CN102124890B - Farmland planting method of high-selenium crops - Google Patents

Farmland planting method of high-selenium crops Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102124890B
CN102124890B CN 201010583681 CN201010583681A CN102124890B CN 102124890 B CN102124890 B CN 102124890B CN 201010583681 CN201010583681 CN 201010583681 CN 201010583681 A CN201010583681 A CN 201010583681A CN 102124890 B CN102124890 B CN 102124890B
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crop
selenium
soil
plant nutrient
nutrient agent
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CN102124890A (en
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刘寿峰
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Suzhou Setek Co Ltd
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Suzhou Setek Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a farmland planting method of high-selenium crops. The method is characterized by comprising the following steps: (1) uniformly mixing a nano selenium plant nutrient with a base fertilizer, applying the mixture to the surface of farmland soil and plowing so that the nano selenium plant nutrient is uniformly distributed on a plowing layer; (2) uniformly seeding on the farmland soil according to the crop types, and wetting and irrigating the soil surface layer 5-10 days after the crop seedling emerges; and (3) performing conventional field management on the crop according to different crop types until the crops are mature. According to the invention, the high-selenium crops can be cultivated, the selenium content is stable, and the proportion of organic selenium is high.

Description

The farmland planting method of high selenium crop
Technical field
The invention provides the farmland planting method of a kind of high selenium crop, purpose is to cultivate the not only high but also stable crop of Se content, and the ratio of Organic Selenium can be widely used in feed and food additives greater than 80%.
Background technology
Selenium, the symbol of element are Se, and both at home and abroad scientist has carried out large quantity research to selenium and health, and result shows, though selenium lacks at the tissue intensive amount, it is the same with micro elements such as iron, zinc, iodine, and health is had very important effect.The expert thinks; selenium has the immunity that improves human body, remove free radical, protection optic nerve, cardioprotection and liver, prevent from producing in body the critical function such as toxicant, and 40 various diseases such as the mankind's Keshan disease, hepatopathy, anaemia, coronary heart disease, Kaschin-Beck disease, diabetes, cancer and scarce selenium are closely related.Selenium can't synthesize in human body, satisfy human body to the demand of selenium, just needs Selenium Supplement every day.By World Health Organization's requirement, often contain day by day 200 microgram selenium in the human body meals.There are the low selenium in 72% county (city) or scarce selenium in China, and Heilungkiang, the Inner Mongol, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan etc. seriously lack the selenium area has Keshan disease, Kaschin-Beck disease to occur, and certain cancers district occurred frequently (as the Jiangsu Qidong City) also belongs to hangs down the selenium district.The data that WHO announces shows, the whole world has more than 40 country to belong to low selenium or scarce selenium area.Rich selenium agriculture (pair) product is human body Selenium Supplement element effective way, and therefore, technique of enriched selenium is the hot fields of scientists study exploitation.
Popular Se-enriched feedstuff additive is mainly yeast selenium in the market, but the inorganic selenium of yeast selenium is residual larger, in actual applications as using method or the improper hidden danger that the selenosis of causing is arranged of usage amount.Patent CN101138295A discloses the stem, leaf, a kind of sedge of a kind of land for growing field crops selenium-rich garlic, the cultivating method of head, and this patent utilization page sprays garlic stem, leaf, a kind of sedge, the head that technology obtains high Se content.
Existing high selenium crop breeding method, to utilize the page to spray the technology of sodium selenite mostly, the shortcoming of this technology maximum is the residual large of inorganic selenium, and utilize the technology that sprays of high concentration to cause certain injury to plant, control the improper risk that causes the burning seedling that has, and it is too many to spray number of times, and utilization ratio is poor; Existing method is the high selenium crop field management method for some kinds on the other hand, and only be confined to the water and fertilizer management of established practice, there is not yet report for the method that how to improve se use efficiency, how to guarantee the homogeneity of the high selenium crop Se content cultivated and develop to greatest extent the rich selenium potentiality of crop.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to provide the farmland planting method of a kind of high selenium crop, has solved the problems such as in prior art, crop is difficult to improve Se content, and se use efficiency is low, the crop Se content is unstable, and standardization level is low.
