CN104604514A - Chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology - Google Patents

Chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104604514A
CN104604514A CN201510086835.8A CN201510086835A CN104604514A CN 104604514 A CN104604514 A CN 104604514A CN 201510086835 A CN201510086835 A CN 201510086835A CN 104604514 A CN104604514 A CN 104604514A
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soil
dixie cup
ditch
growing process
seedling
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CN201510086835.8A
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CN104604514B (en
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田寿乐
沈广宁
孙晓莉
许林
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Shandong Institute of Pomology
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Shandong Institute of Pomology
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • A01G9/0293Seed or shoot receptacles

Abstract

The invention relates to a chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology and belongs to the technical field of seedling cultivation. The technology includes sowing chestnut seeds, after pregermination, to cups filled with soil; performing pregermination for 8 to 10 days at the daily average temperature ranging from 10 to 15 DEG C after mixing the chestnut seeds and wet sand at the volume ratio of 1 :2; during pregermination, when radicle grows till 0.5cm, removing the growth point by 0.1 to 0.2cm. According to the technology, the pregermination and sowing are performed in opened fields, and the seedling cultivation environment and the growth environment after transplantation are the same; after the transplantation, the survival rate is high, the slowness is avoided, and the growth tendency is fine. The technology is simple and easy to learn, the operability is high, the germination rate can be increased effectively, the germination is uniform, and farm appearance is neat; the seedling quality is high, and the grafting rate of one-year seedlings can be 96% above; the cups are adopted, the environment can be protected, and the chestnut root growth can benefited.

