CN104255374B - The semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach - Google Patents

The semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach Download PDF

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CN104255374B
CN104255374B CN201410475162.0A CN201410475162A CN104255374B CN 104255374 B CN104255374 B CN 104255374B CN 201410475162 A CN201410475162 A CN 201410475162A CN 104255374 B CN104255374 B CN 104255374B
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green house
fruit
peach
temperature
thermal insulation
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CN104255374A (en
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于菲
仇明华
张晏
陆琳
黄勇
朱斌
熊云龙
保志乔
丁洁
李秀芝
篓应生
谷永明
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KUNMING JINWOTU ECOLOGY CULTIVATION CO Ltd
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KUNMING JINWOTU ECOLOGY CULTIVATION CO Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The present invention relates to the semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach, by booth one side is set to greenhouse framework, and on framework, cover one deck fly net, cover one layer of heat preservation quilt again, the folding and unfolding of thermal insulation quilt is controlled by retractable bracket, realize under the different growing stage of peach and the changeable temperature condition of Low Latitude Plateau Area, to the control of canopy temperature, coordinate liquid manure control and use the technology such as special fruit bag simultaneously, eliminate the damage factor under natural conditions, farthest remain peach self-sow state, the agricultural chemicals used is about 20% under common planting conditions, the chemical fertilizer used is about 30% under common planting conditions, the water of irrigating is about 40% under common planting conditions, but output is more than 150% under common planting conditions, and fruit quality is better than common peach far away, price is commercially more than 5 times of common peach.

Description

The semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach
Technical field
The present invention relates to fruit growing administrative skill field, be specifically related to the semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach.
Background technology
Fruit quality is improved by facilities such as green house, drip irrigation, covering with plastic film in the cultivation management of peach, become now conventional technology, but China's various places climatic environment geographical conditions etc. are not identical, current installation agriculture technology, does not also have the complete peach cultivation method that a set of energy and Yunnan Low Latitude highlands specific climatic environment geographical conditions adapt.In addition, along with people are promoting the attention rate of food security, not using or use agriculture chemical less, has been the essential condition that fruit promotes self added value, but in existing green house, because temperature humidity is all higher, be suitable for plant growth, be also suitable for plant pest growth, how in the environment of simulated primitive ecology, promoting the quality of fruit, is a kind of trend of fruit tree industry future development.The Yun-Gui Plateau be positioned on the south 30 ° of N is exactly Low Latitude Plateau Area, based on Yunnan, comprise WESTERN GUIZHOU and South Sichuan edge zone, the three large advanced subject in World Meteorological field: megarelief, low latitudes, Tropical Ocean, all here embody a concentrated reflection of, make to define many special weather climatic phenomenons being different from other area of China here, Low Latitude Plateau Area annual temperature range is little, general at 0.3 ~ 12.7 DEG C, year samming 13 ~ 21 DEG C, temperature is moderate, show climatic type feature in spring and autumn, both without the cruel summer also without severe winter, it's like spring all the year round, but daily temperature range is large, within one day, the four seasons can be divided, summer in daytime winter at night, such weather creates Biodiversity in Yunnan, and the good green house technology of fine result of use is promoted in other provinces at present, but a lot of problem has been met with when using in Yunnan.
First be exactly that Yunnan sunray is strong, even winter, the dry season in Yunnan just, daytime, sunlight was red-hot, adopted plastic foil to be the green house of cover material, affected indoor temperature raise by solar irradiation, and peach needs the resting stage of the continuous 500-800 of the low temperature of 7.2 DEG C hour, therefore the peach in Yunnan does not experience northern green house such resting stage, and fruit tree is not well maintained, and the germination directly affecting the later stage is bloomed process.At winter-spring season, the plastic tunnel day temperature in Yunnan even can up to more than 40 DEG C, at this moment also need for fruit tree cooling, traditional cascade cooling cost is higher, if the sunshade net cooling adopting Yunnan Province conventional, covers the photosynthesis that light can affect plant, reduces the soluble solid content of Peach fruits, if adopt sprinkling irrigation cooling to increase humidity, disease increases the weight of.
Next is that the impact of Yunnan 1-3 month cold current is larger, the Yunnan 1-3 month, daytime temperature is very high, peach starts rudiment, and at this moment cold air is also more frequent, cold air can cause low temperature after arriving, frost and snow and freeze injury, fruit tree is affected greatly, at this moment green house light plastic foil can not play the effect being incubated anti-evil, and night the earth long wave radiation green house can be made to lower the temperature, in Yunnan Province, use the green house that common plastics is overcover, when strong frosty weather, temperature difference per day can reach 40 DEG C (-8 DEG C to 32 DEG C), variations in temperature violent like this can cause great injury to fruit tree.
