CN103583172B - A kind of arid arid area pattern of farming and implantation methods thereof - Google Patents

A kind of arid arid area pattern of farming and implantation methods thereof Download PDF

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CN103583172B
CN103583172B CN201310468826.6A CN201310468826A CN103583172B CN 103583172 B CN103583172 B CN 103583172B CN 201310468826 A CN201310468826 A CN 201310468826A CN 103583172 B CN103583172 B CN 103583172B
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layer
plant
plantation
cover layer
soil
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CN103583172A (en
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杨才千
吴智仁
杨小聪
朱吉鹏
姚文艺
冷元宝
高卫民
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JIANGSU JIECHENGKAI NEW MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
Southeast University
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JIANGSU JIECHENGKAI NEW MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
Southeast University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of pattern of farming and implantation methods thereof, solve a lack of water difficult problem for arid region plant growth, ensure that the plant of arid area well grows and revegetation.Wherein, pattern of farming comprise plantation hole and be positioned at plantation hole plant soil layer, described plantation hole inner surface be provided with an antiseepage film, being provided with the cover layer of a vaporization prevention in the described upper end of planting soil layer, is overburden layer in the upper end of cover layer.Present invention significantly reduces infiltration and the drain evaporation of moisture, be conducive to collecting rainwater simultaneously, conflux and be stored in plantation hole, making there is sufficient moisture for plant absorption in plant hole, thus ensure the survival rate of planting plants.The method technology is simple, with low cost, at arid area Be very effective, significant with recovery vegetation for raising arid region plant plantation survival rate.

Description

A kind of arid arid area pattern of farming and implantation methods thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of planting structure in arid arid area and implantation methods thereof, belong to arid and arid area's ecological restoration technical field.
Technical background
Desertification of land, water and soil loss and environmental deterioration have become the critical problem affecting human social, world land ccd area accounts for about 30% of the land gross area, and constantly aggravates along with the frequent activities of the constantly destroyed of environment and the mankind.China is one of country of desertification in the world and severe water and soil erosion, and current desert, Gobi desert and sandy land add up to 165.3 ten thousand square kilometres, relates to 18 provinces (district) and 471 counties, accounts for 17% of area.Desertification of land has not only greatly corroded land resources, makes valuable arable land, the further atrophy in grassland, and brings serious environmental problem, as constantly wreaked havoc the Sand-Duststorm of northern China in recent years.Desertification of land problem makes the living space of the mankind be subject to serious threat, along with the continuous propelling of national strategy to develop western regions and the increase of desertificated area infrastructure construction, to the active demand of improving the ecological environment and also more and more strong to the technical need of Novel planting and revegetation.
China is western is in arid and semi-arid lands with " three Norths " (northwest, northeast and North China) most area, and precipitation is few, evaporation discharge is large, and the survival rate of planting is low, revegetation difficulty is large.The particularly area such as Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the upper reaches of the Yellow River, due to drought, vegetation cover degree and plantation survival rate low, not only cause a large amount of dust storm, form sandstorm weather, also create serious water and soil loss.
Wherein, feldspathic sandstone is the distinctive a kind of topography and geomorphology in loess plateau, is called as " world's water and soil loss " and " environment cancer ", to nature, ecological, environment very harmful.Be distributed widely in the Huanghe valley, wherein bordering on the region centered by district by Jin, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia, is the core of the chip area of sediment yield from base rock that loess plateau is concentrated, and is an important component part of Sandy Areas, the Huanghe valley.Be characterized in anhydrous hard as hard rock, chance water is then soft as mud, meets wind then weathering and erosion.Due to this district's breaking topography, drought, rainfall is few, and water retention property is poor, and plant survival rate is low, and vegetation is rare; And heavy rain is concentrated, and much dusts storm, water and soil loss is very serious, and ecotope is particularly fragile.Stands in Arsenic Sandstone Area area only accounts for Huanghe valley area 2% and has a surplus, but every year to the thick silt about 200,000,000 tons of the Yellow River input, wherein, causes the thick silt of downstream siltation to reach about 100,000,000 tons, account for 25% of the every annual siltation volume of the Yellow River downstream channel.