Description

Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling growing process
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling growing process, belong to seedling growing process field.
Background technology
Present stage, Chinese chestnut is built garden and still adopts the mode directly sowed in field to carry out, and this mode can cause that seed decay rate is high, emergence rate is low usually, growth of seedling is slow, can grafting rate low, garden is mutually irregular, enter the problems such as evening in the full bearing period, has influence on cultivation benefit.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide and be a kind ofly different from the Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling growing process directly sowed in field.
A kind of Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling growing process, comprises the step that will be seeded in after Castanea Mollissima Seeds vernalization in the dixie cup that soil is housed;
Described vernalization: daily mean temperature, when 10-15 DEG C, carries out vernalization by after Castanea Mollissima Seeds and the wet husky mixing of the volume ratio according to 1:2; Vernalization 8-10 days;
In pregermination procedure, when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, remove growing point 0.1-0.2cm.
The advantage of vernalization is: after planting emergence rate is high, and it is neat to emerge.Suitable removal growing point can growth-promoting lateral root number, makes root system more flourishing, is more conducive to absorb soil nutrient.
The special character of this invention sowing has 3 points: one is that emergence rate is high, and two is emerge neatly, and three is that lateral root number is many, well developed root system, and growth of seedling is healthy and strong.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, also comprises the step in ditch dixie cup being placed in nursery soil; When average height of seedling is 10-15cm, nursery completes;
Dixie cup spacing 2-5cm;
The ditch in nursery soil: ditch depth 20cm, furrow width 25-30cm.
Be convenient to dixie cup to put into ditch completely, make dixie cup horizontal plane lower than the plane of ditch, be convenient to irrigate, favourable soil moisture conservation.
Described dixie cup both can be the dixie cup before sowing Castanea Mollissima Seeds, also can be the dixie cup after sowing Castanea Mollissima Seeds.Also just say, both can first after planting be put by dixie cup in the ditch in nursery soil, also can be first put by dixie cup to sow Castanea Mollissima Seeds again in the ditch in nursery soil.For preventing the growth of putting dixie cup process influence Castanea Mollissima Seeds, preferably, be first dixie cup is put to sow Castanea Mollissima Seeds again in the ditch in nursery soil.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, to be kept flat by Castanea Mollissima Seeds or plumule is placed down during sowing, sowing depth is 0.5cm.
Castanea Mollissima Seeds keeps flat or places down to be convenient to radicle and to grow downwards smoothly, and this point is extremely important.Sowing depth is set as 0.5cm, is excessively deeply unfavorable for that Chinese chestnut plumule is emerged ground, cross shallow due to topsoil humidity little, the growth of root system can be affected.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, the soil in dixie cup is Nutrition Soil, is to be mixed according to the volume ratio of 4:1 by sand loam and decay sheep excrement.
The Nutrition Soil mixed by sand loam and decay sheep excrement, makes soil nutritious, and adds the gas permeability of soil.Because Chinese chestnut root growth likes that the soil is porous and fertile soil.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, mix carbendazim in vernalization wet sand used, every cubic metre of wet sand mixes 200g.Can fungus disease be effectively prevented to infect.Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, is put in outdoor warm place after Castanea Mollissima Seeds and wet husky mixing, covers, spray water when wet husky dry tack free to gunnysack with wet gunnysack.
Cover with wet gunnysack that both can be incubated also can moisturizing, environmental change can play cushioning effect to external world, provide comparatively stable temperature and humidity for Chinese chestnut sprouts.Easily make local humidity too high directly to sand water spray, cause Chinese chestnut to rot.And adopt the mode to gunnysack water spray can indirect moistening sand, play the effect of buffering, reduce Chinese chestnut rotting rate.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, dixie cup specification is 20cm × 16cm; Nutrition Soil top layer distance paper cup rim 2cm.This operation, can make in cup, to deposit moisture during irrigation, improves irrigation effect.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, nursery soil is poured water, is soaked into, the dry post-trenching of water; Ditch distance is 40cm.
Ditch apart from 40cm, be convenient to 1 people by both can, and save soil.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, dixie cup tamps space around dixie cup with the soil of ditch both sides after being placed in the ditch in nursery soil.Moisturizing and insulation are mainly convenient in this operation, for the root growth after Chinese chestnut sprouts provides stable humidity and temperature environment.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, preferably, dixie cup be placed in water in the backward dixie cup in the ditch in nursery soil permeable, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry.Can ground temperature be improved and prevent moisture from evaporating.
Above-mentioned seedling growing process, after planting about 10 days start to emerge, and as the dixie cup with plastic mulching, note scratching broken film in time, prevent film from scalding tender shoots growing point when emerging.When emergence rate is more than 80%, take straw mat or mulch film off.Pour water in ditch in time during arid.
Before rainy season set, Chinese Chestnut Seedlings that above-mentioned seedling growing process obtains will be adopted together with dixie cup, transplant in the planting pit in nursery, and make dixie cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface, then water permeable; General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m; Planting pit diameter 40cm.Manage after field planting: when soil volumetric water content lower than 20% time irrigate in time; Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every strain applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, distance trunk 20-30cm; Winter pruning, all wipes out the side shoot in distance ground 20cm on trunk, in order to grafting in next year.
In the present invention, described wet sand, humidity requirement is not for drop down water, and clenching rear sand with hand can slowly unclamp; Described daily mean temperature is continuous 5 days daily mean temperatures.
