JP3831863B2 - Liquid crystal display - Google Patents

Liquid crystal display Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3831863B2
JP3831863B2 JP33928197A JP33928197A JP3831863B2 JP 3831863 B2 JP3831863 B2 JP 3831863B2 JP 33928197 A JP33928197 A JP 33928197A JP 33928197 A JP33928197 A JP 33928197A JP 3831863 B2 JP3831863 B2 JP 3831863B2
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Prior art keywords
liquid crystal
electrode
signal wiring
common electrode
bent
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JPH11125835A (en
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直人 広田
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大林精工株式会社
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Description

[0001]
[Industrial application fields]
The present invention relates to a large-screen active matrix liquid crystal display device with a wide viewing angle and high image quality.
[0002]
[Prior art]
A method of applying an electric field to a liquid crystal composition layer using a comb-like electrode pair formed on one substrate of a conventional active matrix liquid crystal display device is disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open Nos. 7-36058 and 7-159786. And JP-A-6-160878 and JP-A-7-191336. Hereinafter, a display method in which a main electric field direction applied to the liquid crystal composition layer is a direction substantially parallel to the substrate interface is referred to as a horizontal electric field method.
1 and 3 show an example of a conventional horizontal electric field method. The liquid crystal drive electrode (4) and the common electrode (3), which are comb-like pixel electrodes, are linearly arranged in parallel. At the center of the pixel and the periphery of the pixel, the shape of the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode is made so that the electric field distribution in the pixel electrode has a shape in which the center of the pixel is rotationally symmetric.
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, the rotational movement direction of the liquid crystal molecules is only in one direction within one pixel.
[0003]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In a horizontal electric field type liquid crystal panel in which the pixel electrode is linear and the rotational movement direction of liquid crystal molecules is only one direction, there is a problem of color shift when the left and right colors appear different when viewed from the horizontal direction. Further, when the pretilt angle of the liquid crystal is increased by 3 degrees or more, the viewing angle characteristic is deteriorated, and the gradation reversal phenomenon in the halftone region occurs, resulting in a very unnatural image display.
[0004]
A horizontal electric field type liquid crystal panel with a bent pixel electrode has also been proposed, but only the electric field around the bent portion and the pixel has caused a large number of disclination defects, and the black level is greatly deteriorated. Unevenness occurs.
[0005]
On the side of the horizontal electric field type active matrix substrate, the area of the intersection of the common electrode and the liquid crystal drive electrode is large, and if there is a defect such as a pinhole in the insulating film, it will be short-circuited and likely to become a pixel defect. In order to reduce the process cost, a method of simultaneously forming the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode is used. In this process, since there are so many areas where the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode are close to each other, when a pattern defect occurs, a short circuit between the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode cannot be avoided and the yield is very bad. Rui.
[0006]
In the liquid crystal display device of the horizontal electric field type, the liquid crystal driving voltage tends to be higher than that of the conventional vertical electric field type TN liquid crystal display device, and the driver IC for driving is required to have a high voltage output, resulting in a high cost. was there.
[0007]
In the horizontal electric field type liquid crystal display device, the electric field of the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode enters the glass substrate and color filter layer on the color filter side, so that the movable ionic substance contained in the glass substrate and the color filter layer is over. It passes through the coating layer and elutes into the alignment film and the liquid crystal. These mobile ionic substances cause afterimages and pretilt angle abnormalities, resulting in unevenness and severely worsening the image quality.
[0008]
Also, the horizontal electric field type color filter substrate, like the conventional vertical electric field type TN liquid crystal display device, does not have a transparent conductive film on the entire surface. There is a problem.
[0009]
The present invention has been made to solve these problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide a liquid crystal display device which has no gradation inversion, good viewing angle characteristics, and good contrast without causing color shift. . Furthermore, a low voltage driving IC can be used, which improves the yield of the liquid crystal process and reduces the cost.
[0010]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to solve the above problems and achieve the above object, the present invention uses the following means.