Yunnan two packing spaces in addition, in hot and humid plastic tunnel, various damage by disease and insect incidence is all very high, when using sunshade net, although there is gravity-flow ventilation effect, temperature and humidity is reduced to ecosystem state, disease reduces, but various insect all can pierce booth, in order to prevent insect pest, add and spray insecticide, reduce the food security grade of fruit.And there is no insect pollination, need artificial pollination, considerably increase the planting cost of peach.
And, the ultraviolet of lower latitude plateau is strong, existing individual layer fruit bag can not block the strong ultraviolet in Yunnan Province completely, peach fruit epidermis still can be afforested, if and adopt double-deck paper bag, peach fruit epidermis is made to present white or light yellow although ultraviolet can be blocked, but the peach in Yunnan is due to climatic characteristic, all length has peach point, if outer bag is extractd painted, peach point will be first ripe, overdone to peach point during harvesting, easy generation decayed fruit and affect fruit quality, therefore needs to use for the special fruit bag of Yunnan peach.
Although the booth production technology of fruit tree is popularized, but booth environment and natural environment gap too large, cause soil degradation, plant premunition weak, damage by disease and insect grows in a large number, uses the defects such as agriculture chemical, fruit quality difference taste bad will in a large number, and by rejecting unfavorable factor, farthest utilize natural environment, plant the fruit tree closest to nature, produce the fruit closest to nature, will the new trend of following fruit tree industry be become.
Summary of the invention
For solving the problem, the invention provides the semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach, aim to provide a kind of in Yunnan Low Latitude highlands, build a kind of peach growing environment of simulated primitive ecology, coordinate the technology such as irrigation, overlay film, cover fruit bag, reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, promote fruit quality.
The semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach provided by the present invention comprises:
The structure of green house: the green house back side and two sides are body of wall, front steel pipe welding is connected into greenhouse framework, greenhouse framework fixes on the ground and is connected with the back side, greenhouse and two sides body of wall, body of wall covers with horticultural covering film, greenhouse framework first covers one deck 20 object fly net, cover one layer of heat preservation quilt again, the dismountable press mold bar of described fly net is fixed in greenhouse framework, described thermal insulation quilt one end is fixed on greenhouse framework top, the other end is fixed on the cross bar of retractable bracket, and described retractable bracket is independently fixedly mounted on the ground outside booth; A closable window is offered at described fly net top;
Adopt the lower irrigation rig of soil table: using pond as water supply center, a water supply center is connected with multiple irrigation rig by water pipe simultaneously, described irrigation rig is be that isosceles triangle bundlees by hollow pipe and three corncob celluloses, hollow pipe is fixed between three corncob celluloses, and hollow pipe bottom is higher than corncob cellulose bottom, under the peach root system surrounding earth's surface that green house is planted, 15-25cm inserts this irrigation rig, and every peach uses 4 irrigation rigs;
Adopt the double-deck Novel mulching film that non-woven fabrics mulch film and plastic film form: at green house soil surface, first cover layer of non-woven fabric mulch film, then cover one deck plastic film on non-woven fabrics mulch film;
Use Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag: use that outer bag outer surface is yellow waterproof ply of paper, outer bag inner surface scribbles black coating, inner bag outer surface is wax layer, inner bag inner surface is for ply of paper and outer bag upper and lower side respectively has the special fruit bag of a tearing notch seam;
Cultivation method:
(1) dormancy is fallen leaves in earlier stage: after fruit harvesting, pull down the fly net of green house, roll thermal insulation quilt and be fixed on green house frame roof; Before peach fallen leaves, spray 600 times of 75% tpn+10% Imidacloprid+10% urea, application of organic fertilizers on soil in green house, fertilizing amount is every strain peach organic fertilizer 30-50kg, coordinates general calcium 5kg/ strain, potash fertilizer 0.3kg/ strain.Fertilizer is evenly sprinkling upon green house soil surface, turns over plough with the full garden of small-size rotary tiller, orchard weed, fertilizer are ploughed under the peach Root Distribution layer that soil depth is 20-40 centimetre; Then smooth green house soil surface, utilizes the lower irrigation rig of soil table to water, 50 kilograms, every strain peach; At plastic shed soil surface coverage layer of non-woven fabric mulch film, then on non-woven fabrics mulch film, cover one deck plastic film again;
(2) fall leaves resting stage: late October-early November, carry out pruning after peach fallen leaves, clear garden and spray 5 ° of lime sulfurs, after nocturnal temperature is down to 7.2 DEG C, continuous 10 days, beginning post sunset every day is rolled up to the ventilation of green house shoulder height position thermal insulation quilt and keeps low temperature in canopy, in half an hour, thermal insulation quilt is put down after sunrise next day and keep low temperature in canopy, be so circulated to bud and sprout early stage;
