system more flourishing, more conducively absorbs soil nutrient.
The special character of invention sowing has at 3 points:One is emergence rate high, and two is to emerge neatly, and three is many lateral root numbers, Well developed root system, growth of seedling is healthy and strong.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, the also step including being placed in dixie cup in the ditch in nursery soil;When average height of seedling is 10- During 15cm, nursery is completed;
Dixie cup spacing 2-5cm;
The ditch in nursery soil:Ditch depth 20cm, furrow width 25-30cm.
It is easy to completely be put into dixie cup in ditch, makes dixie cup horizontal plane less than the plane of ditch, is easy to irrigate, favourable soil moisture conservation.
The dixie cup, both can be to sow the paper after the dixie cup, or sowing Castanea Mollissima Seeds before Castanea Mollissima Seeds Cup.Also just say, first after planting dixie cup can be both placed in the ditch in nursery soil, or be placed in nursery first by dixie cup Castanea Mollissima Seeds are sowed again in the ditch in soil.To prevent from putting the growth of dixie cup process influence Castanea Mollissima Seeds, it is preferred that be first by paper Cup sows Castanea Mollissima Seeds again in being placed in the ditch in nursery soil.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that Castanea Mollissima Seeds are kept flat during sowing or plumule is placed down, depth of planting is 0.5cm。
Castanea Mollissima Seeds keep flat or place down is easy to radicle smoothly to grow downwards, and this point is extremely important.Depth of planting sets It is set to 0.5cm, it is too deep to be unfavorable for that Chinese chestnut plumule is emerged ground, it is excessively shallow because topsoil humidity is small, the growth of root system can be influenceed.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, the soil in dixie cup is Nutrition Soil, is according to 4 by sand loam and decay sheep excrement:1 volume ratio Mix.
The Nutrition Soil mixed by sand loam and decay sheep excrement, makes soil nutritious, and it is saturating to increased soil Gas.Because Chinese chestnut root growth is liked, and the soil is porous and fertile soil.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that carbendazim is mixed in wet sand used by vernalization, every cubic metre of wet sand mixes 200g.Energy Effectively prevention fungus disease infects.Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that be put in after Castanea Mollissima Seeds and wet sand mixing outdoor warm Place, is covered with wet gunnysack, is sprayed water to gunnysack when wet sand dry tack free.
Being covered with wet gunnysack can both be incubated or moisturizing, environmental change can play cushioning effect to external world, be that Chinese chestnut sprouts Relatively stable temperature and humidity is provided.Directly easily make local humidity too high to sand water spray, cause Chinese chestnut to rot.And use to The mode of gunnysack water spray can indirectly moisten sand, play a part of buffering, reduce Chinese chestnut rotting rate.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that dixie cup specification is 20cm × 16cm;Nutrition Soil top layer is apart from paper cup rim 2cm.The behaviour Make, can make to deposit moisture during irrigation in cup, improve irrigation effect.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that nursery soil is poured water, is impregnated with, the dry post-trenching of water;Drains spacing is 40cm.
Drains spacing 40cm, be easy to 1 people pass through both can, and save soil.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that dixie cup tamps dixie cup with the soil of ditch both sides afterwards in being placed in the ditch in nursery soil Surrounding space.The operation is primarily to facilitate moisturizing and insulation, and the root growth after being sprouted for Chinese chestnut provides the humidity and temperature of stabilization Degree environment.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, it is preferred that dixie cup is placed in the backward dixie cup in the ditch in nursery soil and pours permeable, after water is dry Bedding mulch film or straw mat.Ground temperature can be improved and moisture evaporation is prevented.
Above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, after planting 10 days or so start to emerge, and such as with the dixie cup of covering with ground sheeting, note when emerging in time Broken film is scratched, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, straw mat or mulch film are taken off.It is timely when arid To being poured water in ditch.
Before rainy season set, Chinese Chestnut Seedlings will be obtained together with dixie cup using above-mentioned seedling-raising technique, transplant determining to nursery In plant hole, make dixie cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface, then pour permeable;General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m ×6m;Planting pit diameter 40cm.Managed after field planting:Irrigated in time when soil volumetric water content is less than 20%;Rainy season applies speed Effect property fertilizer, every plant applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, apart from trunk 20-30cm;Winter pruning, will Side shoot on trunk in the 20cm of ground is all wiped out, in case next year grafting.
In the present invention, the wet sand, not drop down water, clenching rear sand with hand can slowly unclamp humidity requirement;The day puts down Equal temperature, is continuous 5 days mean daily temperatures.