At present, the primary abatement method of desertification and water and soil loss is biological method.But these areas usually desertification of land are serious, and water retention property is poor, and belongs to arid and semi-arid lands, and water consumption is large but planting survival rate is low, revegetation difficulty is large.Thus, in the urgent need to developing a kind of Novel planting method for desertification and areas with soil-erosion problems.Chinese patent (102308688A) discloses method and the planting technology of a kind of desert planting structure and improving desert soil earth, the plantation soil layer that its pattern of farming comprises desert soil layer, is positioned at the gas permeability impervious barrier on desert soil layer and is positioned on gas permeability impervious barrier.Wherein, impervious barrier is made up of one deck hydrophobic particle (Chinese patent, application number 200910203463.7), has good antiseepage, gas permeability.Owing to not arranging cover layer above plantation hole, thus evaporation discharge is large, water and soil conservation difference and rainwater-collecting and memory property poor, difficulty of construction is large in addition.The present invention is by the feature for arid and semi-arid lands, and bond material technology, develops a kind of Novel planting technology, significantly promotes survival rate and the revegetation speed of planting.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem: the novel plant planting technology that the object of the present invention is to provide the vast arid and semi-arid area of a kind of applicable China.Emphasis solves: 1) the water conservation problem of sandy soil, and sandy soil seepage flow is large under normal circumstances, is difficult to store moisture; 2) reduce evaporation discharge, the little precipitation of arid and semi-arid area, but evaporation discharge is large, cause the plantation survival rate of plant low, revegetation difficulty is large.Employing is arranged the technological means such as antiseepage film and cover layer by the present invention, solves serious leakage and the evaporation problems of arid and semi-arid area sandy soil, improves plantation survival rate and the revegetation speed in these areas.
Technical scheme:
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of pattern of farming, what comprise plantation hole and be positioned at plantation hole plants soil layer, it is characterized in that: in described plantation hole, inner surface is provided with an antiseepage film, and planting described the cover layer that soil layer upper end is provided with a vaporization prevention, is overburden layer in the upper end of cover layer.
Described antiseepage film is one or more combinations in epoxy resin, polyurethane resin and silicones; Described cover layer is one or more combinations in epoxy resin, polyurethane resin and silicones.
The shape of described cover layer is arc, and the height of upper cover layer periphery is higher than middle height.
The thickness of described cover layer is 0.1mm ~ 10mm, and the thickness of overburden layer is 1.0 ~ 10cm, and the thickness of permeable membrane is 0.1mm ~ 10mm.
At described overburden layer and plant the aqueduct being provided through described cover layer between soil layer; Plant in soil layer described, be provided through the overflow pipe of described antiseepage film along the plantation upper end of side, hole and bottom, wherein the quantity of bottom overflow pipe and caliber will be less than and be less than the quantity and caliber of planting and cheating the overflow pipe that side is arranged.
Based on an implantation methods for above-mentioned pattern of farming, it is characterized in that, step is as follows:
Step one, excavation plantation hole;
Step 2, the pre-buried overflow pipe in side and bottom in plantation hole, wherein the bottom quantity of overflow pipe and caliber will be less than and be less than the quantity and caliber of planting and cheating the overflow pipe that side is arranged; Then, in plantation hole, inner surface spraying concentration is the resin solution of 3 ~ 15%, and under natural curing condition, 2 ~ 10 minutes form a layer thickness is the antiseepage film of 0.1mm ~ 10mm;
Step 3, the pre-buried aqueduct of upper surface of cheating in plantation, plant the upper surface of soil layer lower than surrounding ground; Then, be the resin solution of 3 ~ 15% in the surface spraying concentration of planting soil layer, under natural curing condition, 2 ~ 10 minutes form a layer thickness is the cover layer of 0.1mm ~ 10mm;
Step 5, be the overburden layer of 1.0 ~ 10cm at the upper end cladding thickness of cover layer.
Described resin solution is one or more combinations in epoxy resin, polyurethane resin and silicones.