(3) bud is sprouted early stage: calculate according to still its model and bud termination of diapause measures, and determines that the time is passed through in peach dormancy; 3 ° of lime sulfurs+800 times of 75% tpn+10% Imidacloprid is sprayed when the micro-dew of bud is red; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 8 kgs/acre for 19:19:19, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 7-10 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; Greenhouse framework installs fly net; In green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 5-8 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature drops to below 13 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down and keep low temperature in canopy, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top to ventilate, spray cooling when temperature reaches 25 DEG C in green house, is so circulated to flowering stage;
(4) bud sprouts the later stage to flowering stage: spend front complex shears, wipes out without leaf spray and thin and delicate branch, too much bud of erasing, keep rationally staying uniformly spur from; In green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, and nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, and concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is 13 DEG C at dusk, cotton-wadded quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, cotton-wadded quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house is more than 20 DEG C, spray cooling in canopy; So be circulated to peach full-bloom stage;
(5) full-bloom stage: the morning, 9:00 sprayed borax+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.3 urea of 0.3%, interval 3-5 days, spray 2-3 time continuously; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, humid control is at 50-70%, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature drops to below 13 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house more than 20 DEG C, humidity lower than 50% time, water spray increases humidity, cooling in canopy; Open the window at fly net top daytime, night shuts, and is so circulated to thank to spend the later stage;
(6) Xie Huahou is to young fruit period: spray 600 times of 50% zineb+10% Imidacloprid at leaf bud sprouting, leaf stretching period; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 8 kgs/acre for 19:19:19, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 7-10 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; Foliage-spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.3% urea fruit-promoting fertilizer 2-3 time; Summer pruning, removes sick branch, back branch, prosperous long shoot; Fruit thinning after second time physiological fallen fruit, fruit spur, bouquet shape fruit branch stay 1 fruit, and 1 fruit is stayed at 10-15 centimetre, middle long fruit branch interval; Spray the liquid adding 24% gamma cyhalothrin 15-20ml after 600-800 times of liquid converted into by 70% thiophanate methyl+50% tpn and mix before bagging, after fruit face liquid is dry, adopt Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag bagging immediately; Every day, how much how many baggings sprayed medicine, must spray medicine before bagging; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 18-28 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is below 17 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 16 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house is more than 30 DEG C, spray cooling in canopy, the window keeping fly net top is closed condition, is so circulated to fruit growth period;
(7) fruit growth period: summer pruning, removes sick branch, back branch, overstocked branch, upright prosperous long shoot; Spray 600 times of nitrile bacterium azoles+70% carbendazim; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 5 kgs/acre for 12:5:40, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 15-20 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 18-28 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is below 17 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 18 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top to ventilate, the window keeping fly net top is closed condition, is so circulated to the peach fruit harvesting phase;
(8) the fruit harvesting phase: ripe first 10 days of fruit tree, extract in the middle part of the outer bag of special fruit bag, after 7-10 days fruit colors, band inner bag picking fruit together;
(9) preparatory stage before dormancy: remove green house fly net immediately after fruit harvesting, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top fix, remove the covering with plastic film of soil surface, foliage-spray 3% urea+800 times of propargites, utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose " sowing standing grain U.S. " 5 kgs/acre that formula is 12: 5: 40, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 15-20 days, applies fertilizer 2 times.
Preferably, described thermal insulation quilt is three layers of non-woven cotton felt.
Preferably, wherein said (6) Xie Huahou, to young fruit period, adds after 600-800 times of liquid converted into by 70% thiophanate methyl+50% tpn sprayed in the liquid that 24% gamma cyhalothrin 15-20ml mixes, add 5 grams, washing powder before bagging.Washing powder can as spreader-sticker, make liquid can equably spraying at fruit surface.
