CN104541877A - Production method of organic rich selenium cowpea - Google Patents

Production method of organic rich selenium cowpea Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104541877A
CN104541877A CN201410851765.6A CN201410851765A CN104541877A CN 104541877 A CN104541877 A CN 104541877A CN 201410851765 A CN201410851765 A CN 201410851765A CN 104541877 A CN104541877 A CN 104541877A
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selenium
cowpea
rich
fertilizer
production method
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CN201410851765.6A
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Inventor
王雪玲
毕德
冯明凯
张立
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Garden Bio Tech Ltd Huifeng Anhui
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Garden Bio Tech Ltd Huifeng Anhui
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Priority to CN201410851765.6A priority Critical patent/CN104541877A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05CNITROGENOUS FERTILISERS
    • C05C9/00Fertilisers containing urea or urea compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/04Biological compost
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/90Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity for affecting the nitrification of ammonium compounds or urea in the soil
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a production method of organic rich selenium cowpea, and relates to the technical field of agriculture; the method comprises the following steps: (1) sowing and seedling raising; (2) making a rich selenium fertilizer; (3) preparing the soil and applying the rich selenium fertilizer; (4) field planting; (5) field management; and (6) harvesting. The production method of organic rich selenium cowpea achieves the purpose of normal growth of the entire growth and development period of cowpea by applying the fertilizer once without applying other chemical fertilizers, thus saving the labor cost of applying fertilizers for many times, achieving the purpose of saving the labor cost as well as producing rich selenium cowpeas, and further reducing the dosage of the selenium fertilizer, reducing the potential environment pollution by applying the selenium too much; and the method has a wide application foreground.

Description

A kind of production method of organic selenium-rich cowpea
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural technology field, more particularly, the present invention relates to a kind of production method of organic selenium-rich cowpea.
Background technology
Selenium is the trace element of needed by human; the required composition of paddy light ammonia peptide peroxidase in vivo; selenium has oxidation resistant effect; closely bound up with HUMAN HEALTH, selenium has cardioprotection, treating liver necrosis, control myopia and cataract, removing toxic substances, raising immunizing power, delays senility and strengthen the multiple pharmacological effect such as reproductive function.Se-rich farm products is human body supplement selenium element effective way, and therefore, technique of enriched selenium is that scientists study is developed and is put to the hot fields of actual production.Cowpea has another name called long beans, fresh kidney beans, belongs to leguminous plants, annual herb plant, and cowpea tool nutrient contg enriches, and has multiple health-care effect.And cowpea all has extensive plantation in China various places, gegenschein requires very not strict, and south spring, summer, autumn all can cultivate.And generally like edible, one of vegetables becoming summer and autumn.Research is the rich selenium cowpea of Development and Production also, in the original nutrition and health care value basis of cowpea, adds the nourishing function of selenium, the value of the cowpea of raising.
Relative to inorganic selenium, the Se safety of organic form is higher, has no side effect, and be also more easily absorbed by the body utilization, and the residence time is long in vivo, built vertical selenium deposit.Rich selenium cowpea production technology domestic at present mainly contains two kinds of modes, and one is foliage-spray selenite solution, but this method exists inorganic selenium residual quantity greatly, the shortcoming that security is lower.Two is plant in the area of natural selenium-rich, and this method, to the quantitative controlled difficulty of selenium content, exists region limitation, is unfavorable for large-scale standardized production.By using mineral fertilizer, inorganic selenium can be converted into organoselenium safely and effectively through sorption enhanced by plant, thus realizes the production of Se-rich farm products.
Summary of the invention
Problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of production method of organic selenium-rich cowpea.