In order to solve these problems of the prior art, technical scheme provided by the invention is:
The farmland planting method of a kind of high selenium crop is characterized in that said method comprising the steps of:
(1) make the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent be uniformly distributed in plow layer with applying after nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent and base manure mixing to plough behind the agricultural land soil surface;
(2) according to agrotype on agricultural land soil evenly the sowing, carry out moistening irrigation one time after crop emerged 5~10 days, irrigation volume be soil moisture remain on maxmun field capacity 60~80%;
(3) according to the difference of crop species, crop is carried out conventional field nursing until crop is ripe, and make soil moisture remain on 60~80% of maxmun field capacity.
Preferably, in described method the consumption of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent at 5~15kg/ mu.
Preferably, described method step (1) arable land mode adopts rotary tillage, tilling depth 15-20cm; Irrigation ditch is offered, ditch depth 15-20cm every 1.2 meters in the field.
Preferably, described method needs agricultural land soil is carried out biotic factor and physical and chemical condition detects before kind of plant, chooses soil pH value greater than 7 the agricultural land soil agricultural land soil as plantation.
Preferably, lower than 7 the time, the lime that applies effective dose is regulated soil acidity, makes its pH value greater than 7 when soil pH value.
Preferably, when described method step (3) carries out the field nursing, according to monitoring Se content result, the comparison standard value, carry out supplementary fertilizer to crop the booting stage crop, and the supplementary fertilizer amount is 1~5kg/ mu, and the supplementary fertilizer mode is that the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is directly spread fertilizer over the fields in crop root 5-10cm place.
In technical solution of the present invention, the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is that Suzhou selenium paddy Science and Technology Ltd. produces, production model XGP001A, and during carrying out the field nursing, irrigation frequency is no less than 3 times.Described method needs agricultural land soil is carried out biotic factor and physical and chemical condition detects before kind of plant, choose P in soil H value greater than 7 agricultural land soil as the agricultural land soil of planting.If lower than 7 o'clock, can considering to apply effective dose lime, soil pH regulates soil acidity to 7 left and right.
When the present invention carries out concrete operations, carry out in accordance with the following steps:
The first step, farmland are selected
Select physical features smooth, open spacious, ventilation, soil layer is deep, illumination is sufficient, fertility is good, the irrigation and drainage facility as the grown place of high selenium crop, is convenient to field management in the farmland easily; Soil to the farmland carries out sample analysis, and P in soil H value should be alkalescent greater than 7, because weakly alkaline environment is conducive to absorption and the conversion of selenium element.If lower than 7 o'clock, can considering to apply effective dose lime, soil pH regulates soil acidity to 7 left and right.
Second step, site preparation and fertilization
Need before ploughing the weeds in field are eliminated, mix base manure and nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent thoroughly rear evenly spreading fertilizer over the fields in the soil layer surface, every mu with 15 kilograms of left and right of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent (different cereal fertilizing amount difference); After fertilising, plough immediately, preferably adopt the mode of rotary tillage, tilling depth 15-20cm, the purpose of the method is to make the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent be distributed in uniformly plow layer, then a kind of farm tools soil crushing as far as possible, make the soil block particle diameter below 1cm, even thickness and quality are loose; Open Yi Tiaogou every 1.2 meters, ditch depth 15-20cm is convenient to the field liquid manure management in later stage.
The 3rd step, sowing
Adopt machine sowing, accomplish even sowing according to agrotype, the density of sowing is moderate, and is unsuitable excessive or too small; Emerged about rear 5-15 days, select a continuous sunny date to do once to irrigate to process, the height of water level is advisable with soil that can just the wetting the superiors, purpose is to allow base manure and nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent be distributed in plow layer more uniformly under the immersional wetting of irrigation water in, can also allow the more effectively combination of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent and soil, be conducive to the selenium element in the Root Absorption nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent of crop; The spontaneous evaporate to dryness of wetting relief moisture is forbidden draining.
The 4th step, field management
According to the difference of crop species, crop is carried out conventional field management method, as deinsectization, weeding etc.What pay special attention to is, the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is that a kind of rich selenium with slow release effect is fertile, and good infiltration condition is conducive to selenium utilization absorbed by crops, so in the crop developmental process soil moisture to keep 60~80% optimums of maxmun field capacity; Simultaneously excessive rainwater or irrigation water washes away the reduction that loss may cause nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent fertilizer efficiency, therefore in the situation that guaranteeing that crop is not coerced by water logging and should keep as much as possible field ponding after man-made irrigation or natural precipitation, do not allow easily the field water and soil loss, in the time of can not keeping field ponding as serious damage or crop failure caused by waterlogging, should do a supplementary fertilizer measure according to the order of severity of plot.
