CN105557427B - The implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit - Google Patents

The implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit Download PDF

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CN105557427B
CN105557427B CN201510972684.6A CN201510972684A CN105557427B CN 105557427 B CN105557427 B CN 105557427B CN 201510972684 A CN201510972684 A CN 201510972684A CN 105557427 B CN105557427 B CN 105557427B
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fruit
weight
selenium
parts
soil
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CN105557427A (en
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何树悠
黄日明
包鸿铭
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Guangxi Green Hope Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05CNITROGENOUS FERTILISERS
    • C05C9/00Fertilisers containing urea or urea compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/20Liquid fertilisers
    • C05G5/23Solutions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit, the passion fruit kind planted is " platform agriculture No.1 ", and implantation methods include the steps that selection of land, site preparation, field planting, built, pruning, fertilizer and water management, field management and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control.The implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit of the present invention are that inorganic selenium fertilizer is sprayed on passion fruit blade face and fruit using the selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid that fermentation obtains, 63 grams of the passion fruit mean fruit weight produced, 125 grams maximum, fruit juice is in goldenrod, and fragrance is strong, acidity 2.14%, Se content can reach 12 μ g/kg, and sugariness reaches 23%Brix, and fruit juice rate is up to 34%, it is bright in colour, yield is high, pollution-free, 1 year 5 season of harvest.

Description

The implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit
Technical field
The invention belongs to the implantation methods of industrial crops more particularly to the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit.
Background technology
Passion fruit, original name:Passion fruit,【Classification system】Passionfora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg,【Not Name】Ocean pomegranate, violet passion fruit, Passifloraceae, Passiflora herbaceous species, stem has stria, hairless.Leaf papery, centre are split Piece is oval, two side sliver ovate oblongs, and valve margin has the interior tapering sawtooth of curved gland, outside top to have 1 horn shape appendicle;Interior pair The non-pleated of corolla, top full edge or be irregular tearing shape, pistac;Ovary falls ovoid, flat bar shape, column cap kidney shape.Slurry Fruit ovoid, hairless, purple when ripe;Seed is most, oval.Big Lesser Antilles is originated in, it is now wide to plant in the torrid zone and Asia heat Band area.Vegetables, feed can be eaten or be made to fruit raw.Calcium bicarbonate and sugar is added in fruit flesh many juice, can be made into the palatable drink of fragrance Material.Seed extracts oil, can edible and soapmaking, liquefaction paint etc..According to scientific forecasting, fruit contain 17 kinds of amino acid of needed by human body, Multivitamin and carotenoid just contain vitamin including very abundant natural Vitamin C in every 100 grams of fruit juice C is 34.6 milligrams, is also rich in dimension life A, B1, B2 etc., in addition also contain the substances such as abundant calcium, phosphorus, iron and a variety of amino acid and Trace element.Soluble solid accounts for 5%-16%, total acid content 3.8%-4%, and sweet tea acid is moderate.Nutritive value is very high, is original with it Material, is processed into fruit juice, fruit dew, jam, jelly, unique flavor.Pericarp is capable of using as feed and extracts pectin, and root, stem, leaf can enter Medicine, have anti-inflammatory analgetic, promoting blood circulation, enriching yin and nourishing kidney, blood fat-reducing blood pressure-decreasing, refresh oneself sober up, dispelling fatigue, toxin-expelling and face nourishing, enhancing it is immune The mystery health-care effect such as power.
Delicious sweet in view of passion fruit pulp, flower fragrance attacks people, is alternatively arranged as ornamental plant, gives very comfortable Feel.And it was found that passion fruit is also very prominent to the healthcare function of human body, skin-protecting face nursing, refreshes the mind at appetite-stimulating and indigestion-relieving, There are inhibition, therapeutic effect well to diseases such as sphagitis, enterogastritis, whelk, hemorrhoid.Therefore there are many scholars or company all A large amount of research has been carried out to the plantation of passion fruit, has retrieved some documents below in relation to passion fruit implantation methods:
Application number:201310450749.1;Applicant:Liu Xuanhua;Denomination of invention:It is a kind of to make passion fruit batch maturation again The cultural method of high yield;Abstract:The present invention provides a kind of cultural method that can make the ripe high yield again of passion fruit batch, features It is:The column that frame is oppositely arranged by two rows, cross bar, the steel wire floor on cross bar and the nylon being arranged on steel wire floor on column Net and plastic film are constituted, and column and cross bar constitute door shape frame, and cross bar is divided into upper and lower layer cross bar.Pruning is as master It is climing to grow to the when of being higher by lower layer cross bar 9-12cm from frame and pinch, when main stem branch being promoted to grow lateral bine and select and remain 5-6 items Make level-one lateral bine, second is carried out when level-one lateral bine grows to 45-55cm and is pinched, two level to level Four lateral bine all takes level-one side Climing method carries out.Fertilizer and water management is applied fertilizer using liquid manure drip irrigation type.Not only yield is high for this cultural method, but also can make hundred perfume Fruit tree body accomplishes bloom unified, ripe unification, harvesting unification substantially, is conducive to large-scale production.
Application number:201410254702.2;Applicant:Meng Liuning;Denomination of invention:The implantation methods of passion fruit;Abstract:This A kind of implantation methods of passion fruit of disclosure of the invention, include the following steps:Choose that the soil is porous is fertile, draining is good, sunlight fills Foot, the soil for being erected with greenhouse, excavate field planting ditch, watering, and organic fertilizer plants passion fruit seedling, flat roof type is set up with bamboo pole Frame periodically waters, branch-finishing and pruning.The passion fruit yield planted using the present invention is higher.
Application number:201410285178.5;Applicant:The beautiful ground of woods;Denomination of invention:The method of passion fruit plantation;Abstract:This A kind of method of passion fruit plantation of disclosure of the invention, belongs to fruit tree cultivation technical field, this method is using passion fruit and earthworm Interplant intercropping;Include:Selection of land, trench digging c, dig cave, set up passion fruit frame, plantation passion fruit sapling, earthworm raising, to Passion fruit does the step of daily nursing.The method of this passion fruit plantation can solve existing cultivation and cultural technique is insufficient asks Topic.
Application number:201410804239.4;Applicant:Guizhou platform peasants who dig gold's industry technological development Co., Ltd;Invention name Claim:A kind of passion fruit implantation methods;Abstract:The present invention relates to agriculture forestry planting technical field, especially a kind of passion fruit plantation side Method after carrying out immersion treatment to passion fruit seed, then is used bactericidal agent to carry out sterilization treatment, and will be after its vernalization As scion, graft seedling growth processing is being carried out as stock using sapling of growing directly from seeds, so that the plantation seedling raising process of passion fruit Become artificial control environmental condition, so that in continuous incubation, passion fruit generates an adaptation process to environment, And then the passion fruit seedling that graft seedling growth obtains is subjected to plant processing again, and base is handled during plant so that Ponding is less, and moisture supply is appropriate, and then improves the survival rate of passion fruit, improves the yield of passion fruit, reduces hundred perfume The planting cost of fruit, avoiding to introduce a fine variety influences caused by quality and yield of the temperature difference to passion fruit.