The beneficial effect of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach of the present invention semi-open green house cultivation method is as follows:
1, scientific allocation liquid manure relation, both peach nutrition had been ensured, using water wisely again: peach cultivation method of the present invention, before the Yunnan 7-8 rainy season month, fruit is gathered completely, mulch film is removed, fly net is removed, thermal insulation quilt is rolled, peach and soil are exposed under field conditions (factors) completely, fully can accept the rainwater in rainy season, the moisture application in time had in soil at the end of utilizing rainy season just, fertilizer is dissolved with and is beneficial to Root Absorption, promote second summit of growth of peach root system, watered by the peach root system of irrigation rig under earth's surface to below 15cm simultaneously, save the irrigation quantity of 0-15cm topsoil, both ensure that peach accumulation nutriment, again save and use water.Bud is sprouted fertilising in early stage, because before peach acrial part starts growth, the root system of underground has started growth, before the florescence sprouts, has therefore utilized irrigation rig under soil table, impose urea, pour water, by Root Absorption nitrogen nutrition, and the growth of supply peach.Florescence and young fruit period fertilising can improve percentage of fertile fruit, the sugar content of fruit and fruit quality; After fruit picking, fertilising improves flower bud differentiation quality, for Second Year fruit quality lays the foundation.
2, irrigation method water-saving: the present invention adopts the lower irrigation rig of soil table, irrigation water outlet is in peach root system surrounding, and support hollow pipe with corncob cellulose, water outlet is not easy to be blocked by soil, a water supply center can supply 5-10 peach, because moisture directly flows in the soil of root system surrounding, make Root Absorption utilize the efficiency of moisture to strengthen, facts have proved higher than the water use efficiency of drip irrigation.
3, use double-deck Novel mulching film to prevent temperature inversion, and keep soil moisture: Low Latitude Plateau Area temperature is moderate, show climatic type feature in spring and autumn, both without the cruel summer also without severe winter, it's like spring all the year round; But daily temperature range is large, and within one day, can divide the four seasons, in the summer in daytime winter at night, night has stronger frost sometimes, green house inner wall, air and soil absorb a large amount of solar radiation heat intensifications daytime; Night, the heat in green house distributed to air in the mode of long wave radiation by soil etc., to form in green house temperature lower than the temperature inversion outside canopy.Earth's surface in the double-deck booth plastic mulching canopy of employing non-woven fabrics mulch film and plastic film, there is isolation heat insulation function, effectively can intercept the generation of the temperature inversion that long wave radiation causes night of soil etc. in green house, keep green house and soil temperature, simultaneously, covering with plastic film can stop soil water evaporation, keeps soil moisture, to the water-saving result highly significant of Yunnan dry season after October.
4, the athermobiosis phase of continous-stable is manufactured: although it's like spring all the year round in Yunnan, but the temperature difference in summer in daytime winter at night, the temperature making the peach in Yunnan can not obtain a continuous 500-800 hour is lower than the stable chilling process of 7.2 DEG C, there is no the complete athermobiosis phase, well can not accumulate nutriment, look so the peach in Yunnan is not so good as northern peach, peach is also not as northern peach looks large, and mouthfeel is also poor.In the present invention, cold but when also there is no that the presence of the polar current by sky, 10-11 month Yunnan cyclostrophic, ventilate to booth shoulder height position by rolling thermal insulation quilt evening, daytime thermal insulation quilt is put down the heat that isolation daylight brings, keep the low-temperature condition of 6-7 DEG C in booth, make peach obtain stable low temperature environment, complete athermobiosis process.
5, low temperature freezing-disaster is prevented: the peach in Yunnan is many to bloom in 2-3 month rudiment, the season that now Yunnan cold current is maximum just, usually that day temperature is higher, post sunset, temperature plunges, frost falls in night, defrost after sunrise, during the Frost's Descent, Daily minimum temperature appears in the half an hour after sunrise, violent cold can be bloomed in the rudiment of grievous injury peach, and therefore green house of the present invention is in the folding and unfolding by controlling thermal insulation quilt, controls temperature of shed, prevent low temperature freezing-disaster, for peach rudiment is bloomed the condition created.In the 2-5 month of peach fruit growth maturation, Yunnan temperature Change is comparatively large, and visual temperature situation of change arranges folding and unfolding thermal insulation quilt, prevents the low temperature freezing-disaster that prominent next cold current causes.
6, at ventilated printing opacity with can prevent insect from damaging while making full use of insect pollination: green house of the present invention adopts 20 object fly nets to do cover material, sprout at bud and just set up fly net early stage, ventilated printing opacity, prevent insect from climbing into booth simultaneously and gnaw young shoot, peach Post flowering, utilize the window that fly net top is offered, window can be opened daytime freely fly out by entomophilas such as honeybees and fly into, then shut in the evening, fruit growth period then not opening, pest control, birds fly into harm young fruit.
7. fruit maturity is consistent, coloring effect is good: the present invention uses Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag, get final product Water-proof sun-proof insect protected bird, can shading prevent pericarp from afforesting again, outer bag upper and lower side respectively has a tearing notch seam, outer bag mid portion is only extractd when extracing outer bag, make in the middle part of Peach fruits painted, peach nose part is then covered by outer bag, the ripe speed of the peach point that slows down, use practice display, use the peach outward appearance of this fruit bag white touched with red, maturity is consistent, and mouthfeel is sweet crisp, moisture is sufficient, best in quality.