Beneficial effect
Seedling growing process of the present invention, its vernalization and sowing all in the open field carry out, be a kind of field seedling growing process, from nurse young plants in hothouses different.Seedling growing process of the present invention, its seedling raising environment is identical with the growing environment after transplanting, and the adaptive capacity to environment of seedling is strong, and the survival rate after transplanting is high, there will not be slow phenomenon, growing way good.
Seedling growing process of the present invention is easy to learn, workable, and its advantage is: one is effectively can improve emergence rate, and emerge evenly, garden is mutually neat; Two is that seedling quality is good, and growth of seedling is healthy and strong, and within 1 year, seedling grafting rate can reach more than 96%; Three is use dixie cup nursery to contribute to environmental protection, and is beneficial to Chinese chestnut root growth.
Embodiment
Following embodiment and comparative example are carried out at lucky mountain, Tai'an, Shandong Province ten thousand Chinese chestnut breeding nursery; Cultivars of Chinese Chestnut is that local Chinese chestnut is grown directly from seeds kind.
Embodiment 1
(1) vernalization: on April 22nd, 2014 (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C).Seed selects the Chinese chestnut of Storage in cold bank, requires that size is basically identical, without rotten, free from insect pests.Seed is placed 2 days after taking out naturally, and then wet husky mixing with clean, ratio is Chinese chestnut: wet sand=1:2 (volume ratio).Wet husky humidity is not for drop down water, and after clenching wet sand with hand, wet sand can slowly unclamp.When by Chinese chestnut and wet husky mixing, wet sand mixes a small amount of carbendazim, and every cubic metre of sand about mixes 200g, infects to prevent fungus disease.Be stacked at outdoor warm place after Chinese chestnut is mixed with wet sand, with wet gunnysack covering, can suitably spray water to gunnysack when sand dry tack free.An about 8-10 days Chinese chestnut starts to sprout, and when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, nips off growing point 0.1-0.2cm, with growth-promoting side root.The Castanea Mollissima Seeds handled well prepares sowing.
(2) nutritive soil preparation: Nutrition Soil is sand loam and decay sheep excrement, the two ratio is loam: sheep excrement=4:1 (volume ratio).Before mixing, sand loam sieves, and screens out stone and coarse sand.Fully mix with sheep excrement after sand loam sieves, the Nutrition Soil mixed is loaded dixie cup.Dixie cup is commercially available, and degraded in 2-3 month, thickeies, specification 20cm × 16cm.Dixie cup topsoil distance paper cup rim 2cm is required after installing.
(3) sow: smooth nursery plot, pour water after carrying out furrow, soak into.The dry post-trenching of water, ditch depth 20cm, wide 25-30cm, ditch distance is 40cm.The dixie cup installing soil is neatly put in ditch, each glass of spacing 2cm.Select the similar seed of radicle length and carry out sowing in cup, kept flat by seed during sowing, or placed down by plumule, sowing depth is 0.5cm.Broadcast and tamp space around dixie cup with the soil of ditch both sides afterwards.Water permeable in dixie cup, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry, improve ground temperature and prevent moisture from evaporating.
(4) sub-seedling management: after planting about 10 days start to emerge, as the dixie cup with plastic mulching, notes when emerging scratching broken film in time, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, take straw mat or mulch film off.Pour water in ditch in time during arid.
(5) field-transplanting: transplant and generally carry out before rainy season set, as Shandong was selected in June.Forward direction nursery lot of transplanting seedlings waters permeable, starts to transplant seedlings when soil is half-dried.During this period, at needs field planting plot excavation planting pit, planting pit diameter 40cm, dark 40cm, more suitably backfill planting pit with table soil.General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.With flat crooked chisel flush end dixie cup when transplanting seedlings, directly put into planting pit, note at lifting simultaneously and do not make clods breaking in alms bowl in transit.After planting pit put into by dixie cup, righting seedling, makes dixie cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface.With gap around native landfill dixie cup surplus around planting pit, make the tree dish that diameter is 50cm.Water permeable after field planting, after table soil is slightly dry, soil will be shown with creeper harrows, in order to soil moisture conservation.
(6) manage after field planting: when soil volumetric water content lower than 20% time irrigate in time; Intertill and clean tillage, prevents weeds from blocking seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every strain applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, distance trunk 20-30cm.Winter pruning, all wipes out the side shoot in distance ground 20cm on trunk, in order to grafting in next year.
Embodiment 2
(1) seed selects the Chinese chestnut of Storage in cold bank, requires that size is basically identical, without rotten, free from insect pests.In on April 22nd, 2014 (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C of days), take out seed, naturally place 2 days.Then steep Castanea Mollissima Seeds 2 hours by 25% carbendazol wettable powder, 400 times of immersions, taking-up is dried.
(2) nutritive soil preparation: Nutrition Soil is sand loam and decay sheep excrement, the two ratio is loam: sheep excrement=4:1 (volume ratio).Before mixing, sand loam sieves, and screens out stone and coarse sand.Fully mix with sheep excrement after sand loam sieves, the Nutrition Soil mixed is loaded dixie cup.Dixie cup is commercially available, and degraded in 2-3 month, thickeies, specification 20cm × 16cm.Dixie cup topsoil distance paper cup rim 2cm is required after installing.
(3) sow: smooth nursery plot, pour water after carrying out furrow, soak into.The dry post-trenching of water, ditch depth 20cm, wide 25-30cm, ditch distance is 40cm.The dixie cup installing soil is neatly put in ditch, each glass of spacing 2cm.Carried out sowing in cup by seed after drying, kept flat by seed during sowing, sowing depth is 0.5cm.Broadcast and tamp space around dixie cup with the soil of ditch both sides afterwards.Water permeable in dixie cup, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry, improve ground temperature and prevent moisture from evaporating.