Beneficial effect:
1) by arranging antiseepage film in the bottom and side of planting hole, greatly can reduce the Water deep leaching of arid and semi-arid area sandy land, play good preserve moisture and fertility effect, impervious barrier has certain voidage and flexibility in addition, be not easy to occur breakage, plant root growth half a year also can penetrate impervious barrier continued growth after stablizing, and has good facilitation to the growth of plant;
2) what plantation was cheated prepares one deck cover layer above and covers one deck sandy soil, significantly reduce the moisture evaporation of arid and semi-arid area, can be the root environment that plant growth provides moistening for a long time, go up cover layer in addition and have the effect of collecting rainwater, the rainwater of collection is cheated by aqueduct water conservancy diversion to plantation and stores;
3) due to the existence of antiseepage film and cover layer, be beneficial to the insulation in plantation hole, can be China's plant growth that is western and northern cold district and good environment is provided;
4) construct convenient, efficiency is high, usually the method for spraying can be adopted to prepare antiseepage film and upper cover layer, as spray concentration be 3 ~ 15% hydrophilic polyurethane resin can form antiseepage film and cover layer fast in 2 ~ 15 minutes, and the voidage of rete can be adjusted by the concentration of resin and fountain height;
5) plant survival rate is high, cost is low, by anti-blend vaporization prevention process after significantly reduce the loss of moisture, improve collection and the memory function of rainwater simultaneously, plant is made to have high survival rate and good growth performance, in addition adopt the technology of hydrophilic polyurethane resin solution spraying construction significantly to reduce costs, there is wide popularizing application prospect.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of pattern of farming of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of impervious barrier of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of aqueduct of the present invention and overflow pipe.
Wherein: 1 soil or husky; 2 impervious barriers; 3 aqueducts; 4 cover layers; 5 plants; 6 overflow pipes; 7 native sand grains; 8 indurations and space; 9 pipes; 10 filter screens.
Embodiment:
With reference to following embodiment, can better understand the present invention, described embodiment and result thereof only for illustration of the present invention, and should can not limit the present invention described in detail in claims yet.
The technological core of pattern of farming of the present invention and implantation methods is antiseep and vaporization prevention, simultaneously again can quick collection and storage rainwater.
1) antiseepage
The common trait of arid and semi-arid lands is, desertification of land is serious, and the leakage of moisture is large, is difficult to store moisture.In order to prevent rainwater and water the seepage of pouring water, spray one deck flexible barrier membranes in bottom, dug plantation hole and side, the thickness of antiseepage film can be controlled between 0.1mm ~ 10mm, specifically determines according to the situation at scene.Usually, can form one deck flexible barrier membranes fast in the bottom in plantation hole and the spraying of side resin solution, wherein resin can select one or more combinations in epoxy resin, polyurethane resin and silicones etc.As, one deck antiseepage film can be sprayed with the polyurethane resin solution that concentration is 3 ~ 15%, effectively can stop the Loss by leaching of moisture.Antiseepage film is made up of native sand particle and polyurethane resin induration and space, and see Fig. 2, antiseepage film needs to have certain porosity, when plant growth to a certain extent after its root system can through lower antiseepage film to underground and surrounding growth.Antiseepage film has good flexibility, to prevent from destroying antiseepage film due to various extraneous factor in plantation and growing process, thus reduces the antiseep characteristic of antiseepage film.
2) vaporization prevention and rainwater-collecting
Another feature of arid and semi-arid area is that evaporation discharge is large, is the key factor affecting plant survival rate and growth performance.The present invention adopts and sprays the flexible cover layer of one deck at plantation hole upper surface, and the thickness of cover layer can control between 0.1 ~ 10mm according to field condition.Usually need above cover layer to cover one deck sandy soil to protect upper cover layer; thickness is generally at more than 1.0cm; the object covering sandy soil is protection cover layer in order to avoid damage and degradation and decomposition in the presence of a harsh environment, can also improve vaporization prevention effect further.Due to the existence of upper cover layer, greatly reduce the evaporation of moisture, ensure that the planting survival rate in arid and semi-arid area.Usually, after the top spraying in plantation hole, cover layer in one deck flexibility can be formed fast with resin solution, wherein resin can use one or more combinations in epoxy resin, polyurethane resin and silicones etc., upper cover layer does camber, is beneficial to collect more rainy water and rainwater diversion is cheated to plantation.As, can spray on top, plantation hole the polyurethane resin solution that one deck concentration is 3 ~ 15%, after rapid curing, form upper cover layer.