8. protect body of wall not damage by the immersion of rainy season precipitation: because rainy season is done clearly in Yunnan, summer and autumn is rainy season, and precipitation is concentrated, and greenhouse wall is soaked from upper impouring by rainwater, the immersion of body of wall humidity; And arrived the dry dehydration cracking of Winter-Spring arid season body of wall, easily there is deformation of wall.Because the Yunnan price of labour power is more expensive, in the technical program, what cost was the highest is exactly body of wall, infringement is not soaked by rainwater in order to protect body of wall, the mode that the technical program proposes to cover horticultural covering film on body of wall protects body of wall, specific practice covers on body of wall with 16 horticultural covering films, the dismountable press mold bar in horticultural covering film one end is fixed on greenhouse framework top away from body of wall 1 meter, other three limits are with scalding Ji Tang limit, limit, wear limit with steel wire to fix, steel wire is nailed on body of wall, 2 meters, interval use nail, horticultural covering film covers the region at least 2 meters, below body of wall top.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is Low Latitude Plateau Area peach semi-open green house overall structure schematic diagram;
In figure, each label lists as follows:
1-body of wall, 2-greenhouse framework, 3-fly net, 4-thermal insulation quilt, 5-retractable bracket, 6-window, 7-water supply center, 8-water pipe, 9-irrigation rig, 10-peach, 11-non-woven fabrics mulch film, 12-plastic film, 13-horticultural covering film
Embodiment
The technological means realized to make the present invention, creation characteristic, reaching object and effect is easy to understand, below in conjunction with concrete diagram, setting forth the present invention further.
The semi-open green house cultivation method of a kind of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach provided by the present invention comprises:
The structure of green house: the green house back side and two sides are body of wall 1, front steel pipe welding is connected into greenhouse framework 2, greenhouse framework fixes on the ground and is connected with the back side, greenhouse and two sides body of wall, body of wall 1 covers with horticultural covering film 13, greenhouse framework 2 first covers one deck 20 object fly net 3, cover one layer of heat preservation again by 4, the dismountable press mold bar of described fly net 2 is fixed in greenhouse framework 2, described thermal insulation quilt 4 one end is fixed on greenhouse framework 2 top, the other end is fixed on the cross bar of retractable bracket 5, described retractable bracket 5 is independently fixedly mounted on the ground outside booth, a closable window 6 is offered at described fly net top,
Adopt the lower irrigation rig of soil table: using pond as water supply center 7, a water supply center 7 is connected with multiple irrigation rig 9 by water pipe 8 simultaneously, described irrigation rig 9 is be that isosceles triangle bundlees by hollow pipe and three corncob celluloses, hollow pipe is fixed between three corncob celluloses, and hollow pipe bottom is higher than corncob cellulose bottom, under the peach root system surrounding earth's surface that green house is planted, 15-25cm inserts this irrigation rig, and every peach uses 4 irrigation rigs;
Adopt the double-deck Novel mulching film that non-woven fabrics mulch film and plastic film form: at green house soil surface, first cover one deck 90g/m 2non-woven fabrics mulch film 11, then on non-woven fabrics mulch film, cover the plastic film 12 of one deck 0.008mm;
Use Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag: use that outer bag outer surface is yellow waterproof ply of paper, outer bag inner surface scribbles black coating, inner bag outer surface is wax layer, inner bag inner surface is for ply of paper and outer bag upper and lower side respectively has the special fruit bag of a tearing notch seam;
Cultivation method:
(1) fall leaves dormancy early stage: after fruit harvesting, pull down the fly net 3 of green house, roll thermal insulation quilt 4 and be fixed on green house framework 2 top, make peach place in greenhouse in its natural state; 600 times of 75% tpn+10% Imidacloprid+10% urea is sprayed before peach fallen leaves, application of organic fertilizers on soil in green house, fertilizing amount is every strain peach application of organic fertilizers 30-50kg, coordinate general calcium 5kg/ strain, potash fertilizer 0.3kg/ strain, fertilizer is evenly sprinkling upon green house soil surface, turns over plough with the full garden of small-size rotary tiller, orchard weed, fertilizer are ploughed under the peach Root Distribution layer that soil depth is 20-40 centimetre; Then smooth green house soil surface, utilizes the lower irrigation rig 9 of soil table to water, 50 kilograms, every strain peach; At plastic shed soil surface coverage one deck 90g/m 2non-woven fabrics mulch film 11, on non-woven fabrics mulch film, then cover the plastic film 12 of one deck 0.008mm again;
(2) fall leaves resting stage: late October-early November, peach carries out pruning after starting fallen leaves, clear garden and spray 5 ° of lime sulfurs, after nocturnal temperature is down to 7.2 DEG C, continuous 10 days, beginning post sunset every day is rolled up to green house shoulder height position thermal insulation quilt 4 and ventilates, in half an hour, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation after sunrise next day, be so circulated to bud and sprout early stage;