(4) sub-seedling management: after planting about 21 days start to emerge, as the dixie cup with plastic mulching, notes when emerging scratching broken film in time, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, take straw mat or mulch film off.Pour water in ditch in time during arid.
(5) field-transplanting: transplant and generally carry out before rainy season set, as Shandong was selected in June.Forward direction nursery lot of transplanting seedlings waters permeable, starts to transplant seedlings when soil is half-dried.During this period, at needs field planting plot excavation planting pit, planting pit diameter 40cm, dark 40cm, more suitably backfill planting pit with table soil.General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.With flat crooked chisel flush end dixie cup when transplanting seedlings, directly put into planting pit, note at lifting simultaneously and do not make clods breaking in alms bowl in transit.After planting pit put into by dixie cup, righting seedling, makes dixie cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface.With gap around native landfill dixie cup surplus around planting pit, make the tree dish that diameter is 50cm.Water permeable after field planting, after table soil is slightly dry, soil will be shown with creeper harrows, in order to soil moisture conservation.
(6) manage after field planting: when soil volumetric water content lower than 20% time irrigate in time; Intertill and clean tillage, prevents weeds from blocking seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every strain applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, distance trunk 20-30cm.Winter pruning, all wipes out the side shoot in distance ground 20cm on trunk, in order to grafting in next year.
Embodiment 3
(1) vernalization: on April 22nd, 2014 (with embodiment 1) (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C of days).Seed selects the Chinese chestnut of Storage in cold bank, requires that size is basically identical, without rotten, free from insect pests.Seed is placed 2 days after taking out naturally, and then wet husky mixing with clean, ratio is Chinese chestnut: wet sand=1:2 (volume ratio).Wet husky humidity is not for drop down water, and after clenching wet sand with hand, wet sand can slowly unclamp.When by Chinese chestnut and wet husky mixing, wet sand mixes a small amount of carbendazim, and every cubic metre of sand about mixes 200g, infects to prevent fungus disease.Be stacked at outdoor warm place after Chinese chestnut is mixed with wet sand, with wet gunnysack covering, can suitably spray water to gunnysack when sand dry tack free.An about 8-10 days Chinese chestnut starts to sprout, and when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, nips off growing point 0.1-0.2cm, with growth-promoting side root.The Castanea Mollissima Seeds handled well prepares sowing.
(2) nutritive soil preparation: Nutrition Soil is sand loam and decay sheep excrement, the two ratio is loam: sheep excrement=4:1 (volume ratio).Before mixing, sand loam sieves, and screens out stone and coarse sand.Fully mix with sheep excrement after sand loam sieves, the Nutrition Soil mixed is loaded black plastic cup.Black plastic cup is commercially available, specification 20cm × 16cm.Black plastic cup topsoil distance black plastic rim of a cup 2cm is required after installing.
(3) sow: smooth nursery plot, pour water after carrying out furrow, soak into.The dry post-trenching of water, ditch depth 20cm, wide 25-30cm, ditch distance is 40cm.The black plastic cup installing soil is neatly put in ditch, each glass of spacing 2cm.Select the similar seed of radicle length and carry out sowing in cup, kept flat by seed during sowing, or placed down by plumule, sowing depth is 0.5cm.Broadcast and tamp space around black plastic cup with the soil of ditch both sides afterwards.Water permeable in black plastic cup, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry, improve ground temperature and prevent moisture from evaporating.
(4) sub-seedling management: after planting about 10 days start to emerge, as the black plastic cup with plastic mulching, notes when emerging scratching broken film in time, prevents film from scalding tender shoots growing point.When emergence rate is more than 80%, take straw mat or mulch film off.Pour water in ditch in time during arid.
(5) field-transplanting: transplant and generally carry out before rainy season set, as Shandong was selected in June.Forward direction nursery lot of transplanting seedlings waters permeable, starts to transplant seedlings when soil is half-dried.During this period, at needs field planting plot excavation planting pit, planting pit diameter 40cm, dark 40cm, more suitably backfill planting pit with table soil.General 3m × the 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.With flat crooked chisel flush end black plastic cup when transplanting seedlings, directly put into planting pit, note at lifting simultaneously and do not make clods breaking in alms bowl in transit.After planting pit put into by black plastic cup, righting seedling, makes black plastic cup topsoil concordant with earth's surface.With gap around native landfill black plastic cup surplus around planting pit, make the tree dish that diameter is 50cm.Water permeable after field planting, after table soil is slightly dry, soil will be shown with creeper harrows, in order to soil moisture conservation.
(6) manage after field planting: when soil volumetric water content lower than 20% time irrigate in time; Intertill and clean tillage, prevents weeds from blocking seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every strain applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, distance trunk 20-30cm.Winter pruning, all wipes out the side shoot in distance ground 20cm on trunk, in order to grafting in next year.
Comparative example 1
Direct seedling-cultivating method:
Land for growing field crops is directly sowed, and selection of time is in April 22 (continuous 5 days, whole day mean temperature is 12 DEG C of days).Set seeding row spacing, the general 3m × 4m of mountain region seeding row spacing, level land 4m × 5m or 4m × 6m.First field is irrigated before sowing, after water is dry, excavate planting pit, planting pit diameter 20cm, dark 20cm, with the suitably backfill of table soil.Select during sowing to enrich full seed, kept flat by seed, sowing depth is 0.5cm; After planting make circular tree dish, tree dish diameter 50cm, when soil volumetric water content lower than 20% time irrigate in time; Summer, intertill and clean tillage, prevented weeds from blocking seedling.Rainy season applies quick action fertilizer, and every strain applies urea 20g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 20g, ring-type ditch spread, distance trunk 20-30cm.Winter pruning, all wipes out the side shoot in distance ground 20cm on trunk, in order to grafting in next year.
Embodiment compares with the nursery effect of comparative example, as shown in table 1:
Table 1,