Application number:201510065798.2;Applicant:Wan Jiang vegetables industries Institute for Research and Technology of Anhui Province Limited Liability is public Department;Denomination of invention:A kind of passion fruit implantation methods;Abstract:The invention discloses a kind of implantation methods of passion fruit, including it is following Content:Seed selection, nursery arrangement, seed treatment, presprouting of seeds, transplanting, nursery bed management, be out of the garden, field management, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control; The implantation methods of the present invention are easy to operate, and abundance, obtained fruit is aesthetic in appearance, and nutritional ingredient is high, while reducing pair The influence of environment has higher economic value.
【Autograph】Passion fruit cultivation technique;【Author】Li Li, Zhang Li;【Print name】Rural Area of Guangdong Province practical technique;One, it transplants Passion fruit whole year can plant, but convenient with the 3-5 months, 9~November.Generally it is limited to 4~5 years in passion fruit Economical cultivation year, After harvesting in 5th year, old strain can be surgeried and be updated comprehensively.1, specification is transplanted:Passion fruit is tendril fruit tree, with line-spacing when plantation 3 meters, 3~4 meters of spacing in the rows is advisable.Spacing is transplanted in hillside fields should be slightly wide, can not be overstocked.2. method for planting:Dig wide 60 centimetres, deeply 60 Centimetre planting pit, apply the compost and soil mixed, then fruit seedling put down gently in plant hole center, then soil is returned and fills and leads up.It survives After axillary bud should be extractd.Only stay main stem terminal bud.It needs to found pole pillar in time after field planting, to guide main stem to climb restocking.Two, canopy is set up Frame passion fruit must be provided with frame during cultivating, to manage and to harvest.A font frames are common are, are set every 5~6 meters 1 A space section iron chassis is found, 1 No. 8 iron wires, both sides is drawn on its top and respectively draws 2 No. 8 iron wires, to strut the rattan to hang down It is climing, make to keep ventilation inside frame, avoids the generation of epidemic disease.Also cross, horizontal type, three line style frame of level etc. can be taken.Three, After the field planting of branch-finishing and pruning passion fruit, when main stem is climbed to frame iron wire, 2 lateral buds are stayed, divides and is grown to both sides, until will when 2 meters long Side shoot top is wiped out, to promote the lateral bud of base portion to occur.Passion fruit avoids heavy pruning, need not cut by force every year, if trimming is excessive, easily leads to Main stem is gradually withered, and whole strain is withered when serious.Summer, which must prune off, grows overstocked branch, and 20~30 centimeters are removed from the ground, To be kept for well-ventilated's winter should wipe out complicated and confused from 2 meters about 5 centimeters of by-pass all to hang down, while wiping out old on frame Climing and deadwood makes branches and tendrils maintain appropriate space, excessively will not closely be overlapped, to promote main stem or branch to grow bearing basal shoot again And fruitful branch.Four, the rational application of fertilizer mainly based on organic fertilizer, not inclined nitrogen fertilizer application, in conjunction with chemical fertilizer application N:P:K is 2:1:4, i.e., it is annual every 0.25 kilogram of ammonium sulfate, 0.125 kilogram of calcium superphosphate, 0.5 kilogram of potassium chloride are applied in strain, respectively at sprouting sprouting, fruit development, are adopted Point 3 fertilisings after fruit.Five, water management passion fruit is more drought-enduring, but still needs to irrigate when winter dryness.If soil is excessively dry, meeting Shoot growth and fruit development are influenced, causes branch to be withered when serious, fruit stops development, and shedding phenomenon occurs;Rainy season is then Notably orchard drains.Level land transplant passion fruit, should between furrow and orchard surrounding excavate gutter.Six, artificial supplementary pollination Bloom when passion fruit every morning 11 or so, artificial pollination should in the afternoon 4 when before complete, to improve setting percentage.Artificial pollination has 2 Kind method:(1) on 3 columns that pollen is uniformly smeared to gynoecium with writing brush;(2) clean cup is put into tweezers acquisition pollen bag In, add water to keep pollen soluble in water, then pollen water is sprayed onto on pistil stigma with sprayer.Seven, harvesting with processing passion fruit at The landing of meeting nature, should pick up in time after ripe, preferably land in 3 days and tidy up in fruit, and otherwise fruit is exposed to the sun and rain, and is easy corruption It is rotten.Make raw material with passion fruit, the products such as fruit juice, fruit dew, jam, jelly can be processed into.
It can see from above-mentioned document, there is presently no the relevant document reports of the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit.With The body of the quickening of modern life rhythm, the increasing of people's life stress, people is chronically at " sub-health " state.Chinese nutrition Provinces and cities of 13, China can be done with an investigation and show to be grown up per day selenium intake for 26-32 micrograms, from Chinese Soclety of Nutrition 50 microgram of bottom line of recommendation is far apart.General vegetable food selenium content is relatively low.Rich selenium fruit is i.e. containing abundant selenium The fruit product of element.Selenium is the essential trace elements of the human body.Selenium participates in a variety of selenoenzymes and Selenonic protein in synthesized human.Its Glutathione Peroxidase is catalyzed hydroperoxides in vivo or lipid peroxide is changed into water or various alcohol Class eliminates attack of the free radical to biomembrane, protects biomembrane from oxidative damage;It is de- that selenium participates in composition iodate thyroid gland amino acid Iodine enzyme.
And the passion fruit yield for being referred to as " king of fruit juice " is high, can harvest for 5 seasons within 1 year.Therefore, selenium-rich passion fruit has been produced Through imperative.
In view of the foregoing drawbacks, the present invention provides a kind of implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit, and inorganic selenium fertilizer is utilized and is fermented To selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid be sprayed on passion fruit blade face and fruit, to increase the Se content of passion fruit.
Invention content
In view of the above problems, the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit, it will Inorganic selenium fertilizer is sprayed on passion fruit blade face and fruit using the selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid that fermentation obtains, that is, utilizes in selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid Bacillus vital metabolic activity, inorganic selenium fertilizer is converted to the organic selenium compounds of biological source, in the powerful of sodium phytate Chelation under, Organic Selenium is capable of being absorbed by corps leaf surface for concertedness, and runs up among agricultural product, and selenium-rich fertilizer It also added sisal hemp waste water, cow dung, pig manure, fulvic acid, soya-bean cake, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium chloride, chitosan and humic in zymotic fluid Sour ammonium provides abundant nutritional ingredient for the growth of passion fruit.