(3) bud is sprouted early stage: according to still the calculating of its model and bud termination of diapause measure, determine that the time is passed through in peach dormancy, 3 ° of lime sulfurs+800 times of 75% tpn+10% Imidacloprid is sprayed when the micro-dew of bud is red, utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 8 kgs/acre for 19:19:19, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 7-10 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; Greenhouse framework is installed fly net 3; In green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 5-8 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature drops to below 13 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top to ventilate, in green house, temperature reaches 25 DEG C of spray coolings, is so circulated to flowering stage;
(4) bud sprouts the later stage to flowering stage: spend front complex shears, wipes out without leaf spray and thin and delicate branch, too much bud of erasing, keep rationally staying uniformly spur from; In green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, and nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, and concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is 13 DEG C at dusk, cotton-wadded quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, cotton-wadded quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house is more than 20 DEG C, spray cooling in canopy; So be circulated to peach full-bloom stage; ;
(5) full-bloom stage: the morning, 9:00 sprayed borax+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.3 urea of 0.3%, interval 3-5 days, spray 2-3 time continuously; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, humid control is at 50-70%, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature drops to below 13 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house more than 20 DEG C, humidity lower than 50% time, water spray increases humidity, cooling in canopy; Open the window 6 at fly net 3 top daytime, night shuts, and is so circulated to thank and spends the later stage;
(6) Xie Huahou is to young fruit period: spray 600 times of 50% zineb+10% Imidacloprid at leaf bud sprouting, leaf stretching period, every 7-10 days, and continuous 2-3 time; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 8 kgs/acre for 19:19:19, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 7-10 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; Foliage-spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.3% urea fruit-promoting fertilizer 2-3 time; Summer pruning, removes sick branch, back branch, prosperous long shoot; Fruit thinning after second time physiological fallen fruit, fruit spur, bouquet shape fruit branch stay 1 fruit/branch, and 1 fruit is stayed at 10-15 centimetre, middle long fruit branch interval; Spray 70% methyl holder before bagging, add 5 grams of washing powder, after fruit face liquid is dry, adopt Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag bagging immediately, every day, how much how many baggings sprayed medicine, must spray medicine before bagging; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 18-28 DEG C, temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C at dusk, concrete grammar is: when nocturnal temperature is below 17 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 18 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house is more than 30 DEG C, spray cooling in canopy, is so circulated to fruit growth period;
Thank and spend later stage to young fruit period to be critical period of the extermination of disease and insect pest such as thrips, two spotted spider mite, leafhopper, shot hole, shothole disease, this phase needs the window of closing fly net, and before bagging, sprays a certain amount of liquid, number of ways prevention and elimination of disease and pests.
(7) fruit growth period: summer pruning, removes sick branch, back branch, overstocked branch, upright prosperous long shoot; Spray 600 times of nitrile bacterium azoles+70% carbendazim; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 5 kgs/acre for 12:5:40, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 15-20 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 18-28 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is below 17 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 18 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top to ventilate, is so circulated to the peach fruit harvesting phase;
(8) the fruit harvesting phase: ripe first 10 days of fruit tree, extract in the middle part of the outer bag of special fruit bag, after 7-10 days fruit colors, band inner bag picking fruit together; The fruit harvesting time is 7:00-10:00 in the morning;
(9) preparatory stage before dormancy: remove green house fly net 3 immediately after fruit harvesting, thermal insulation quilt 4 is rolled up to green house framework 2 top fix, remove the plastic house mulch film of soil surface, foliage-spray 3% urea+800 times of propargites, utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 5 kgs/acre for 12:5:40, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 15-20 days, applies fertilizer 2 times.
Described thermal insulation quilt is three layers of non-woven cotton felt.