A scanning signal line and a video signal line on a substrate, a thin film transistor formed at each intersection of the scanning signal line and the video signal line, a liquid crystal drive electrode connected to the thin film transistor, and at least a part of the liquid crystal A liquid crystal display device comprising an active matrix substrate having a common electrode formed to face a drive electrode, a counter substrate facing the active matrix substrate, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the active matrix substrate and the counter substrate In
[Means 1] The liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode are bent with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules. In the peripheral part of the pixel, each electrode bends in the direction of the concave part of the bend, and the electric field distribution formed by the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal drive electrode is the center of the pixel. Was distributed with the line symmetry axis.
[0011]
[Means 2] The liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode are bent at a pixel period with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules, and the peripheral electrode in each pixel in the bent convex direction. The electric field distribution formed by the liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode is bent and distributed with the scanning signal wiring as the line symmetry axis or the video signal wiring as the line symmetry axis. I tried to become.
[0012]
[Means 3] The liquid crystal molecules are prevented from including a chiral dopant material so that both the left rotation and the right rotation can be rotated with the same rotational force.
[0013]
[Means 4] In the means 1 and 2, the structure is such that a part of the liquid crystal driving electrode is sandwiched by covering the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode with an insulating film.
[0014]
[Means 5] In the horizontal electric field type liquid crystal display device, the common electrode and the liquid crystal driving electrode are separated from each other by two or more insulating films.
[0015]
[Means 6] In the horizontal electric field type liquid crystal display device, the common electrode is arranged so as to be bent over two rows crossing the scanning signal wiring.
[0016]
[Means 7] In the means 6, the common electrodes arranged to bend over two rows intersecting the scanning signal wiring are separated into an odd group and an even group, and each of them is connected to an odd number common electrode driving connection electrode and an even number. It was set as the structure connected to the connection electrode for number common electrode drive.
[0017]
[Means 8] In the means 7, the common electrodes are separated into an odd group and an even group, and each is connected to an odd-numbered common electrode driving connecting electrode and an even-numbered common electrode driving connecting electrode. A driving method that applies a signal voltage waveform of a phase opposite to that of the common electrode to the liquid crystal drive electrode facing the common electrode of the odd-numbered group and the even-numbered group. It was.
[0018]
[Means 9] In the means 6, the common electrodes arranged so as to be bent over two rows intersecting the scanning signal wiring are separated from each other.
[0019]
[Means 10] In the means 9, the common electrodes arranged so as to be bent over two rows intersecting the scanning signal wirings are separated separately, and separated into independent common electrodes, each being an integral multiple of 1/2 of the field frequency. A signal voltage is applied at a frequency of 1 and the polarity of the applied voltage is changed for each field period, and a video signal voltage waveform having a phase opposite to that of the common electrode is applied to the liquid crystal drive electrode facing the bent common electrode. The driving method is as follows.
[0020]
[Means 11] In a horizontal electric field type liquid crystal display device, a thin film transistor is alternately connected to a liquid crystal drive electrode across two rows before and after a single scanning signal wiring, and a common electrode facing the liquid crystal drive electrode Are arranged in a separate and independent manner for each row.
[0021]
[Means 12] In the means 11, a signal voltage is applied to a common electrode separated and independent for each row at a frequency that is an integral multiple of 1/2 of the field frequency, and the polarity of the applied voltage is changed for each field period. In addition, a driving method is applied in which a video signal voltage waveform having a phase opposite to that of the common electrode is applied to the liquid crystal drive electrode facing the common electrode.
[0022]
[Means 13] In the means 9 or 11, the scanning signal wiring, the video signal wiring, and the common electrode are connected to the static countermeasure connection electrode on the outer periphery by means of a static countermeasure nonlinear element. did.
[0023]
[Means 14] In the active matrix substrate liquid crystal display device, the scanning signal wiring is formed of two layers of aluminum and a refractory metal, and the refractory metal is covered on the aluminum, and the side wall on which the refractory metal is not covered. In addition, aluminum oxide was formed on the exposed portions of aluminum near the side walls.