To achieve these goals, the technical scheme that the present invention takes is: 1, a kind of production method of organic selenium-rich cowpea, is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
(1) seeding and seedling raising: first tamped by seedbed subsoil, spreads the loam that 10cm is thick, and the seed of cowpea is dug nest sowing, sub-3-4 sowed by every nest, and the about thick 4cm of lid fine earth, waters, get final product balled transplanting when seedling has a pair true leaf;
(2) selenium-enriched fertilizer is manufactured: fertilizer rich in selenium organic raw material is put into pulverizer and pulverizes, and stir, then fertilizer rich in selenium additive is added, add water while stirring, until block can be held into hand and do not drip, in material, add lime again regulates material pH value to be 6.7-7.3, the EM microbial inoculum of 0.001-0.01% part is added in material, stir, and with plastics film, material is covered, compost fermentation 7-10 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, the genus bacillus of the yeast of 0.00001-0.0001% part and 0.0001-0.005 part is added in material, stir, and with plastic film, material is covered, compost fermentation 5-7 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, obtain compost, finally by compost and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, microorganism fertilizer mixes according to the proportion of 25-50: 1-5: 0.1-0.5, obtain containing selenium fertilizer,
(3) execute rich seleno fertile: select soil deep wholely.Organic abundant, irrigation and drainage soil easily, executes selenium-enriched fertilizer as base manure, every mu of 20-30 kilogram in before field planting 7-10 days wholely;
(4) field planting: cowpea adopts duplicate rows field planting, plantation density line-spacing 50-70cm, cave is apart from 20-30cm, and the 1-2 strain of every cave, waters after field planting appropriate;
(5) field management: when plant grows to 20-40cm, when being about to take out climing, timely bay, be inserted into " people " font with bamboo pole, frame height 2-2.5m, every cave inserts one, dark 15-20cm, and inwardly slightly tilts, every two intersect, middle and upper part infall is put bamboo pole and is done crossbeam, in chevron shaped, finally draws climing added;
(6) gather: cowpea word Post flowering can be plucked for 10-15 days, when the seed of cowpea in beanpod grow up and expand, pod bar even thickness, pod are full, organize crisp real and non-whitening deliquescing, seed is Harvesting Date when not appearing and heave, the harvesting initial stage adopted once every 4-5 days, the best fruiting period adopted once every 1-2 days, if reserve seed for planting or dry beans of gathering, take again when beanpod can be waited withered and yellow.During harvesting, note the flower protecting inflorescence top, do not injure other bud, also will prevent the inflorescence pulling retention, can not adopt down together with anthocaulus.
Preferably, with line-spacing 60-70cm in described step (1), nest digs nest sowing apart from the specification of 4-50cm, dark 10cm.
Preferably, in described step (2), fertilizer rich in selenium organic raw material composition and massfraction are: the straw of 10-30% part, 10-20% part corn cob, 1-5% part wood chip, the feces of livestock and poultry of 10-15% part, 1-5% part mineral selenium, 4-8% part attapulgite.
Preferably, in described step (2), fertilizer rich in selenium additive component and massfraction are: 8-12% part urea, 0.5-1% part urease inhibitor, 0.1-1% part sodium humate, 0.1-1% part xanthohumic acid, 0.1-1% part water glass, the peat composed of rotten mosses powder of 1-5% part and the calcium carbonate of 0.5-1.5% part.
Preferably, in described step (5) the first inflorescence once side shoot grow to 3-5cm long time, timely excision, main climing sturdy to ensure, the more than main climing first inflorescence side shoot of each joint position stays pinching after 2-3 sheet leaf, promote side shoot forms the first inflorescence, when main climing grow to about 2.5 meters time cut off top, promote bottom side shoot flower_bud formation.
Preferably, in described step (5), draw climing addedly need to carry out at fine day noon or afternoon, draw and climingly will by counterclockwise carry out, and avoid cissoid to fracture as far as possible.