The technical proposal of the invention is realized in this way:
(1)Select kind:Passion fruit " platform agriculture No.1 " is the F1 that maternal, yellow kind is hybridized as male parent using purple kind Into color it is purplish red for selection and breeding, adaptable, cold resistance is better than yellow kind, more sweet tea more fragrant than common passion fruit, more Greatly, artificial pollination, yield more high yield than general passion fruit are not had to.Passion fruit " platform agriculture No.1 " variety characteristic:Fruit is round, at Pericarp is in cerise when mostly ripe, and 62.8 grams of mean fruit weight is 120 grams maximum, and fruit juice is in goldenrod, and fragrance is strong, has kind of a water Fruit flavor, acidity about 2.56%, fruit juice rate is up to 33%.
(2)Selection of land:Selection has a good transport service, and is rich in organic matter, and loosing soil, soil layer is deep, and draining is good, sun-drenched Planting base of the level land as orchard.
(3)Site preparation:Under the conditions of level land, powder ridge machine powdery ridge site preparation, tilth 40-50cm are used.
(4)Field planting:Fine day digs planting pit after selecting cloudy day or rain, and specification is 15 centimetres of 15 cm x, 15 cm x;Per cave Deep 10 centimetres wide 25 centimetres of circular groove is dug around outside 20 centimetres of center, uses sufficient base manure, table soil is returned and is mixed thoroughly with fertilizer, keeps cave soil high In 10 centimetres of earth's surface, one layer of cubsoil of lid is then returned again;When field planting, nursery stock is divided by height, size and root system quality first Grade, strong sprout and weak seedling separately wait planting, then dig the soil in planting pit and smash to pieces, underlying soil is slightly compressed, and return a small amount of soil, add Water stirring is slurried, and per one plant of dibbling, just, plant is put into definite value cave by root Shu Miao, most one layer of soil that ravels of rear cover.At the beginning of definite value Phase keeps ground moistening, until Survival rate of nursery stock;If summer be colonized, sunlight than it is stronger when, it should be noted that shade moisturizing.
(5)Built:Fence type built is barricaded as using rod material, line-spacing is 2 meters, and spacing in the rows is 3 meters, takes 100-105 per acre Root rod, frame is 1.8-2 meters high, respectively draws an anti-corrosion steel wire 90 centimetres, 140 centimetres and 200 centimetres of position respectively.
(6)Pruning:After plant restoration ecosystem, 1 bud is smeared within every 5 days, promote main stem fast-growing, sturdy, and guide main stem Upper built;The raw plant main stem of First Year stays 2 major branches after reaching built steel wire, is stretched along horizontal iron wire, the raw result from major branch Branch, enables the sagging growth of fruitful branch, and leads to lead lateral bine and spirally wind on built and grow, after lateral bine shelfful, top binding of breaking; Fruitful branch covers with fence type built space, first ties full fruit close to the branch of trunk, waits for that fruit all maturations of these branches are fallen Afterwards, these branches are trimmed immediately to 2-3 and is saved;Fruitful branch, thin and weak branch, sick branch, residual branch after every batch of fruit picking are cut off in time, often A lateral bine stays 3-4 sections to carry out cutting back, promotees it and grows lateral bine again, 2 bud eyes are stayed on branches and tendrils, erase in time under frame face main stem and The lateral bud spray that base portion is sent out, at the same annual summer must prune off and grow overstocked branch, wipe out 20-30 centimeters from the ground Branch, to keep well-ventilated.
(7)Fertilizer and water management:10-15 days root systems start to grow after field planting, apply first time Liquid Fertilizer in root system surrounding, often later It was applied every 35 days once, company applies 3 times, and every plant of 5 kilograms of applying liquid fertilizer induces the growth of root system in root system surrounding every time;Before blooming and When spray Liquid Fertilizer in fruit tree blade face, totally 2 times, per minor tick 10 days;In fruit young fruit period or fruit expanding period or expand the later stage Blade face is carried out with Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid and fruit is sprayed to stationary phase, the time interval for carrying out blade face and fruit sprinkling is 7-10 days, 700-900 kilograms of Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is applied per acre;Need to spray Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid after fruit picking in time in fruit tree blade face;When sprinkling according to Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid:The weight ratio of water is 1:50 are diluted with water.
(8)Field management:Young sprout germination period, bud differentiation and the rapid expanding stage of fruit irrigate moisture in time, ensure soil Earth moisture is sufficient;Before bud Physiological Differentiation and the soil conservation of fruit growth later stage is dried, and cannot have ponding;It is increased rapidly in fruit To shallow hoe is intertilled after fruit picking 2-3 time before sagging, depth is 5-8 centimetres, and spills last layer in table soil;Flower and fruit thinning after steady fruit, increases Strong tree vigo(u)r cultivates strong tree.
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Mainly to samping off, mosaic virus, anthracnose, leaf spot, epidemic disease, base rot disease, root The prevention of the insect pests such as the diseases such as maize ear rot and small trypetid, mite class, scale insect, aphid, plant hopper, bollworm;It is fragrant using lime prevention hundred Fruitworm does harm to, and uses bactericidal agent for preventing and treating passion fruit disease.
Step(4)The base manure is made of the raw material of following weight content:The decomposed oxen of 25-30% rotted pig manures+15-20% Excrement+5-7% bone meal+9-11% solarization distiller's dried grain+6-8% rape cake+1-1.5% trace element+6-10% ammonium sulfate+3-5% calcium superphosphate+ 12-20% potassium chloride+surplus plant ash.
Step(7)The Liquid Fertilizer is that 15 kilograms of peanut press pulp water are added in every 100 kilograms of night soils(Peanut press pulp:The weight of water Amount ratio is 1:4 dilute), 2 kilograms of potassium chloride and 4 kilograms of urea are sealed by fermentation 5-10 days.
Step(7)The Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:The sisal hemp of 30-40 parts by weight is useless Water, the cow dung of 20-30 parts by weight, the pig manure of 30-35 parts by weight, the soya-bean cake of 10-20 parts by weight, 8-15 parts by weight selenous acid Sodium, the dipotassium hydrogen phosphate of 3-6 parts by weight, the bacillus of 15-20 parts by weight, the ammonium chloride of 1-3 parts by weight, 5-8 parts by weight The sodium phytate of chitosan, the ammonium humate of 5-8 parts by weight and 15-20 parts by weight;The production method of the Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is: (1)In parts by weight, cow dung, pig manure, soya-bean cake, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium chloride, chitosan and ammonium humate are uniformly mixed, are obtained To mixture;(2)In step(1)In be added in obtained mixture the sodium selenites of parts by weight, sodium phytate, bacillus and Sisal hemp waste water, control moisture are uniformly mixed in 40%-50%, are put into the fermentation vat of cement making, seal anaerobic fermentation 25 Substance in fermentation vat is all taken out filtering, gained liquid is Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid by it after fermentation.
Step(9)The fungicide is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:25% carbendazim of 100-110 parts by weight 250 times of liquid of wettable powder, 600 times of liquid of wood vinegar of 50-80 parts by weight, the turpentine oil of 10-15 parts by weight, 5-8 parts by weight The garlic oil of caryophyllus oil and 11-13 parts by weight.