When field management, need the crop regular sampling analysis, make the detection of dynamic of Se content, to grasp the rich selenium effect of crop, fail to produce a desired effect or in the situation that meet with larger damage or crop failure caused by waterlogging the early stage of plant growth and nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent fertilizer efficiency is reduced as the crop Se content, should carry out in the booting stage of crop a supplementary fertilizer measure, the concrete benefit amount of executing is determined according to the Se content of crop, general supplementary fertilizer amount is 1~5kg/ mu, during supplementary fertilizer, the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is directly spread fertilizer over the fields in crop root 5-10cm place to get final product.
High selenium crop is the high crop of a kind of availability, except fruit can utilize, its stalk also can be used as feed addictive or bacteria additive is used in conduct, therefore the acrial part of crop all should be gathered in the crops during crop harvesting, can't run off, prevent that high selenium crop from being eaten in a large number and causing selenosis by people and animals, the part that can not gather in the crops such as the root of crop should all be done also field processing.
The present invention utilizes the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent to cultivate high selenium crop, is to have abandoned the technology that traditional page sprays sodium selenite on the one hand, in the process that high selenium crop is cultivated, the farmland water system is managed on the other hand, to obtain the high and stable crop of Se content.The method can be cultivated the crop of high Se content, and Se content is stable, and the Organic Selenium proportion is high.
The nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent that the present invention adopts is that Suzhou selenium paddy Science and Technology Ltd. produces, and model is XGP001A.The present invention adopts nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent and base manure to mix before ploughing to spread fertilizer over the fields fertilising, and the plow layer that utilizes irrigation water to infiltrate after applying fertilizer makes the fertilizer efficiency of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent more even, more effectively combination of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent and soil like this is conducive to the selenium element in the Root Absorption nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent of crop; According to the rich selenium effect of crop, mend in the booting stage of crop and execute the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent once in preferred technical scheme, make the rich selenium effect of crop more remarkable.
According to the difference of first fertilizing amount and supplementary fertilizer amount, carry out some adjustment according to actual conditions, first fertilizing amount is few, and the supplementary fertilizer amount just can increase accordingly, and perhaps fertilizing amount is many for the first time, the corresponding minimizing of supplementary fertilizer amount, rich selenium effect that all can the appreciable impact crop; Supplementary fertilizer number of times selenium effect rich according to actual crop set, and can increase accordingly the number of times of supplementary fertilizer when rich selenium effect is undesirable, even do not need supplementary fertilizer when rich selenium is satisfactory for result; The technology optimal use time that infiltrates the plow layer after fertilising with irrigation water is 5~10 days after crop emerges, and can suitably adjust time and the number of times of infiltration according to actual production and weather condition.
With respect to scheme of the prior art, advantage of the present invention is:
Technical solution of the present invention has not only been done larger improvement on planting technology, abandoned the existing technology that sprays, and adopt nanometer technology to cultivate the method for high selenium crop, be aided with necessary water and fertilizer management, improved the characteristic of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent, improve the rich selenium effect of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent, be chosen in addition the supplementary fertilizer in booting stage, effectively increased the Se content of crop.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, such scheme is described further.Should be understood that these embodiment are not limited to limit the scope of the invention for explanation the present invention.The implementation condition that adopts in embodiment can be done further adjustment according to the condition of concrete producer, and not marked implementation condition is generally the condition in normal experiment.
Embodiment 1: select a suitable plot to remove to do after weeds high selenium Maize Production ground, the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is mixed thoroughly together with base manure, spread fertilizer over the fields uniformly in the soil layer surface, nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent usage amount is used according to 15kg/ mu, rotary tillage immediately after fertilising, degree of depth 15-20cm, a kind of farm tools soil crushing, soil particle diameter is remained on below 1cm, and every 1.2m opens Yi Tiaogou, degree of depth 15-20cm.Sowing depth 5cm left and right, mu are broadcast about corn 3500 strains.Emerge and once irrigated processing in rear 5 days, irrigation volume remains on 60~80% of maxmun field capacity with soil moisture and is advisable.Once irrigate processing the booting stage at corn again, and irrigation volume is the same.Mend according to the amount of 5kg/ mu during the pustulation period and execute the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent once, and once irrigate processing, irrigation volume is the same.After treating the corn maturation, get 10 corn samples and do the Se content detection, average Se content 21.2ppm, standard deviation 3.8ppm.