Claims (10)

1. a Chinese chestnut dixie cup seedling growing process, is characterized in that, comprises the step that will be seeded in after Castanea Mollissima Seeds vernalization in the dixie cup that soil is housed;
Described vernalization: daily mean temperature, when 10-15 DEG C, carries out vernalization by after Castanea Mollissima Seeds and the wet husky mixing of the volume ratio according to 1:2; Vernalization 8-10 days;
In pregermination procedure, when radicle growth is to 0.5cm, remove growing point 0.1-0.2cm.
2. seedling growing process according to claim 1, is characterized in that, also comprises the step in ditch dixie cup being placed in nursery soil; When average height of seedling is 10-15cm, nursery completes;
Dixie cup spacing 2-5cm;
The ditch in nursery soil: ditch depth 20cm, furrow width 25-30cm.
3. seedling growing process according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, is kept flat by Castanea Mollissima Seeds or plumule is placed down during sowing, and sowing depth is 0.5cm.
4. seedling growing process according to claim 3, is characterized in that, is first put by dixie cup and sow Castanea Mollissima Seeds again in the ditch in nursery soil.
5. seedling growing process according to claim 4, is characterized in that, the soil in dixie cup is Nutrition Soil, is to be mixed according to the volume ratio of 4:1 by sand loam and decay sheep excrement.
6. seedling growing process according to claim 5, is characterized in that, mix carbendazim in vernalization wet sand used, every cubic metre of wet sand mixes 200g.
7. seedling growing process according to claim 6, is characterized in that, is put in outdoor warm place, covers, spray water when wet husky dry tack free to gunnysack with wet gunnysack after Castanea Mollissima Seeds and wet husky mixing.
8. seedling growing process according to claim 7, is characterized in that, dixie cup specification is 20cm × 16cm; Nutrition Soil top layer distance paper cup rim 2cm.
9. seedling growing process according to claim 8, is characterized in that, nursery soil is poured water, soaked into, the dry post-trenching of water; Ditch distance is 40cm.
10. seedling growing process according to claim 9, is characterized in that, dixie cup tamps space around dixie cup with the soil of ditch both sides after being placed in the ditch in nursery soil; Dixie cup be placed in water in the backward dixie cup in the ditch in nursery soil permeable, bedding mulch film or straw mat after water is dry.
CN201510086835.8A 2015-02-25 2015-02-25 Chestnut seedling cup cultivation technology Expired - Fee Related CN104604514B (en)

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CN107593218A (en) * 2017-09-11 2018-01-19 柳州市朴鲁渔耕生态种养专业合作社 A kind of Chinese chestnut seeding growing seedlings method

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