The vinasse, it is remaining after coarse filtration removes solid cereal for remaining recrement after the wine brewing such as rice, wheat, sorghum Dissolved residue and fine grained.Vinasse are a kind of good fertilizer, and through chemical examination, grain fertilizer dry matter nitrogen content is 3.67%, five It is 1.92% to aoxidize two phosphorus, potassium oxide 1.10%, and contains various trace elements, and wherein silicone content is higher, 1 cube of rice fertilizer phase When in 4 cubic metres of farm manure, grain fertilizer available nutrient is high, and potential nutrients service time is long.After soil application grain fertilizer, not only increase Nutrient, while soil can also be improved, improve soil organic matter content.
The peanut press pulp is a kind of good organic fertilizer, its carbon-nitrogen ratio is small, and decomposition rate is fast after being manured into soil, Easy to produce fertilizer efficiency.The phosphorous potassium of peanut press pulp is all relatively abundant, and nutrient balance is complete, can meet the needs of fruit tree.So fruit tree applies flower Raw bran can increase production but also improve the quality of fruit.It is tested according to Guangzhou suburbs, peanut press pulp coordinates potassium chloride application, lichee sugar Increase by 0.73%, vitamin C increases by 1.4%;Orange tree peanut press pulp coordinates potassium chloride, sugar to increase by 1.14%, and vitamin C increases by 5.8%.
The sisal hemp waste water is to pass through sisal hemp leaf to squeeze out sisal hemp waste residue water, then sisal hemp waste residue water is crossed and is filtered out Go sisal hemp waste residue, and obtained waste water.Sisal hemp waste water is rich in nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, saponin(e, alkaloid and minerals Matter.Sisal hemp wastewater source is abundant, and Guangxi, which is that sisal hemp plantation is big, to be saved, and now kind is implanted with about 250,000 mu of sisal hemp, accounts for national cultivated area 55%, wherein about 200,000 mu of harvestable area presses 8 tons of per mu yield by about 200,000 mu of sisal hemps of Guangxi whole harvestable area Meter, it will the waste water that more than 140 ten thousand ton of output, waste residue.
Selenium in sodium selenite is a kind of beneficial element needed for plant growth, and selenium can stimulate the growth and development of plant, kind Root activity is sprouted and improved to son, promotes absorption and the plant metabolism of nutrition, improves photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, increases Strong plant biological antioxidation and the resistance to environment-stress improve the disease-resistant anti-adversity ability of crops, and have antagonism weight The effect of metal.
The bacillus(Bacillus), the one of Bacteriaceae belongs to bacterium, can form gemma(Endospore)Bacillus Or coccus.Bacillus(bacillus)The overwhelming majority is a thalline, only forms a gemma, and gemma is located in thalline, is Gram-positive bacteria includes DNA, RNA, the special gemma protein that may be associated with DNA and synthetic protein and generation The system of energy.Spore coat is mainly made of protein, in addition, also a small amount of carbohydrate and lipoidis, may also have A large amount of phosphorus.Outermost layer is outer wall, and main component is protein, a certain amount of glucose and lipoid.
The chitosan is natural plant nutrient growth promoter -- the raw material of foliar fertilizer, leaf made of being compounded by chitosan Leaven can give plant insecticide, disease-resistant, play the role of fertilizer, and can decompose plant and animal residues and trace meter member in soil Element enhances via plant immunity, promotes the health of plant to be converted into the nutrient of plant;Containing abundant in shrimp shell, crab shell Protein, trace element after animal eats absorption, there is good nutritive value.
The ammonium humate, appearance are crystallized black particle or cylindrical particle, and soluble easily in water, aqueous solution is in weak Alkalinity.Agriculturally, be used as humic acid fertilizer, can with become multi-functional after the element compounds such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium needed for plant High-efficiency compound fertilizer, be used as soil conditioner, plant growth stimulator and fertilizer efficiency promoting agent.
The sodium phytate, English name:Six phosphorus of phytic acid dodecasodium from rice also known as inositol Sour sodium, molecular formula:C6H6O24P6Na12, molecular weight:682.0171 No. CAS:14306-25-3, No. EINECS:238-242-6, For white hygroscopic powder shape, soluble easily in water and hydrous ethanol dissolves in the mixed liquor of hydrous ethanol and ether, is insoluble in anhydrous second Alcohol, methanol etc. are a kind of important organophosphor series additives, have unique physiological function and chemical property, while still A kind of important fully natural green additive, most significant feature are that have extremely strong chelating to act on metal ion, are had stronger Inoxidizability and color protection.
Compared with prior art, the positive effect of the present invention is:
1, the present invention provides a kind of implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit, the selenium-rich fertilizer that inorganic selenium fertilizer is obtained using fermentation Zymotic fluid is sprayed on passion fruit blade face and fruit, that is, utilizes the vital metabolic activity of the bacillus in selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid, will Inorganic selenium fertilizer is converted into the organic selenium compounds of biological source, and under the powerful chelation of sodium phytate, Organic Selenium can cooperate with Property is absorbed by corps leaf surface, and is run up among agricultural product, and also added sisal hemp waste water, ox in selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid Excrement, pig manure, soya-bean cake, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium chloride, chitosan and ammonium humate, cow dung, pig manure and soya-bean cake provide entirely for passion fruit Flour nutrition, and fertilizer efficiency is long;Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium chloride provide the basic nutrient needed for passion fruit;The soap that sisal hemp waste water contains Glycosides can play bactericidal bacteriostasis, and trace element can be complexed in sisal hemp biological enzyme;Chitosan can give plant insecticide, disease-resistant, rise To the effect of fertilizer, and plant and animal residues and minor metallic element in soil can be decomposed, to be converted into the nutrient of plant, increased Strong via plant immunity promotes the health of plant;Ammonium humate can with become more after the element compounds such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium needed for plant The high-efficiency compound fertilizer of function.This 11 kinds of substances are combined together, and are complemented each other, obtained selenium-rich fertilizer zymotic fluid, can be apparent Increase agricultural product in Se content, promote absorption and the plant metabolism of nutrition, improve photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, increase Strong plant biological antioxidation and the resistance to environment-stress, improve the disease-resistant anti-adversity ability of crops.
2, the present invention provides a kind of implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit, and selection adaptation is strong, cold resistance height, the big perfume (or spice) of fruit Sweet tea, the passion fruit kind without pollination and plant experimentally success at such as " platform agriculture No.1 ", and fertilising is adopted as inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer mixing And Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is applied, for the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control using less toxic control method, 63 grams of the passion fruit mean fruit weight of production is maximum 125 grams, fruit juice is in goldenrod, and fragrance is strong, acidity 2.14%, and Se content can reach 12 μ g/kg, and sugariness reaches 23% Brix, fruit juice rate is up to 34%, and bright in colour, yield is high, pollution-free, 1 year 5 season of harvest.And the plantation of selenium-rich passion fruit is locality The extra earning of peasant household creates theoretical and practical foundation, significant to improving local soil environment and social environment.