Beneficial effect: (1) supplementary material of the present invention mainly industrial waste and agricultural waste, belongs to waste material recycling, protects environment, saved resource; Raw material of the present invention is plant-sourced mostly, can not cause secondary pollution, be conducive to environment protection.Add attapulgite and water glass containing in selenium fertilizer simultaneously, serve the effect improving soil, slowly-releasing fertilizer efficiency;
(2) selenium-enriched fertilizer that the present invention uses adopts twice compost fermentation, the macromolecular substance in the materials such as core stalk is made to be converted into small molecules, discharge the mineral substance such as the phosphorus in compound, potassium simultaneously, also make to be converted into organoselenium containing the inorganic selenium in selenium waste material, be convenient to the absorption of later stage microbial growth and plant.Microorganism in selenium-enriched fertilizer except there is the functions such as fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing, can also regulate Soil structure, comprehensively provide various active thing and amino acid, rope of supporting one's family, various organized enzyme function improve barren soil.
(3) because mineral selenium is through soil root and the further sorption enhanced of crop, selenium element mainly exists with organoselenium forms such as selenium-halfcystines, and have no side effect, security is higher, and be also more easily absorbed by the body utilization.
(4) after adopting the inventive method, single fertilization can meet the object of whole growth and development stage cowpea normal growth, and can no longer apply other chemical fertilizer, save the labor cost expenditure that split application produces, reach the object of not only saving labour cost but also producing rich selenium cowpea, decrease the consumption of selenium fertilizer simultaneously, reduce and too much execute the potentially contaminated of selenium to environment, have broad application prospects.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
This technique divides six steps to carry out, first carry out (1) seeding and seedling raising: first tamped by seedbed subsoil, spread the loam that 10cm is thick, by the seed of cowpea with line-spacing 60cm, nest digs nest sowing apart from the specification of 10cm, dark 10cm, sub-3-4 sowed by every nest, the about thick 4cm of lid fine earth, waters, gets final product balled transplanting when seedling has a pair true leaf, carry out (2) again and manufacture selenium-enriched fertilizer: fertilizer rich in selenium organic raw material is put into pulverizer and pulverizes, and stir, then fertilizer rich in selenium additive is added, add water while stirring, until block can be held into hand and do not drip, in material, add lime again regulates material pH value to be 6.7-7.3, the EM microbial inoculum of 0.001-0.01% part is added in material, stir, and with plastics film, material is covered, compost fermentation 7 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, the genus bacillus of the yeast of 0.00001-0.0001% part and 0.0001-0.005 part is added in material, stir, and with plastic film, material is covered, compost fermentation 5 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, obtain compost, finally by compost and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, microorganism fertilizer mixes according to the proportion of 25-50: 1-5: 0.1-0.5, obtain containing selenium fertilizer, then carry out (3) and execute rich seleno fertilizer wholely: select soil deep.Organic abundant, irrigation and drainage soil easily, field planting executes selenium-enriched fertilizer as base manure in first 7 days wholely, 20 kilograms every mu; Carry out (4) field planting again: cowpea adopts duplicate rows field planting, plantation density line-spacing 50-70cm, cave is apart from 20-30cm, and the 1-2 strain of every cave, waters after field planting appropriate; Carry out (5) field management again: when plant grows to 20-40cm, when being about to take out climing, timely bay, be inserted into " people " font with bamboo pole, frame height 2-2.5m, every cave inserts one, dark 15-20cm, and inwardly slightly tilt, every two intersect, middle and upper part infall is put bamboo pole and is done crossbeam, in chevron shaped, finally draw climing added, draw climing addedly need to carry out at fine day noon or afternoon, draw climing will being undertaken by counter clockwise direction, and avoid cissoid to fracture as far as possible; Carry out (6) again to gather: cowpea word Post flowering can be plucked for 10 days, when the seed of cowpea in beanpod grow up and expand, pod bar even thickness, pod are full, organize crisp real and non-whitening deliquescing, seed is Harvesting Date when not appearing and heave, the harvesting initial stage adopted once every 4-5 days, the best fruiting period adopted once every 1-2 days, if reserve seed for planting or dry beans of gathering, take again when beanpod can be waited withered and yellow.During harvesting, note the flower protecting inflorescence top, do not injure other bud, also will prevent the inflorescence pulling retention, can not adopt down together with anthocaulus.