Upper cover layer is preferably made arc, can collect the more rainwater with temporary reservoir time rainy, so that rainwater is stored in plantation hole by aqueduct.When rainwater-collecting amount is large, by the overflow pipe arranged in plantation side, hole and bottom, the rainwater of excess is allowed to be discharged plantation hole by overflow pipe.
Rainwater-collecting aqueduct is identical with the structure of overflow pipe, and the structure of aqueduct is see Fig. 3, and two pipe 9 ends are provided with filter screen 10, and aqueduct and overflow pipe play ventilation effect simultaneously.Filter screen plays two aspects, and one is prevent pipe by oarse-grained native sand plug plug, and two is the evaporation discharge reducing upper cover layer further.
Rainwater-collecting aqueduct is arranged on the near middle of cover layer usually, major function has two aspects, collect rainwater and the plantation of water conservancy diversion hole on the one hand, the availability be convenient to moisturizing when planting in hole and lacking moisture and moisturizing efficiency and water are provided on the other hand, for the plant in plantation hole provides suitable growing environment.
Overflow pipe is arranged on antiseepage film top, side and bottom position usually, and its major function is discharged outside planting body when rainwater is excessive by excessive moisture; Wherein, the quantity of bottom overflow pipe and caliber will be less than and be less than the quantity and caliber of planting and cheating the overflow pipe that side is arranged.The rational height outline of bottom overflow pipe lower than the root of plant, but is higher than the floor height in plantation hole, and its effect avoids plant root to be immersed in the undergrowth causing plant in water for a long time, and the least possible water is derived plantation cheat.
Meanwhile, rainwater-collecting aqueduct and and overflow pipe also to have held concurrently the effect of ventilating, make carry out flowing and the exchange of gas in plantation hole; Wherein, when plant hole in lack of water and nutrient time, can also by aqueduct to plantation hole in carry out high-efficiency artificial moisturizing and take a tonic or nourishing food to build up one's health point, raising plant growth performance.
Pattern of farming construction of the present invention and implantation methods comprise following step:
(1) plantation hole is dug according to planted plant characteristic, the size in plantation hole is determined according to plant characteristic, guarantee that the root growth of plant has enough spaces, can absorb sufficient moisture and nutrient, the volume of planting hole under normal circumstances can be used for the space of more than plant root growth half a year;
(2) impervious barrier is prepared in the bottom that plantation is cheated and periphery, usually after spraying is carried out in the bottom that plantation is cheated and side, one deck flexible barrier membranes can be formed with resin solution fast, wherein resin can use one or more combinations in epoxy resin, polyurethane resin and silicones etc., and carries out maintenance under field conditions (factors) and generate one deck flexible barrier membranes; As, bottom and the side in plantation hole can be sprayed on the hydrophilic polyurethane resin that concentration is 3 ~ 15%, within 2 ~ 15 minutes under natural curing condition, one deck ventilation anti-seepage film can be formed;
(3) the appropriate soil of configuration or sand in plantation hole, sandy soil upper surface outline in plantation hole is lower than surrounding ground, to cover one deck soil more in the above after preparing upper caldding layer, then planting cheated in plantation and watered appropriate water, appropriate fertilizer, fibrous material can be added as required or/and water-loss reducer;
(4) respectively overflow pipe and rainwater-collecting aqueduct are set in the side that plantation is cheated and top, then at top spray one deck polyurethane resin solution, the height that the shape of upper cover layer does camber and upper cover layer periphery is higher than middle height, is beneficial to collect more rainy water and in rainwater diversion is cheated to plantation;
(5) at surface coverage one deck sandy soil of upper cover layer, the thickness of sandy soil is determined according to the climate characteristic of locality; Thickness for the large and arid regional coverage film of dust storm wants large, and usual thickness is greater than 3cm, and for dust storm, little and the more moistening or tectal thickness in semiarid zone can be suitable less, and usual thickness is greater than 1cm.