The semi-open green house cultivation method of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach provided by the invention, the green house temperature of different times is controlled by folding and unfolding thermal insulation quilt, the athermobiosis phase that peach is had is continual and steady, be conducive to peach savings nutrient, ensure enough amounts of blooming and percentage of fertile fruit, and effectively prevent low temperature freezing-disaster from occurring in the budding period; By the novel two-layer mulch film using non-woven fabrics mulch film and plastic film to be combined into, efficiently solve the distinctive inversion infringement of Low Latitude Plateau Area; By irrigation rig under conservative control liquid manure and use earth's surface, ensure that the irrigation of peach nutrition supply and below 15cm root system is watered, promote the development of peach root system, make peach healthy growth; Use the fly net of top windowing, under making peach can be washed in natural wind regime and weather conditions, and obtain natural insect pollination; Use Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag, make peach fruit obtain the maturity of neat and consistent.
The semi-open green house cultivation method of the Low Latitude Plateau Area peach that the application of the invention provides, hurtful factor can be grown to peach under taking the mode of manual intervention to eliminate natural conditions, farthest remain the sunshine, rain and dew of Low Latitude Plateau Area uniqueness, Rational Application fertilizer, the usage amount of maximum minimizing agricultural chemicals, the agricultural chemicals used is about 20% under common planting conditions, particularly at fruit growth period, only need to spray an agricultural chemicals 600 times of nitrile bacterium azoles+70% carbendazim, fructescence does not need to spray medicine, and the peach of conventional open country plantation needs spraying pesticide 6-8 time at fruit growth period and fructescence, therefore the technical program can guarantee fruit safety.In addition, the chemical fertilizer that the technical program is used is about 30% under common planting conditions, the water of irrigating is about 40% under common planting conditions, but output is more than 150% under common planting conditions, climate of Yunnan is changeable, if the fruit phase at florescence runs into arid or cold in the late spring, the output of the common peach of open country plantation is 0 or is only less than 50% of the normal time, per mu yield be 0-750 kilogram not etc., and the technical program can ensure peach high and stable yield, per mu yield is more than 1500 kilograms, and fruit quality is better than common peach far away, price is commercially more than 5 times of common peach.

Claims (3)

1. the semi-open green house cultivation method of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach, is characterized in that:
The structure of green house: the green house back side and two sides are body of wall, front steel pipe welding is connected into greenhouse framework, greenhouse framework fixes on the ground and is connected with the back side, greenhouse and two sides body of wall, body of wall covers with horticultural covering film, greenhouse framework first covers one deck 20 object fly net, cover one layer of heat preservation quilt again, the dismountable press mold bar of described fly net is fixed in greenhouse framework, described thermal insulation quilt one end is fixed on greenhouse framework top, the other end is fixed on the cross bar of retractable bracket, and described retractable bracket is independently fixedly mounted on the ground outside booth; A closable window is offered at described fly net top;
Adopt the lower irrigation rig of soil table: using pond as water supply center, a water supply center is connected with multiple irrigation rig by water pipe simultaneously, described irrigation rig is be that isosceles triangle bundlees by hollow pipe and three corncob celluloses, hollow pipe is fixed between three corncob celluloses, and hollow pipe bottom is higher than corncob cellulose bottom, under the peach root system surrounding earth's surface that green house is planted, 15-25cm inserts this irrigation rig, and every peach uses 4 irrigation rigs;
Adopt the double-deck Novel mulching film that non-woven fabrics mulch film and plastic film form: at green house soil surface, first cover layer of non-woven fabric mulch film, then cover one deck plastic film on non-woven fabrics mulch film;
Use Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag: use that outer bag outer surface is yellow waterproof ply of paper, outer bag inner surface scribbles black coating, inner bag outer surface is wax layer, inner bag inner surface is for ply of paper and outer bag upper and lower side respectively has the special fruit bag of a tearing notch seam;
Culture technique:
(1) dormancy is fallen leaves in earlier stage: after fruit harvesting, pull down the fly net of green house, roll thermal insulation quilt and be fixed on green house frame roof; Before peach fallen leaves, spray 600 times of 75% tpn+10% Imidacloprid+10% urea, application of organic fertilizers on soil in green house, fertilizing amount is every strain peach organic fertilizer 30-50kg, coordinates general calcium 5kg/ strain, potash fertilizer 0.3kg/ strain.Fertilizer is evenly sprinkling upon green house soil surface, turns over plough with the full garden of small-size rotary tiller, orchard weed, fertilizer are ploughed under the peach Root Distribution layer that soil depth is 20-40 centimetre; Then smooth green house soil surface, utilizes the lower irrigation rig of soil table to water, 50 kilograms, every strain peach; At plastic shed soil surface coverage layer of non-woven fabric mulch film, then on non-woven fabrics mulch film, cover one deck plastic film again;