Embodiment 2:
Embodiment 1 is repeated by described same steps, difference is: step (1) seeding and seedling raising: by the seed of cowpea with line-spacing 65cm, nest is apart from 30cm, the specification of dark 10cm digs nest sowing, step (2) manufactures selenium-enriched fertilizer: covered by material with plastics film, compost fermentation 9 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, the genus bacillus of the yeast of 0.00001-0.0001% part and 0.0001-0.005 part is added in material, stir, and with plastic film, material is covered, compost fermentation 6 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, obtain compost, it is fertile that step (3) executes rich seleno wholely: select soil deep.Organic abundant, irrigation and drainage soil easily, field planting executes selenium-enriched fertilizer as base manure in first 9 days wholely, 25 kilograms every mu; Step (4) is gathered: cowpea word Post flowering can be plucked for 12 days.
Embodiment 3:
Embodiment 1 is repeated by described same steps, difference is: step (1) seeding and seedling raising: by the seed of cowpea with line-spacing 70cm, nest is apart from 50cm, the specification of dark 10cm digs nest sowing, step (2) manufactures selenium-enriched fertilizer: covered by material with plastics film, compost fermentation 10 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, the genus bacillus of the yeast of 0.00001-0.0001% part and 0.0001-0.005 part is added in material, stir, and with plastic film, material is covered, compost fermentation 7 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, obtain compost, step (3) base manure is implemented: execute rich seleno fertile wholely: select soil deep.Organic abundant, irrigation and drainage soil easily, field planting executes selenium-enriched fertilizer as base manure in first 10 days wholely, 30 kilograms every mu; Step (4) is gathered: cowpea word Post flowering can be plucked for 15 days.
After above art breading, detect respectively to sample, measuring result is as follows:
Test item Selenium content/mg/kg Organic selenium content/%
Embodiment 1 0.013 82
Embodiment 2 0.038 88
Embodiment 3 0.047 85
By above-mentioned 3 embodiments, from two groups of data in upper table, when use the rich selenium cowpea selenium content produced of embodiment 3 and organic selenium content the highest, be now more conducive to cultivation and the production of rich selenium cowpea.
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention; not thereby the scope of the claims of the present invention is limited; every utilize specification sheets of the present invention and embodiment content to do equivalent structure or equivalent flow process conversion; or be directly or indirectly used in other relevant technical fields, be all in like manner included in scope of patent protection of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a production method for organic selenium-rich cowpea, is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
(1) seeding and seedling raising: first tamped by seedbed subsoil, spreads the loam that 10cm is thick, and the seed of cowpea is dug nest sowing, sub-3-4 sowed by every nest, and the about thick 4cm of lid fine earth, waters, get final product balled transplanting when seedling has a pair true leaf;
(2) selenium-enriched fertilizer is manufactured: fertilizer rich in selenium organic raw material is put into pulverizer and pulverizes, and stir, then fertilizer rich in selenium additive is added, add water while stirring, until block can be held into hand and do not drip, in material, add lime again regulates material pH value to be 6.77.3, the EM microbial inoculum of 0.001-0.01% part is added in material, stir, and with plastics film, material is covered, compost fermentation 7-10 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, the genus bacillus of the yeast of 0.00001-0.0001% part and 0.0001-0.005 part is added in material, stir, and with plastic film, material is covered, compost fermentation 5-7 days, during compost fermentation, every morning and afternoon are by material turning once, obtain compost, finally by compost and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, microorganism fertilizer mixes according to the proportion of 25-50: 1-5: 0.1-0.5, obtain containing selenium fertilizer,
(3) execute rich seleno fertile: select soil deep wholely.Organic abundant, irrigation and drainage soil easily, executes selenium-enriched fertilizer as base manure, every mu of 20-30 kilogram in before field planting 7-10 days wholely;
(4) field planting: cowpea adopts duplicate rows field planting, plantation density line-spacing 50-70cm, cave is apart from 20-30cm, and the 1-2 strain of every cave, waters after field planting appropriate;
(5) field management: when plant grows to 20-40cm, when being about to take out climing, timely bay, be inserted into " people " font with bamboo pole, frame height 2-2.5m, every cave inserts one, dark 15-20cm, and inwardly slightly tilts, every two intersect, middle and upper part infall is put bamboo pole and is done crossbeam, in chevron shaped, finally draws climing added;
(6) gather: cowpea word Post flowering can be plucked for 10-15 days, when the seed of cowpea in beanpod grow up and expand, pod bar even thickness, pod are full, organize crisp real and non-whitening deliquescing, seed is Harvesting Date when not appearing and heave, the harvesting initial stage adopted once every 4-5 days, the best fruiting period adopted once every 1-2 days, if reserve seed for planting or dry beans of gathering, take again when beanpod can be waited withered and yellow.During harvesting, note the flower protecting inflorescence top, do not injure other bud, also will prevent the inflorescence pulling retention, can not adopt down together with anthocaulus.