Specific embodiment 1:
(1) plantation of feldspathic sandstone weathering soil layer
For simulating the environment of Stands in Arsenic Sandstone Area, making 1.2m × 1.2m × 1.0m cultivation box by oneself with wooden case, and filling weathering feldspathic sandstone sand.In sandbox, excavate dark 70cm, upper surface diameter is the plantation hole of 85cm.Evenly installing 4 diameters at plantation hole half depth is the overflow pipe of 1.0cm, and installing 1 diameter bottom (exceeding plantation hole bottom surface 10cm) is the overflow pipe of 0.6cm, and the length of overflow pipe is 10cm, and the two-port of overflow pipe fills filter screen.
Feldspathic sandstone is from Jungar Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and feldspathic sandstone soil sample is verrucano waste, and maximum particle diameter is 10mm, gravel grain band corner angle, and proportion is 2.65 g/cm3, and the feldspathic sandstone soil sample domain size distribution of 70% is between 0.05 ~ 2.0mm.
Plantation is cheated bottom surface and side antiseepage film and upper cover layer and is adopted hydrophilic polyurethane resin (W-OH) solution in-situ spraying rapid curing to form, and hydrophilic polyurethane resin used is light yellow transparent liquid, viscosity is 350mPa.s (20 DEG C), proportion is 1.08 (20/4 DEG C).
Hydrophilic polyurethane resin (W-OH) solution is adopted to carry out the spraying of bottom and side impervious barrier, the concentration of W-OH solution is 4.5%, spray in the bottom that plantation is cheated and side with biliquid pump, the spraying time that each plantation is cheated generally can spray construction at about 0.5 minute complete.Then, carry out maintenance under field conditions (factors), be cemented in 5.0 minutes can complete from being sprayed onto maintenance.
Training a layer thickness in the bottom in plantation hole is the feldspathic sandstone weathering soil layer that 20cm is thick, then evenly plants the sea-buckthorn that 3 plant heights are 10cm above and landfill feldspathic sandstone saprolite; The water that pouring is appropriate in plantation hole, keeps feldspathic sandstone soil's water content in plantation hole to be 30%.Soil layer 3.0cm lower than the height on surrounding ground in plantation hole, install 4 rainwater-collecting aqueducts at the upper surface in plantation hole near middle, the diameter of mozzle is 1.0cm, and length is 10cm.Finally, after the upper surface in plantation hole is done camber, spray concentration is the W-OH solution of 5.0%, and plantation hole upper surface was filled and led up with feldspathic sandstone saprolite after 5.0 minutes by maintenance.
Comparative example 1:
Cultivation box and feldspathic sandstone sand used identical with embodiment 1, the plant of plantation is also almost identical, unlike comparative example 1 not to plantation hole bottom surface and side spray hydrophilic polyurethane resin impervious barrier and upper caldding layer.
Specific embodiment 2:
For the desert Environment of simulating drought, make 1.5m × 1.5m × 1.0m sandbox by oneself with wooden case, and be full of river sand.In sandbox, excavate dark 70cm, upper surface diameter is the plantation hole of 85cm.Installing 4 diameters at the allow uniform of the plantation hole half degree of depth is the overflow pipe of 1.0cm, and installing 1 diameter bottom, plantation hole (exceeding plantation hole bottom surface 10cm) is the overflow pipe of 0.6cm, and the length of overflow pipe is 10cm, and the two-port of overflow pipe fills filter screen.
Adopt the hydrophilic polyurethane resin identical with specific embodiment 1 to carry out plantation to cheat bottom and side and spray also rapid curing and form antiseepage film, the concentration of W-OH solution is 4.0%, spray in the bottom that plantation is cheated and side with biliquid pump, it is complete that the spraying time that each plantation is cheated generally can spray construction within 0.5 minute.Then, carry out maintenance under field conditions (factors), be cemented in 5.0 minutes can complete from being sprayed onto maintenance.