(2) fall leaves resting stage: late October-early November, carry out pruning after peach fallen leaves, clear garden and spray 5 ° of lime sulfurs, after nocturnal temperature is down to 7.2 DEG C, continuous 10 days, beginning post sunset every day is rolled up to the ventilation of green house shoulder height position thermal insulation quilt and keeps low temperature in canopy, in half an hour, thermal insulation quilt is put down after sunrise next day and keep low temperature in canopy, be so circulated to bud and sprout early stage;
(3) bud is sprouted early stage: calculate according to still its model and bud termination of diapause measures, and determines that the time is passed through in peach dormancy; 3 ° of lime sulfurs+800 times of 75% tpn+10% Imidacloprid is sprayed when the micro-dew of bud is red; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 8 kgs/acre for 19:19:19, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 7-10 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; Greenhouse framework installs fly net; In green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 5-8 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature drops to below 13 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down and keep low temperature in canopy, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top to ventilate, spray cooling when temperature reaches 25 DEG C in green house, is so circulated to flowering stage;
(4) bud sprouts the later stage to flowering stage: spend front complex shears, wipes out without leaf spray and thin and delicate branch, too much bud of erasing, keep rationally staying uniformly spur from; In green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, and nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, and concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is 13 DEG C at dusk, cotton-wadded quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, cotton-wadded quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house is more than 20 DEG C, spray cooling in canopy; So be circulated to peach full-bloom stage;
(5) full-bloom stage: the morning, 9:00 sprayed borax+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.3 urea of 0.3%, interval 3-5 days, spray 2-3 time continuously; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 15-20 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, humid control is at 50-70%, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature drops to below 13 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 15 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house more than 20 DEG C, humidity lower than 50% time, water spray increases humidity, cooling in canopy; Open the window at fly net top daytime, night shuts, and is so circulated to thank to spend the later stage;
(6) Xie Huahou is to young fruit period: spray 600 times of 50% zineb+10% Imidacloprid at leaf bud sprouting, leaf stretching period; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose formula " sowing standing grain U.S. " 8 kgs/acre for 19:19:19, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 7-10 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; Foliage-spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate+0.3% urea fruit-promoting fertilizer 2-3 time; Summer pruning, removes sick branch, back branch, prosperous long shoot; Fruit thinning after second time physiological fallen fruit, fruit spur, bouquet shape fruit branch stay 1 fruit, and 1 fruit is stayed at 10-15 centimetre, middle long fruit branch interval; Spray the liquid adding 24% gamma cyhalothrin 15-20ml after 600-800 times of liquid converted into by 70% thiophanate methyl+50% tpn and mix before bagging, after fruit face liquid is dry, adopt Low Latitude Plateau Area peach special fruit bag bagging immediately; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 18-28 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is below 17 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 16 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top and ventilates; When temperature in green house is more than 30 DEG C, spray cooling in canopy, the window keeping fly net top is closed condition, is so circulated to fruit growth period;
(7) fruit growth period: summer pruning, removes sick branch, back branch, overstocked branch, upright prosperous long shoot; Spray 600 times of nitrile bacterium azoles+70% carbendazim; Utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose " sowing standing grain U.S. " 5 kgs/acre that formula is 12: 5: 40, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 15-20 days, applies fertilizer 2 times; In this phase green house, the temperature on daytime controls at 18-28 DEG C, nocturnal temperature controls at 7-12 DEG C, concrete grammar is: when atmospheric temperature is below 17 DEG C at dusk, thermal insulation quilt is put down insulation, when daytime, atmospheric temperature was more than 18 DEG C, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top to ventilate, the window keeping fly net top is closed condition, is so circulated to the peach fruit harvesting phase;
(8) the fruit harvesting phase: ripe first 10 days of fruit tree, extract in the middle part of the outer bag of special fruit bag, after 7-10 days fruit colors, band inner bag picking fruit together;
(9) preparatory stage before dormancy: remove green house fly net immediately after fruit harvesting, thermal insulation quilt is rolled up to green house framework top fix, remove the covering with plastic film of soil surface, foliage-spray 3% urea+800 times of propargites, utilize the lower irrigation rig of soil table, impose " sowing standing grain U.S. " 5 kgs/acre that formula is 12: 5: 40, pour water 2 tons/mu; Interval 15-20 days, applies fertilizer 2 times.
2. the semi-open green house cultivation method of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described thermal insulation quilt is three layers of non-woven cotton felt.
3. the semi-open green house cultivation method of Low Latitude Plateau Area peach according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, wherein said (6) Xie Huahou is to young fruit period, add after 600-800 times of liquid converted into by 70% thiophanate methyl+50% tpn sprayed before bagging in the liquid that 24% gamma cyhalothrin 15-20ml mixes, add 5 grams, washing powder.
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