3, the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit of the present invention, fruit increase rapidly it is sagging before to intertilling shallow hoe 2-3 after fruit picking It is secondary, loosing soil can be made ventilative and cut-out soil capillary, be conducive to the decomposition of soil microbial activity and soil nutrient, and energy Moisture evaporation is reduced, the water holding capacity of soil is improved.
4, fungicide of the invention is using in plant source sterilization component such as turpentine oil, caryophyllus oil and garlic oil and high-efficiency low-toxicity Absorption fungicide carbendazim, pest repellant wood vinegar mix, and play synergistic function, to samping off, mosaic virus, charcoal The diseases such as subcutaneous ulcer disease, leaf spot, epidemic disease, base rot disease and root rot have good preventive and therapeutic effect.Because carbendazim has interior suction treatment And protective effect, and wood vinegar be because containing can sterilize there are many aldehydes matter, sterilize, and pest is walked quickly and kept away, along with plant source is sterilized Ingredient reduces pesticide dosage jointly, to reduce the persticide residue of fruit, ensures the health of people.
5, the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit of the present invention are advanced using powdery ridge, base manure, Liquid Fertilizer, zymotic fluid and fungicide etc. Farming, fertilizer and remove insect pest technology, be effectively improved soil property environment so that soil with organic matter content greatly increases.
Specific implementation mode
Embodiment 1
(1)Select kind:Passion fruit " platform agriculture No.1 " kind.
(2)Selection of land:Selection has a good transport service, and is rich in organic matter, and loosing soil, soil layer is deep, and draining is good, sun-drenched Planting base of the level land as orchard.
(3)Site preparation:Under the conditions of level land, powder ridge machine powdery ridge site preparation, tilth 40-50cm are used.
(4)Field planting:Fine day digs planting pit after selecting cloudy day or rain, and specification is 15 centimetres of 15 cm x, 15 cm x;Per cave Deep 10 centimetres wide 25 centimetres of circular groove is dug around outside 20 centimetres of center, uses sufficient base manure, table soil is returned and is mixed thoroughly with fertilizer, keeps cave soil high In 10 centimetres of earth's surface, one layer of cubsoil of lid is then returned again;When field planting, nursery stock is divided by height, size and root system quality first Grade, strong sprout and weak seedling separately wait planting, then dig the soil in planting pit and smash to pieces, underlying soil is slightly compressed, and return a small amount of soil, add Water stirring is slurried, and per one plant of dibbling, just, plant is put into definite value cave by root Shu Miao, most one layer of soil that ravels of rear cover.At the beginning of definite value Phase keeps ground moistening, until Survival rate of nursery stock;If summer be colonized, sunlight than it is stronger when, it should be noted that shade moisturizing.
(5)Built:Fence type built is barricaded as using rod material, line-spacing is 2 meters, and spacing in the rows is 3 meters, takes 100-105 per acre Root rod, frame is 1.8-2 meters high, respectively draws an anti-corrosion steel wire 90 centimetres, 140 centimetres and 200 centimetres of position respectively.
(6)Pruning:After plant restoration ecosystem, 1 bud is smeared within every 5 days, promote main stem fast-growing, sturdy, and guide main stem Upper built;The raw plant main stem of First Year stays 2 major branches after reaching built steel wire, is stretched along horizontal iron wire, the raw result from major branch Branch, enables the sagging growth of fruitful branch, and leads to lead lateral bine and spirally wind on built and grow, after lateral bine shelfful, top binding of breaking; Fruitful branch covers with fence type built space, first ties full fruit close to the branch of trunk, waits for that fruit all maturations of these branches are fallen Afterwards, these branches are trimmed immediately to 2-3 and is saved;Fruitful branch, thin and weak branch, sick branch, residual branch after every batch of fruit picking are cut off in time, often A lateral bine stays 3-4 sections to carry out cutting back, promotees it and grows lateral bine again, 2 bud eyes are stayed on branches and tendrils, erase in time under frame face main stem and The lateral bud spray that base portion is sent out, at the same annual summer must prune off and grow overstocked branch, wipe out 20-30 centimeters from the ground Branch, to keep well-ventilated.
(7)Fertilizer and water management:10-15 days root systems start to grow after field planting, apply first time Liquid Fertilizer in root system surrounding, often later It was applied every 35 days once, company applies 3 times, and every plant of 5 kilograms of applying liquid fertilizer induces the growth of root system in root system surrounding every time;Before blooming and When spray Liquid Fertilizer in fruit tree blade face, totally 2 times, per minor tick 10 days;In fruit young fruit period or fruit expanding period or expand the later stage Blade face is carried out with Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid and fruit is sprayed to stationary phase, the time interval for carrying out blade face and fruit sprinkling is 7-10 days, 700-900 kilograms of Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is applied per acre;Need to spray Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid after fruit picking in time in fruit tree blade face;When sprinkling according to Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid:The weight ratio of water is 1:50 are diluted with water.
(8)Field management:Young sprout germination period, bud differentiation and the rapid expanding stage of fruit irrigate moisture in time, ensure soil Earth moisture is sufficient;Before bud Physiological Differentiation and the soil conservation of fruit growth later stage is dried, and cannot have ponding;It is increased rapidly in fruit To shallow hoe is intertilled after fruit picking 2-3 time before sagging, depth is 5-8 centimetres, and spills last layer in table soil;Flower and fruit thinning after steady fruit, increases Strong tree vigo(u)r cultivates strong tree.
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Mainly to samping off, mosaic virus, anthracnose, leaf spot, epidemic disease, base rot disease, root The prevention of the insect pests such as the diseases such as maize ear rot and small trypetid, mite class, scale insect, aphid, plant hopper, bollworm;It is fragrant using lime prevention hundred Fruitworm does harm to, and uses bactericidal agent for preventing and treating passion fruit disease.
Step(4)The base manure is made of the raw material of following weight content:+ 20% decomposed cow dung+7% of 30% rotted pig manure Bone meal+11% shines+3%+12% potassium chloride of calcium superphosphate of micro-+6% ammonium sulfate of+6% rape cake of distiller's dried grain+1%+surplus vegetation Ash.
Step(7)The Liquid Fertilizer is that 15 kilograms of peanut press pulp water are added in every 100 kilograms of night soils(Peanut press pulp:The weight of water Amount ratio is 1:4 dilute), 2 kilograms of potassium chloride and 4 kilograms of urea are sealed by fermentation 5-10 days.