2. according to the production method of a kind of organic selenium-rich cowpea according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: with line-spacing 60-70cm in described step (1), nest digs nest sowing apart from the specification of 4-50cm, dark 10cm.
3. according to the production method of a kind of organic selenium-rich cowpea according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step (2), fertilizer rich in selenium organic raw material composition and massfraction are: the plant straw of 10-30% part, 10-20% part corn cob, 1-5% part wood chip, the feces of livestock and poultry of 10-15% part, 1-5% part mineral selenium, 4-8% part attapulgite.
4. according to the production method of a kind of organic selenium-rich cowpea according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step (2), fertilizer rich in selenium additive component and massfraction are: 8-12% part urea, 0.5-1% part urease inhibitor, 0.1-1% part sodium humate, 0.1-1% part xanthohumic acid, 0.1-1% part water glass, the peat composed of rotten mosses powder of 1-5% part and the calcium carbonate of 0.5-1.5% part.
5. according to the production method of a kind of organic selenium-rich cowpea according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step (5) the first inflorescence once side shoot grow to 3-5cm long time, timely excision, main climing sturdy to ensure, the more than main climing first inflorescence side shoot of each joint position stays pinching after 2-3 sheet leaf, promote side shoot forms the first inflorescence, when main climing grow to about 2.5 meters time cut off top, promote bottom side shoot flower_bud formation.
6. according to the production method of a kind of organic selenium-rich cowpea according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step (5), draw climing addedly need to carry out at fine day noon or afternoon, draw and climingly will by counterclockwise carry out, and avoid cissoid to fracture as far as possible.
CN201410851765.6A 2014-12-22 2014-12-22 Production method of organic rich selenium cowpea Pending CN104541877A (en)

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Cited By (6)

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CN105601363A (en) * 2016-02-04 2016-05-25 王植 Selenium-enriched fertilizer additive, selenium-enriched fertilizer and preparation method thereof
CN105594449A (en) * 2016-03-12 2016-05-25 云南巨农农业科技有限公司 Cowpea planting method
CN106818157A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-06-13 和县德生农业发展有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of cowpea
CN109104966A (en) * 2018-10-15 2019-01-01 陈传璞 A kind of production method of organic selenium soybean
CN109548616A (en) * 2017-09-25 2019-04-02 镇江三龙生态农业发展有限公司 A kind of cowpea greenhouse cultivation method
CN115380790A (en) * 2022-08-15 2022-11-25 武汉轻工大学 Method for cultivating cowpeas rich in organic selenium

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CN106818157A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-06-13 和县德生农业发展有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of cowpea
CN109548616A (en) * 2017-09-25 2019-04-02 镇江三龙生态农业发展有限公司 A kind of cowpea greenhouse cultivation method
CN109104966A (en) * 2018-10-15 2019-01-01 陈传璞 A kind of production method of organic selenium soybean
CN109104966B (en) * 2018-10-15 2021-04-16 陈传璞 Production method of organic selenium soybean
CN115380790A (en) * 2022-08-15 2022-11-25 武汉轻工大学 Method for cultivating cowpeas rich in organic selenium

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Application publication date: 20150429