Embodiment 2: select a suitable plot to remove to do after weeds high selenium Wheat Production ground, the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is mixed thoroughly together with base manure, spread fertilizer over the fields uniformly in the soil layer surface, nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent usage amount is used according to 15kg/ mu, rotary tillage immediately after fertilising, degree of depth 15-20cm, a kind of farm tools soil crushing, soil particle diameter is remained on below 1cm, and every 1.2m opens Yi Tiaogou, degree of depth 15-20cm.Sowing depth 5cm left and right, mu is broadcast 10 kilograms of wheat seeds.Emerge and once irrigated processing in rear 5 days, irrigation volume remains on 60~80% of maxmun field capacity with soil moisture and is advisable.Once irrigate processing the booting stage at wheat again, and irrigation method is the same.Mend according to the amount of 5kg/ mu during the pustulation period and execute the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent once, and once irrigate processing, irrigation method is the same.After treating the wheat maturation, get 10 corn samples and do the Se content detection, average Se content 23.1ppm, standard deviation 4.2ppm.
Above-mentioned example only is explanation technical conceive of the present invention and characteristics, and its purpose is to allow the person skilled in the art can understand content of the present invention and implement according to this, can not limit protection scope of the present invention with this.All equivalent transformations that Spirit Essence is done according to the present invention or modification are within all should being encompassed in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. the farmland planting method of a high selenium crop is characterized in that said method comprising the steps of:
(1) need carry out biotic factor and physical and chemical condition detects to agricultural land soil before kind of plant, choose soil pH value greater than 7 the agricultural land soil agricultural land soil as plantation; Make the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent be uniformly distributed in plow layer with applying after nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent and base manure mixing to plough behind the agricultural land soil surface;
(2) according to agrotype on agricultural land soil evenly the sowing, carry out moistening irrigation one time after crop emerged 5~10 days, irrigation volume be soil moisture remain on maxmun field capacity 60~80%;
(3) according to the difference of crop species, crop is carried out conventional field nursing until crop is ripe, and make soil moisture remain on 60~80% of maxmun field capacity.
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that the consumption of nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent in described method is at 5~15kg/ mu.
3. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that described method step (1) arable land mode adopts rotary tillage, tilling depth 15-20cm; Irrigation ditch is offered, ditch depth 15-20cm every 1.2 meters in the field.
4. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that when soil pH value the lime that applies effective dose is regulated soil acidity, makes its pH value greater than 7 lower than 7 the time.
5. method according to claim 1, when it is characterized in that described method step (3) carries out the field nursing, according to monitoring Se content result, the comparison standard value, carry out supplementary fertilizer to crop the booting stage crop, the supplementary fertilizer amount is 1~5kg/ mu, and the supplementary fertilizer mode is that the nanometer selenium plant nutrient agent is directly spread fertilizer over the fields in crop root 5-10cm place.
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CN102498914A (en) * 2011-11-23 2012-06-20 安徽硒谷生物科技有限公司 Method for root application of nano selenium fertilizer utilizing seed and fertilizer simultaneous applying technology
CN102488109A (en) * 2011-12-01 2012-06-13 苏州硒谷科技有限公司 Granular selenium-rich river crab feed and production method thereof
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CN102804962A (en) * 2012-08-15 2012-12-05 苏州硒谷科技有限公司 Method for improving selenium fertilizer absorption efficiency for woody fruit plants
CN102771295A (en) * 2012-08-15 2012-11-14 苏州硒谷科技有限公司 Method for improving selenium fertilizer absorption efficiency of tea trees
CN102804963A (en) * 2012-08-15 2012-12-05 苏州硒谷科技有限公司 Method for increasing absorption and utilization ratio of selenium-containing fertilizer under dry farming condition
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CN103650853A (en) * 2013-11-30 2014-03-26 广西桂林天然食品有限公司 Selenium, zinc and calcium rich corn cultivation method
CN105210602A (en) * 2015-08-19 2016-01-06 颍上县小张庄农业科技有限公司 The method of a kind of Formations In Fuyang Area gumbo plantation
CN105248112A (en) * 2015-11-06 2016-01-20 安徽新源农业科技有限公司 Planting method of selenium-enriched coffee peppers
CN106386328A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-02-15 杨胜 Planting method for selenium-enriched litchi
CN108551796B (en) * 2018-05-28 2020-06-16 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Method for improving farmland soil fertility by using inorganic mineral excitation material
CN108781973A (en) * 2018-06-23 2018-11-13 吴振 A kind of implantation methods of selenium-enriched tea leaf
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