Step(7)The Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:The sisal hemp waste water of 30 parts by weight, 20 The cow dung of parts by weight, the pig manure of 30 parts by weight, the soya-bean cake of 10 parts by weight, the sodium selenite of 8 parts by weight, 3 parts by weight phosphoric acid hydrogen Dipotassium, the bacillus of 15 parts by weight, the ammonium chloride of 1 parts by weight, the chitosan of 5 parts by weight, the ammonium humate of 5 parts by weight and 15 The sodium phytate of parts by weight;The production method of the Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is:(1)In parts by weight, by cow dung, pig manure, soya-bean cake, phosphorus Sour hydrogen dipotassium, ammonium chloride, chitosan and ammonium humate are uniformly mixed, and obtain mixture;(2)In step(1)In obtained mixing Sodium selenite, sodium phytate, bacillus and the sisal hemp waste water of parts by weight are added in object, for control moisture in 40%-50%, mixing is equal It is even, it is put into the fermentation vat of cement making, seals anaerobic fermentation 25 days, it is after fermentation, the substance in fermentation vat is whole Filtering is taken out, gained liquid is Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid.
Step(9)The fungicide is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:25% carbendazim of 100 parts by weight is wettable The caryophyllus oil and 11 weights of 250 times of liquid of property pulvis, 600 times of liquid of wood vinegar of 50 parts by weight, the turpentine oil of 10 parts by weight, 5 parts by weight Measure the garlic oil of part.
Embodiment 2
(1)Select kind:Passion fruit " platform agriculture No.1 " kind.
(2)Selection of land:Selection has a good transport service, and is rich in organic matter, and loosing soil, soil layer is deep, and draining is good, sun-drenched Planting base of the level land as orchard.
(3)Site preparation:Under the conditions of level land, powder ridge machine powdery ridge site preparation, tilth 40-50cm are used.
(4)Field planting:Fine day digs planting pit after selecting cloudy day or rain, and specification is 15 centimetres of 15 cm x, 15 cm x;Per cave Deep 10 centimetres wide 25 centimetres of circular groove is dug around outside 20 centimetres of center, uses sufficient base manure, table soil is returned and is mixed thoroughly with fertilizer, keeps cave soil high In 10 centimetres of earth's surface, one layer of cubsoil of lid is then returned again;When field planting, nursery stock is divided by height, size and root system quality first Grade, strong sprout and weak seedling separately wait planting, then dig the soil in planting pit and smash to pieces, underlying soil is slightly compressed, and return a small amount of soil, add Water stirring is slurried, and per one plant of dibbling, just, plant is put into definite value cave by root Shu Miao, most one layer of soil that ravels of rear cover.At the beginning of definite value Phase keeps ground moistening, until Survival rate of nursery stock;If summer be colonized, sunlight than it is stronger when, it should be noted that shade moisturizing.
(5)Built:Fence type built is barricaded as using rod material, line-spacing is 2 meters, and spacing in the rows is 3 meters, takes 100-105 per acre Root rod, frame is 1.8-2 meters high, respectively draws an anti-corrosion steel wire 90 centimetres, 140 centimetres and 200 centimetres of position respectively.
(6)Pruning:After plant restoration ecosystem, 1 bud is smeared within every 5 days, promote main stem fast-growing, sturdy, and guide main stem Upper built;The raw plant main stem of First Year stays 2 major branches after reaching built steel wire, is stretched along horizontal iron wire, the raw result from major branch Branch, enables the sagging growth of fruitful branch, and leads to lead lateral bine and spirally wind on built and grow, after lateral bine shelfful, top binding of breaking; Fruitful branch covers with fence type built space, first ties full fruit close to the branch of trunk, waits for that fruit all maturations of these branches are fallen Afterwards, these branches are trimmed immediately to 2-3 and is saved;Fruitful branch, thin and weak branch, sick branch, residual branch after every batch of fruit picking are cut off in time, often A lateral bine stays 3-4 sections to carry out cutting back, promotees it and grows lateral bine again, 2 bud eyes are stayed on branches and tendrils, erase in time under frame face main stem and The lateral bud spray that base portion is sent out, at the same annual summer must prune off and grow overstocked branch, wipe out 20-30 centimeters from the ground Branch, to keep well-ventilated.
(7)Fertilizer and water management:10-15 days root systems start to grow after field planting, apply first time Liquid Fertilizer in root system surrounding, often later It was applied every 35 days once, company applies 3 times, and every plant of 5 kilograms of applying liquid fertilizer induces the growth of root system in root system surrounding every time;Before blooming and When spray Liquid Fertilizer in fruit tree blade face, totally 2 times, per minor tick 10 days;In fruit young fruit period or fruit expanding period or expand the later stage Blade face is carried out with Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid and fruit is sprayed to stationary phase, the time interval for carrying out blade face and fruit sprinkling is 7-10 days, 700-900 kilograms of Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is applied per acre;Need to spray Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid after fruit picking in time in fruit tree blade face;When sprinkling according to Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid:The weight ratio of water is 1:50 are diluted with water.
(8)Field management:Young sprout germination period, bud differentiation and the rapid expanding stage of fruit irrigate moisture in time, ensure soil Earth moisture is sufficient;Before bud Physiological Differentiation and the soil conservation of fruit growth later stage is dried, and cannot have ponding;It is increased rapidly in fruit To shallow hoe is intertilled after fruit picking 2-3 time before sagging, depth is 5-8 centimetres, and spills last layer in table soil;Flower and fruit thinning after steady fruit, increases Strong tree vigo(u)r cultivates strong tree.
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Mainly to samping off, mosaic virus, anthracnose, leaf spot, epidemic disease, base rot disease, root The prevention of the insect pests such as the diseases such as maize ear rot and small trypetid, mite class, scale insect, aphid, plant hopper, bollworm;It is fragrant using lime prevention hundred Fruitworm does harm to, and uses bactericidal agent for preventing and treating passion fruit disease.
Step(4)The base manure is made of the raw material of following weight content:+ 15% decomposed cow dung+6% of 25% rotted pig manure Bone meal+9% shines+5%+20% potassium chloride of calcium superphosphate of micro-+10% ammonium sulfate of+7% rape cake of distiller's dried grain+1.5%+surplus vegetation Ash.
Step(7)The Liquid Fertilizer is that 15 kilograms of peanut press pulp water are added in every 100 kilograms of night soils(Peanut press pulp:The weight of water Amount ratio is 1:4 dilute), 2 kilograms of potassium chloride and 4 kilograms of urea are sealed by fermentation 5-10 days.
Step(7)The Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:The sisal hemp waste water of 35 parts by weight, 25 The cow dung of parts by weight, the pig manure of 33 parts by weight, the soya-bean cake of 15 parts by weight, the sodium selenite of 13 parts by weight, 5 parts by weight phosphoric acid hydrogen Dipotassium, the bacillus of 18 parts by weight, the ammonium chloride of 2 parts by weight, the chitosan of 7 parts by weight, the ammonium humate of 7 parts by weight and 18 The sodium phytate of parts by weight;The production method of the Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is:(1)In parts by weight, by cow dung, pig manure, soya-bean cake, phosphorus Sour hydrogen dipotassium, ammonium chloride, chitosan and ammonium humate are uniformly mixed, and obtain mixture;(2)In step(1)In obtained mixing Sodium selenite, sodium phytate, bacillus and the sisal hemp waste water of parts by weight are added in object, for control moisture in 40%-50%, mixing is equal It is even, it is put into the fermentation vat of cement making, seals anaerobic fermentation 25 days, it is after fermentation, the substance in fermentation vat is whole Filtering is taken out, gained liquid is Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid.