Beneficial effect
Seedling-raising technique of the invention, its vernalization and sowing are carried out in open fields, are a kind of field seedling-raising techniques, With difference of nursing young plants in hothouses.Seedling-raising technique of the invention, its seedling raising environment is identical with the growing environment after transplanting, and the environment of seedling is fitted Should be able to power it is strong, survival rate after transplanting is high, be not in slow phenomenon, growing way is good.
Seedling-raising technique of the invention is easy to learn, workable, the advantage is that:One is that can effectively improve emergence rate, Emerge uniform, garden is mutually neat;Two is good seedling quality, and growth of seedling is healthy and strong, and seedling graftability reaches more than 96% within 1 year;Three are Contribute to environmental protection using dixie cup nursery, and beneficial to Chinese chestnut root growth.
Specific embodiment
Following embodiments and comparative example are carried out in the lucky mountain Chinese chestnut breeding nursery in Shandong Province Tai'an ten thousand;Cultivars of Chinese Chestnut is locality Chinese chestnut is grown directly from seeds kind.
Embodiment 1
(1) vernalization:In on April 22nd, 2014 (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C).Seed is from Storage in cold bank Chinese chestnut, it is desirable to which size is basically identical, without rotten, free from insect pests.Seed is placed 2 days naturally after taking out, and is then mixed with clean wet sand, Ratio is Chinese chestnut:Wet sand=1:2 (volume ratios)., not drop down water, after wet sand is clenched with hand, wet sand can be slow for the humidity of wet sand Unclamp.When Chinese chestnut and wet sand are mixed, wet sand mixes a small amount of carbendazim, and every cubic metre of sand about mixes 200g, with pre- anti-fungal Class disease infestation.Outdoor warm place is stacked at after Chinese chestnut and wet sand are mixed, is covered with wet gunnysack, can fitted when sand dry tack free Sprayed water when to gunnysack.About 8-10 days Chinese chestnuts start to sprout, and when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, nip off growing point 0.1-0.2cm, with Growth-promoting lateral root.The Castanea Mollissima Seeds handled well prepare sowing.
(2) nutritive soil preparation:Nutrition Soil is sand loam and decay sheep excrement, and the two ratio is loam:Sheep manure=4:1 (volume Than).Before mixing, sand loam sieving screens out stone and coarse sand.It is sufficiently mixed with sheep manure after sand loam sieving, will be mixed Nutrition Soil load dixie cup.Dixie cup is commercially available, is degraded in 2-3 month, is thickeied, specification 20cm × 16cm.Dixie cup is required after installing Topsoil is apart from paper cup rim 2cm.
(3) sow:Smooth nursery plot, pours water after carrying out furrow, is impregnated with.The dry post-trenching of water, ditch depth 20cm, 25-30cm wide, Drains spacing is 40cm.To install soil dixie cup it is neat put ditch, each glass of spacing 2cm.Select the similar seed of radicle length Sowing in cup is carried out, seed is kept flat during sowing, or plumule is placed down, depth of planting is 0.5cm.Broadcast and use afterwards ditch both sides Soil tamp space around dixie cup.Permeable to being poured in dixie cup, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry improve ground temperature and prevent moisture from steaming Hair.
(4) sub- seedling management:After planting 10 days or so start to emerge, and such as with the dixie cup of covering with ground sheeting, note scratching in time when emerging Broken film, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, straw mat or mulch film are taken off.When arid in time to Poured water in ditch.
(5) field-transplanting:Transplanting is typically carried out before rainy season set, and such as Shandong selection is in June.To nursery lot before transplanting seedlings Pour permeable, start to transplant seedlings when soil is half-dried.During this period, need field planting plot excavate planting pit, planting pit diameter 40cm, Deep 40cm, then backfill planting pit with table soil is appropriate.General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.When transplanting seedlings With flat crooked chisel flush end dixie cup, planting pit is directly placed into, while attention does not make clods breaking in alms bowl in lifting and in transit.Paper After cup is put into planting pit, righting seedling makes dixie cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface.Stitched around soil landfill dixie cup with remaining around planting pit Gap, makees the tree disk of a diameter of 50cm.Pour permeable after field planting, harrowed table soil with creeper after table soil is slightly dry, preserved soil moisture with profit.
(6) managed after being colonized:Irrigated in time when soil volumetric water content is less than 20%;Tillage and weeding, prevents weeds from blocking Seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every plant applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, apart from trunk 20- 30cm.Winter pruning, the side shoot on trunk in the 20cm of ground is all wiped out, in case next year grafting.