[0024]
[Means 15] In a horizontal electric field type liquid crystal display device, after forming a passivation film such as a silicon nitride film, a silicon oxide film or an aluminum oxide film on the color filter layer, an overcoat layer for flattening is formed. A counter substrate having a structure in which is formed on a passivation film was used.
[0025]
[Means 16] In the means 15, a conductive electrode is formed in a mesh shape or a stripe shape on the overcoat layer formed on the passivation film, and this potential is in the vicinity of an intermediate value of the video signal voltage on the TFT substrate side. Can be set to
[0026]
[Means 17] In the means 15, the pattern width of the conductive electrode formed in a mesh shape or stripe shape on the overcoat layer is made smaller than the width of the underlying BM (black mask).
[0027]
[Means 18] In the means 1 or 2, the inter-electrode distance between the liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode is not uniform within one pixel, but is constituted by a combination of two or more inter-electrode distances.
[0028]
[Action]
When the horizontal electric field is applied in the pixel electrode (a part of the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode) by the above means 1 and 3 as shown in FIGS. 31 and 32, the liquid crystal molecules are rotated left inside the pixel electrode. Performs two types of rotation, right rotation.
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, in the conventional lateral electric field method, since the rotational movement is only in one direction, a color shift in which the color changes depending on the viewing direction occurs. Further, when the pretilt angle of the liquid crystal is large, the viewing angle characteristic is shifted, and the gradation inversion in the halftone area is likely to occur. If two types of rotation, left rotation and right rotation, are possible within one pixel, all the above problems are solved. However, if the rotational forces of the left rotation and the right rotation are not equalized, the liquid crystal moves at the bent portion of the central portion of the pixel electrode, resulting in a large disclination defect. Further, even in a portion where the electric field in the peripheral portion of the pixel is leaked, the rotation of the liquid crystal becomes abnormal and a disclination defect occurs. These alignment defects of the liquid crystal remain in the generated portion once the response speed is once generated. This may appear as an afterimage. The disclination defect portion leaks light even when black is displayed, and the contrast is drastically lowered. By using the means 1 and 3, it is possible to align only the electric field at the center of the pixel and the periphery of the pixel in the rotation direction of the liquid crystal, so that it is possible to completely prevent the occurrence of disclination defects and to prevent a decrease in contrast. Afterimages due to disclination defects will not occur completely.
[0029]
By using the above means 2 and 3, the rotational movement direction of the liquid crystal molecules in one pixel causes the two rotational movements of the left rotation and the right rotation in the whole screen even if the rotation movement direction of the liquid crystal molecules is one direction. Is possible. This effect can solve all of the color shift problem, the tone reversal problem of the halftone area, and the deviation problem of the viewing angle characteristic. Since the occurrence of disclination defects can be prevented by aligning only the electric field around the pixels in the direction of rotation of the liquid crystal, it is possible to completely prevent a decrease in contrast and the occurrence of afterimages.
[0030]
By using the above means 1, 2 and 4, the storage capacity of the liquid crystal drive electrode can be increased, and the storage capacity decreases even if the bulk area around the pixel of the common electrode and the liquid crystal drive electrode is reduced. Can be resolved. As a result, the aperture ratio of the pixel can be increased, and the light utilization efficiency is improved.
[0031]
By using the means 5, the short circuit between the common electrode and the liquid crystal drive electrode is drastically reduced and the yield is remarkably improved. If the interlayer is separated by only one insulating film, defects due to dust cannot be made zero. In the interlayer separation by the two-layer insulating film, the defects are hardly overlapped. Furthermore, since the insulating film becomes thicker, the dielectric breakdown voltage at the stepped portion of the electrode also increases, so the short circuit due to static electricity is drastically reduced. Since it is possible to freely design the bulk of the common electrode and the liquid crystal drive electrode, the shape of the electric field distribution can also be made so that no liquid crystal disclination occurs. For this reason, it is possible to prevent light from being lost at the black level and to obtain an image with high contrast.