Step(9)The fungicide is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:25% carbendazim of 105 parts by weight is wettable The caryophyllus oil and 12 weights of 250 times of liquid of property pulvis, 600 times of liquid of wood vinegar of 70 parts by weight, the turpentine oil of 13 parts by weight, 7 parts by weight Measure the garlic oil of part.
Embodiment 3
(1)Select kind:Passion fruit " platform agriculture No.1 " kind.
(2)Selection of land:Selection has a good transport service, and is rich in organic matter, and loosing soil, soil layer is deep, and draining is good, sun-drenched Planting base of the level land as orchard.
(3)Site preparation:Under the conditions of level land, powder ridge machine powdery ridge site preparation, tilth 40-50cm are used.
(4)Field planting:Fine day digs planting pit after selecting cloudy day or rain, and specification is 15 centimetres of 15 cm x, 15 cm x;Per cave Deep 10 centimetres wide 25 centimetres of circular groove is dug around outside 20 centimetres of center, uses sufficient base manure, table soil is returned and is mixed thoroughly with fertilizer, keeps cave soil high In 10 centimetres of earth's surface, one layer of cubsoil of lid is then returned again;When field planting, nursery stock is divided by height, size and root system quality first Grade, strong sprout and weak seedling separately wait planting, then dig the soil in planting pit and smash to pieces, underlying soil is slightly compressed, and return a small amount of soil, add Water stirring is slurried, and per one plant of dibbling, just, plant is put into definite value cave by root Shu Miao, most one layer of soil that ravels of rear cover.At the beginning of definite value Phase keeps ground moistening, until Survival rate of nursery stock;If summer be colonized, sunlight than it is stronger when, it should be noted that shade moisturizing.
(5)Built:Fence type built is barricaded as using rod material, line-spacing is 2 meters, and spacing in the rows is 3 meters, takes 100-105 per acre Root rod, frame is 1.8-2 meters high, respectively draws an anti-corrosion steel wire 90 centimetres, 140 centimetres and 200 centimetres of position respectively.
(6)Pruning:After plant restoration ecosystem, 1 bud is smeared within every 5 days, promote main stem fast-growing, sturdy, and guide main stem Upper built;The raw plant main stem of First Year stays 2 major branches after reaching built steel wire, is stretched along horizontal iron wire, the raw result from major branch Branch, enables the sagging growth of fruitful branch, and leads to lead lateral bine and spirally wind on built and grow, after lateral bine shelfful, top binding of breaking; Fruitful branch covers with fence type built space, first ties full fruit close to the branch of trunk, waits for that fruit all maturations of these branches are fallen Afterwards, these branches are trimmed immediately to 2-3 and is saved;Fruitful branch, thin and weak branch, sick branch, residual branch after every batch of fruit picking are cut off in time, often A lateral bine stays 3-4 sections to carry out cutting back, promotees it and grows lateral bine again, 2 bud eyes are stayed on branches and tendrils, erase in time under frame face main stem and The lateral bud spray that base portion is sent out, at the same annual summer must prune off and grow overstocked branch, wipe out 20-30 centimeters from the ground Branch, to keep well-ventilated.
(7)Fertilizer and water management:10-15 days root systems start to grow after field planting, apply first time Liquid Fertilizer in root system surrounding, often later It was applied every 35 days once, company applies 3 times, and every plant of 5 kilograms of applying liquid fertilizer induces the growth of root system in root system surrounding every time;Before blooming and When spray Liquid Fertilizer in fruit tree blade face, totally 2 times, per minor tick 10 days;In fruit young fruit period or fruit expanding period or expand the later stage Blade face is carried out with Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid and fruit is sprayed to stationary phase, the time interval for carrying out blade face and fruit sprinkling is 7-10 days, 700-900 kilograms of Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is applied per acre;Need to spray Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid after fruit picking in time in fruit tree blade face;When sprinkling according to Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid:The weight ratio of water is 1:50 are diluted with water.
(8)Field management:Young sprout germination period, bud differentiation and the rapid expanding stage of fruit irrigate moisture in time, ensure soil Earth moisture is sufficient;Before bud Physiological Differentiation and the soil conservation of fruit growth later stage is dried, and cannot have ponding;It is increased rapidly in fruit To shallow hoe is intertilled after fruit picking 2-3 time before sagging, depth is 5-8 centimetres, and spills last layer in table soil;Flower and fruit thinning after steady fruit, increases Strong tree vigo(u)r cultivates strong tree.
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:Mainly to samping off, mosaic virus, anthracnose, leaf spot, epidemic disease, base rot disease, root The prevention of the insect pests such as the diseases such as maize ear rot and small trypetid, mite class, scale insect, aphid, plant hopper, bollworm;It is fragrant using lime prevention hundred Fruitworm does harm to, and uses bactericidal agent for preventing and treating passion fruit disease.
Step(4)The base manure is made of the raw material of following weight content:+ 18% decomposed cow dung+5% of 28% rotted pig manure Bone meal+10% shines+4%+16% potassium chloride of calcium superphosphate of micro-+8% ammonium sulfate of+8% rape cake of distiller's dried grain+1.2%+surplus vegetation Ash.
Step(7)The Liquid Fertilizer is that 15 kilograms of peanut press pulp water are added in every 100 kilograms of night soils(Peanut press pulp:The weight of water Amount ratio is 1:4 dilute), 2 kilograms of potassium chloride and 4 kilograms of urea are sealed by fermentation 5-10 days.
Step(7)The Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:The sisal hemp waste water of 40 parts by weight, 30 The cow dung of parts by weight, the pig manure of 35 parts by weight, the soya-bean cake of 20 parts by weight, the sodium selenite of 15 parts by weight, 6 parts by weight phosphoric acid hydrogen Dipotassium, the bacillus of 20 parts by weight, the ammonium chloride of 3 parts by weight, the chitosan of 8 parts by weight, the ammonium humate of 8 parts by weight and 20 The sodium phytate of parts by weight;The production method of the Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is:(1)In parts by weight, by cow dung, pig manure, soya-bean cake, phosphorus Sour hydrogen dipotassium, ammonium chloride, chitosan and ammonium humate are uniformly mixed, and obtain mixture;(2)In step(1)In obtained mixing Sodium selenite, sodium phytate, bacillus and the sisal hemp waste water of parts by weight are added in object, for control moisture in 40%-50%, mixing is equal It is even, it is put into the fermentation vat of cement making, seals anaerobic fermentation 25 days, it is after fermentation, the substance in fermentation vat is whole Filtering is taken out, gained liquid is Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid.
Step(9)The fungicide is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:25% carbendazim of 110 parts by weight is wettable The caryophyllus oil and 13 weights of 250 times of liquid of property pulvis, 600 times of liquid of wood vinegar of 80 parts by weight, the turpentine oil of 15 parts by weight, 8 parts by weight Measure the garlic oil of part.