Embodiment 2
(1) seed selects the Chinese chestnut of Storage in cold bank, it is desirable to which size is basically identical, without rotten, free from insect pests.In April 22 in 2014 Day (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C of days), seed is taken out, placed 2 days naturally.Then with 25% carbendazim wettable 400 times of pulvis immersion bubble Castanea Mollissima Seeds 2 hours, taking-up is dried.
(2) nutritive soil preparation:Nutrition Soil is sand loam and decay sheep excrement, and the two ratio is loam:Sheep manure=4:1 (volume Than).Before mixing, sand loam sieving screens out stone and coarse sand.It is sufficiently mixed with sheep manure after sand loam sieving, will be mixed Nutrition Soil load dixie cup.Dixie cup is commercially available, is degraded in 2-3 month, is thickeied, specification 20cm × 16cm.Dixie cup is required after installing Topsoil is apart from paper cup rim 2cm.
(3) sow:Smooth nursery plot, pours water after carrying out furrow, is impregnated with.The dry post-trenching of water, ditch depth 20cm, 25-30cm wide, Drains spacing is 40cm.To install soil dixie cup it is neat put ditch, each glass of spacing 2cm.Seed after drying is carried out in cup Sowing, keeps flat seed during sowing, and depth of planting is 0.5cm.Broadcast and tamp space around dixie cup with the soil of ditch both sides afterwards.To paper Pour permeable in cup, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry improve ground temperature and prevent moisture evaporation.
(4) sub- seedling management:After planting 21 days or so start to emerge, and such as with the dixie cup of covering with ground sheeting, note scratching in time when emerging Broken film, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, straw mat or mulch film are taken off.When arid in time to Poured water in ditch.
(5) field-transplanting:Transplanting is typically carried out before rainy season set, and such as Shandong selection is in June.To nursery lot before transplanting seedlings Pour permeable, start to transplant seedlings when soil is half-dried.During this period, need field planting plot excavate planting pit, planting pit diameter 40cm, Deep 40cm, then backfill planting pit with table soil is appropriate.General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.When transplanting seedlings With flat crooked chisel flush end dixie cup, planting pit is directly placed into, while attention does not make clods breaking in alms bowl in lifting and in transit.Paper After cup is put into planting pit, righting seedling makes dixie cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface.Stitched around soil landfill dixie cup with remaining around planting pit Gap, makees the tree disk of a diameter of 50cm.Pour permeable after field planting, harrowed table soil with creeper after table soil is slightly dry, preserved soil moisture with profit.
(6) managed after being colonized:Irrigated in time when soil volumetric water content is less than 20%;Tillage and weeding, prevents weeds from blocking Seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every plant applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, apart from trunk 20- 30cm.Winter pruning, the side shoot on trunk in the 20cm of ground is all wiped out, in case next year grafting.
Embodiment 3
(1) vernalization:In April 22 (with embodiment 1) in 2014 (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C of days).Seed From the Chinese chestnut of Storage in cold bank, it is desirable to which size is basically identical, without rotten, free from insect pests.Seed places 2 days naturally after taking out, then Mix with clean wet sand, ratio is Chinese chestnut:Wet sand=1:2 (volume ratios).The humidity of wet sand not drop down water, when clenching wet sand with hand Afterwards, wet sand can slowly unclamp.When Chinese chestnut and wet sand are mixed, wet sand mixes a small amount of carbendazim, and every cubic metre of sand is about mixed 200g, to prevent fungus disease to infect.Outdoor warm place is stacked at after Chinese chestnut and wet sand are mixed, is covered with wet gunnysack, work as sand Suitably can be sprayed water to gunnysack during sub- dry tack free.About 8-10 days Chinese chestnuts start to sprout, and when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, nip off life Point 0.1-0.2cm long, with growth-promoting lateral root.The Castanea Mollissima Seeds handled well prepare sowing.
(2) nutritive soil preparation:Nutrition Soil is sand loam and decay sheep excrement, and the two ratio is loam:Sheep manure=4:1 (volume Than).Before mixing, sand loam sieving screens out stone and coarse sand.It is sufficiently mixed with sheep manure after sand loam sieving, will be mixed Nutrition Soil load black plastic cup.Black plastic cup is commercially available, specification 20cm × 16cm.Black plastic cup table is required after installing Soil layer is apart from black plastic rim of a cup 2cm.
(3) sow:Smooth nursery plot, pours water after carrying out furrow, is impregnated with.The dry post-trenching of water, ditch depth 20cm, 25-30cm wide, Drains spacing is 40cm.To install soil black plastic cup it is neat put ditch, each glass of spacing 2cm.Select radicle length similar Seed carry out sowing in cup, seed is kept flat during sowing, or plumule is placed down, depth of planting is 0.5cm.Used after broadcasting The soil of ditch both sides tamps black plastic cup surrounding space.To pouring permeable in black plastic cup, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry are carried High-geotemperature simultaneously prevents moisture evaporation.