Training a layer thickness in the bottom in plantation hole is the sandy soil that 20cm is thick, and husky is 8:2 with the weight ratio of soil, then evenly plants the sea-buckthorn that 3 plant heights are 10cm above and landfill sandy soil, the water that pouring is identical with specific embodiment 1 in plantation hole.Soil layer 3.0cm lower than the height on surrounding ground in plantation hole, install 3 rainwater-collecting aqueducts at the upper surface in plantation hole near middle, the diameter of aqueduct is 1.0cm, and length is 8.0cm.Finally, after the upper surface in plantation hole is done camber, spray concentration is the W-OH solution of 4.5%, and plantation hole upper surface was filled and led up with sandy soil after 5.0 minutes by maintenance.
Comparative example 2:
Cultivation box and sandy soil used identical with embodiment 2, the plant of plantation is also almost identical, unlike comparative example 2 not to plantation hole bottom surface and side spray hydrophilic polyurethane resin impervious barrier and upper caldding layer.
Table 1 is the moisture content of raw body when the not having planting plants situation over time of planting made by above-described embodiment and comparative example, significantly reduces the loss of moisture after preventing blending vaporization prevention process.
Table 1 embodiment and the water loss of comparative example side contrast
Embodiment 1 (%) Embodiment 2 (%) Comparative example 1 (%) Comparative example 2 (%)
When completing 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0
After 1 week 28.9 28.3 13.8 12.3
After 2 weeks 27.3 26.9 12.3 11.5
After 3 weeks 26.7 26.2 11.9 10.2
Table 2 plant growth situation contrasts
Embodiment 1 (cm) Embodiment 2 (cm) Comparative example 1 (cm) Comparative example 2 (cm)
When completing 10 10 10 10
After January 22 23 16 15
After February 34 34 19 18
After March 47 48 21 20
Contrasted from table 1 and table 2, after adopting pattern of farming of the present invention, water and soil loss situation significantly takes a turn for the better, and plant grew well, especially to plant survive and the drought-resistant and keep a full stand in later stage is significant.

Claims (4)

1. a pattern of farming; comprise plantation hole and be positioned at plantation hole plant soil layer; it is characterized in that: have an antiseepage film formed with the hydrophilic polyurethane resin spraying that concentration is 3 ~ 15% in the bottom that described plantation is cheated and side; the cover layer of one deck vaporization prevention is provided with in the described upper end of planting soil layer; described plants soil layer between described antiseepage film and cover layer, is overburden layer in the upper end of cover layer; At described overburden layer and plant the aqueduct being provided through described cover layer between soil layer; Plant in soil layer described, the overflow pipe of described antiseepage film is provided through along the upper end and bottom of planting side, hole, wherein the bottom quantity of overflow pipe and caliber will be less than and be less than the quantity and caliber of planting and cheating the overflow pipe that side is arranged, and the two ends of described overflow pipe are provided with filter screen.
2. pattern of farming according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the shape of described cover layer is arc, and the height of cover layer periphery is higher than middle height.
3. pattern of farming according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the thickness of described cover layer is 0.1mm ~ 10mm, and the thickness of overburden layer is 1.0 ~ 10cm, and the thickness of antiseepage film is 0.1mm ~ 10mm.
4. based on an implantation methods for pattern of farming described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, step is as follows:
Step one, excavation plantation hole;
Step 2, the pre-buried overflow pipe in side and bottom in plantation hole, wherein the bottom quantity of overflow pipe and caliber will be less than and be less than the quantity and caliber of planting and cheating the overflow pipe that side is arranged; Then, be the hydrophilic polyurethane resin solution of 3 ~ 15% in plantation hole inner surface spraying concentration, under natural curing condition, 2 ~ 10 minutes form a layer thickness is the antiseepage film of 0.1mm ~ 10mm;
Step 3, in the antiseepage film of step 2 configuration soil or husky, formed plant soil layer;
Step 4, the pre-buried aqueduct of upper surface of cheating in plantation, plant the upper surface of soil layer lower than surrounding ground; Then, be the hydrophilic polyurethane resin solution of 3 ~ 15% in the surface spraying concentration of planting soil layer, under natural curing condition, 2 ~ 10 minutes form a layer thickness is the cover layer of 0.1mm ~ 10mm;
Step 5, be the overburden layer of 1.0 ~ 10cm at the upper end cladding thickness of cover layer.
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