Se content detects
It is cleared up by acid, atomic fluorescence-hydride generation method determines the content of selenium in the present invention and commercially available passion fruit fruit, As a result such as following table:

Claims (5)

1. the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit, including seed selection, selection of land, site preparation, field planting, built, pruning, fertilizer and water management, field Between manage and the step of the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, it is characterised in that:In fruit young fruit period or fruit expanding period, or the later stage is expanded to steady Periodically blade face being carried out with Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid and fruit spraying, the time interval for carrying out blade face and fruit sprinkling is 7-10 days, per acre Using 700-900 kilograms of Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid;Need to spray Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid after fruit picking in time in fruit tree blade face;According to selenium-rich when sprinkling Zymotic fluid:The weight ratio of water is 1:50 are diluted with water;
The Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:The sisal hemp waste water of 30-40 parts by weight, 20-30 weight Part cow dung, the pig manure of 30-35 parts by weight, the soya-bean cake of 10-20 parts by weight, the sodium selenites of 8-15 parts by weight, 3-6 parts by weight Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, the bacillus of 15-20 parts by weight, the ammonium chloride of 1-3 parts by weight, the chitosan of 5-8 parts by weight, 5-8 weight The sodium phytate of the ammonium humate and 15-20 parts by weight of part;
The production method of the Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid is:(1)In parts by weight, by cow dung, pig manure, soya-bean cake, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, chlorine Change ammonium, chitosan and ammonium humate to be uniformly mixed, obtains mixture;(2)In step(1)In weight is added in obtained mixture Sodium selenite, sodium phytate, bacillus and the sisal hemp waste water of number, control moisture are uniformly mixed in 40%-50%, are put into cement The fermentation vat of making seals anaerobic fermentation 25 days, after fermentation, the substance in fermentation vat is all taken out filtering, institute It is Selenium-enriched fermentation liquid to obtain liquid.
2. the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:
The seed selection is:" platform agriculture No.1 " passion fruit kind;
The selection of land is:Selection has a good transport service, and is rich in organic matter, and loosing soil, soil layer is deep, and draining is good, sunny Planting base of the level land as orchard;
The site preparation is:Under the conditions of level land, powder ridge machine powdery ridge site preparation, tilth 40-50cm are used;
The field planting is:Fine day digs planting pit after selecting cloudy day or rain, and specification is 15 centimetres of 15 cm x, 15 cm x;Per cave Deep 10 centimetres wide 25 centimetres of circular groove is dug around outside 20 centimetres of center, uses sufficient base manure, and backfill table soil is mixed thoroughly with fertilizer, keeps cave native Higher than 10 centimetres of earth's surface, one layer of cubsoil of lid is then returned again;When field planting, nursery stock is carried out by height, size and root system quality first Classification, strong sprout and weak seedling separately wait planting, then dig the soil in planting pit and smash to pieces, underlying soil is slightly compressed, and return a small amount of soil, Water stirring is added to be slurried, per one plant of dibbling, just, plant is put into planting pit by root Shu Miao, most one layer of soil that ravels of rear cover;Field planting is just Phase keeps ground moistening, until Survival rate of nursery stock;If summer be colonized, sunlight than it is stronger when, it should be noted that shade moisturizing;
The built is:Fence type built is barricaded as using rod material, line-spacing is 2 meters, and spacing in the rows is 3 meters, takes 100-105 per acre Root rod, frame is 1.8-2 meters high, respectively draws an anti-corrosion steel wire 90 centimetres, 140 centimetres and 200 centimetres of position respectively;
The pruning is:After plant restoration ecosystem, 1 bud is smeared within every 5 days, promote main stem fast-growing, sturdy, and guide main stem Upper built;The raw plant main stem of First Year stays 2 major branches after reaching built steel wire, is stretched along horizontal iron wire, the raw result from major branch Branch, enables the sagging growth of fruitful branch, and leads to lead lateral bine and spirally wind on built and grow, after lateral bine shelfful, top binding of breaking; Fruitful branch covers with fence type built space, first ties full fruit close to the branch of trunk, waits for that fruit all maturations of these branches are fallen Afterwards, these branches are trimmed immediately to 2-3 and is saved;Fruitful branch, thin and weak branch, sick branch, residual branch after every batch of fruit picking are cut off in time, often A lateral bine stays 3-4 sections to carry out cutting back, promotees it and grows lateral bine again, 2 bud eyes are stayed on branches and tendrils, erase in time under frame face main stem and The lateral bud spray that base portion is sent out, at the same annual summer must prune off and grow overstocked branch, wipe out 20-30 centimeters from the ground Branch, to keep well-ventilated;
The fertilizer and water management is:10-15 days root systems start to grow after field planting, apply first time Liquid Fertilizer in root system surrounding, after It was applied every 35 days once, company applies 3 times, and every plant of 5 kilograms of applying liquid fertilizer induces the growth of root system in root system surrounding every time;Before blooming Liquid Fertilizer is sprayed in time in fruit tree blade face, totally 2 times, per minor tick 10 days;
The field management is:Young sprout germination period, bud differentiation and the rapid expanding stage of fruit irrigate moisture in time, ensure soil Earth moisture is sufficient;Before bud Physiological Differentiation and the soil conservation of fruit growth later stage is dried, and cannot have ponding;It is increased rapidly in fruit To shallow hoe is intertilled after fruit picking 2-3 time before sagging, depth is 5-8 centimetres;Flower and fruit thinning after steady fruit, enhances tree vigo(u)r, cultivates strong tree;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is:Mainly to samping off, mosaic virus, anthracnose, leaf spot, epidemic disease, base rot disease, root The disease of maize ear rot and small trypetid, mite class, scale insect, aphid, plant hopper, bollworm insect pest prevention;It is fragrant using lime prevention hundred Fruitworm does harm to, and uses bactericidal agent for preventing and treating passion fruit disease.
3. the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:The base manure is by following weight The raw material of content is made:30-35% rotted pig manure+20-25% decomposed cow dung+9-12% bone meal+5-9% shines distiller's dried grain+9-11% vegetable seed Cake+1-1.5% trace element+6-12% ammonium sulfate+3-6% calcium superphosphate+12-24% potassium chloride+surplus plant ash.
4. the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:The Liquid Fertilizer is every 100 Kilogram night soil is added 15 kilograms of peanut press pulp water, 2 kilograms of potassium chloride and 4 kilograms of urea and is sealed by fermentation 5-10 days;Wherein spend Raw bran water is according to peanut press pulp:The weight ratio of water is 1:4 dilute.
5. the implantation methods of selenium-rich passion fruit according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:The fungicide is by following heavy The raw material of amount number is made:25% carbendazol wettable powder, 250 times of liquid of 100-110 parts by weight, the wooden vinegar of 50-80 parts by weight The garlic oil of 600 times of liquid of liquid, the turpentine oil of 10-15 parts by weight, the caryophyllus oil of 5-8 parts by weight and 11-13 parts by weight.
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