(4) sub- seedling management:After planting 10 days or so start to emerge, and such as with the black plastic cup of covering with ground sheeting, note when emerging Broken film is scratched in time, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, straw mat or mulch film are taken off.When arid In time to being poured water in ditch.
(5) field-transplanting:Transplanting is typically carried out before rainy season set, and such as Shandong selection is in June.To nursery lot before transplanting seedlings Pour permeable, start to transplant seedlings when soil is half-dried.During this period, need field planting plot excavate planting pit, planting pit diameter 40cm, Deep 40cm, then backfill planting pit with table soil is appropriate.General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.When transplanting seedlings With flat crooked chisel flush end black plastic cup, planting pit is directly placed into, while attention does not make soil block in alms bowl in lifting and in transit It is broken.After black plastic cup is put into planting pit, righting seedling makes black plastic cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface.With planting pit week Surplus soil landfill black plastic cup surrounding gap is enclosed, the tree disk of a diameter of 50cm is made.Pour permeable after field planting, iron is used after table soil is slightly dry Rake harrows table soil, is preserved soil moisture with profit.
(6) managed after being colonized:Irrigated in time when soil volumetric water content is less than 20%;Tillage and weeding, prevents weeds from blocking Seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every plant applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, apart from trunk 20- 30cm.Winter pruning, the side shoot on trunk in the 20cm of ground is all wiped out, in case next year grafting.
Comparative example 1
Direct nursery method:
Crop field is directly sowed, and selection of time is in April 22 (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C of days).Set strain Line-spacing, the general 3m × 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.Field is irrigated first before sowing, after water is dry Excavate planting pit, planting pit diameter 20cm, deep 20cm, with the appropriate backfill of table soil.Select to enrich full seed during sowing, by seed Keep flat, depth of planting is 0.5cm;Circular tree disk is after planting made, disk diameter 50cm is set, when soil volumetric water content is less than 20% Irrigate in time;Summer tillage and weeding, prevents weeds from blocking seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every plant applies urea 20g and phosphorus Acid dihydride potassium 20g, ring-type ditch spread, apart from trunk 20-30cm.Winter pruning, the side shoot on trunk in the 20cm of ground is complete Portion wipes out, in case next year grafting.
Embodiment compares with the nursery effect of comparative example, as shown in table 1:
Table 1,

Claims (2)

1. a kind of Chinese chestnut dixie cup method for culturing seedlings, it is characterised in that
Including the step that will be seeded in after Castanea Mollissima Seeds vernalization in the dixie cup equipped with soil;The vernalization:Mean daily temperature is in 10- At 15 DEG C, by Castanea Mollissima Seeds and wet sand according to 1:Outdoor warm place is put in after 2 volume ratio mixing, is covered with wet gunnysack, when wet Sprayed water to gunnysack during husky dry tack free, carry out vernalization;Vernalization 8-10 days;Carbendazim, every cubic metre are mixed in wet sand used by vernalization Wet sand mixes 200g;In pregermination procedure, when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, growing point 0.1-0.2cm is removed;
Also include step dixie cup being placed in the ditch in nursery soil;When average height of seedling is 10-15cm, nursery is completed;Educate Seedling soil is poured water, is impregnated with, the dry post-trenching of water;The ditch in nursery soil:Ditch depth 20cm, furrow width 25-30cm, drains spacing is 40cm;First will Dixie cup sows Castanea Mollissima Seeds again in being placed in the ditch in nursery soil, and dixie cup specification is 20cm × 16cm, dixie cup spacing 2-5cm;Paper Plane of the cup horizontal plane less than ditch;Castanea Mollissima Seeds are kept flat during sowing or plumule is placed down, depth of planting is 0.5cm;Dixie cup In soil be Nutrition Soil, be according to 4 by sand loam and decay sheep excrement:1 volume ratio is mixed;Nutrition Soil top layer distance Paper cup rim 2cm.
2. the method for culturing seedlings according to claim 1, it is characterised in that dixie cup is used after being placed in the ditch in nursery soil The soil of ditch both sides tamps space around dixie cup;Dixie cup is placed in the backward dixie cup in the ditch in nursery soil and pours permeable, after water is dry Bedding mulch film or straw mat.
CN201510086835.8A 2015-02-25 2015-02-25 Chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology Expired - Fee Related CN104604514B (en)

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CN104904550A (en) * 2015-06-10 2015-09-16 南京梦杨农业科技有限公司 Fertilizing method of chestnut trees
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