[0032]
By using the means 6, 7, and 8, the video signal voltage of the dot inversion driving method can be reduced to half or less even in the liquid crystal display device of the horizontal electric field method. Since a video signal drive IC of 5V drive can be used, the cost of the IC can be reduced. By reducing the video signal drive voltage to less than half that of the prior art, the power consumption of the IC can be greatly reduced. Furthermore, since the amplitude of the video signal voltage is less than half that of the prior art, the difference in the driving capability of the thin film transistor between the even field and the odd field is less likely to occur. As a result, a DC bias is hardly applied to the liquid crystal, and an afterimage does not occur. Because of dot inversion driving, horizontal crosstalk, vertical crosstalk, and flicker do not occur.
[0033]
By using the means 6, 9, and 10, the same effect as that obtained by using the means 6, 7, and 8 can be obtained. By separating the common electrodes separately and applying different drive voltage waveforms, the degree of freedom in the timing of voltage waveform change with respect to the scan signal voltage waveform is greatly expanded. This eliminates the problem of drive timing even if the resistance value of the common electrode is increased to 10 times or more. The flexibility of the common electrode material is expanded, and the film thickness of the electrode can be made very thin. Since the step of the common electrode is also reduced, defects in the insulating film covering the step portion do not occur, and the occurrence of short circuit is reduced.
[0034]
By using the means 11 and 12, the same effect as when the means 6, 9, and 10 are used can be obtained. In this case, since the common electrode does not cross the scanning signal line, the capacitance of the scanning signal line is reduced, and the resistance value of the scanning signal line can be slightly increased. Since there is no crossing, there is no short circuit between the common electrode and the scanning signal line. Yield can be improved.
[0035]
By using the means 9, 11 and 13, the charging time due to static electricity can be shortened even if the common electrodes are separated from each other, so that dielectric breakdown is less likely to occur and adhesion of dust during process work is reduced. However, the yield can be greatly improved.
[0036]
By using the means 14, the side lock is not generated even when inexpensive and low resistance aluminum is used for the scanning signal wiring, and the yield can be improved.
[0037]
By using the means 15, 16 and 17, it is possible to prevent a mobile ionic substance such as sodium contained in the glass substrate from eluting into the liquid crystal through the overcoat layer, and to prevent the afterimage problem. Can be suppressed. Since the decrease in the specific resistance value of the liquid crystal can be prevented, a highly reliable liquid crystal panel having a high charge retention rate can be manufactured. Uniform and good halftone display is possible because unevenness and reduction in contrast can be prevented. Static electricity can be prevented and dust is less deposited.
[0038]
By using the above means 1, 2 and 18, it is possible to prevent gradation inversion even if the photomask is slightly misaligned, and it is possible to obtain a good image that is less than the viewing angle characteristic and hardly causes color shift. it can.
[0039]
【Example】
[Embodiment 1] FIGS. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 are a plan view and a sectional view of a unit pixel of the present invention. The cross-sectional views of FIGS. 5, 6, and 9 are FIG. 11, and the cross-sectional views of FIGS. 7, 8, and 10 are FIG. The scanning signal wiring is preferably made of an anodizable metal such as Al, but may be a pure metal or alloy such as Cr, Mo, Ti, W, Ta, or Nb. A two-layer structure or a three-layer structure of Cu or Al having a low electrical resistance value as a main material and the refractory metal or an alloy of the refractory metal is used in an ultra-large display device. In the case of FIG. 5, FIG. 6 and FIG. 9, the scanning signal wiring (1) and the common electrode (3) can be formed simultaneously in the same layer. Since the short circuit with (3) occurs frequently, the scanning signal wiring (1) and the common electrode (3) are separated into different layers as shown in FIGS. Thereby, even if a pattern defect occurs, a short circuit is not caused, so that the yield can be greatly improved. In the case of FIGS. 7, 8, and 10 as well, by separating the video signal wiring (2) and the common electrode (3) into different layers, a short circuit does not occur even if a pattern defect occurs, so that the yield is improved. improves. A gate insulating film (45) is formed on the scanning signal wiring (1), and then an amorphous silicon film layer (12) is formed as an active active layer of the transistor. A polysilicon film layer may be used instead of an amorphous silicon film. A composite laminated film of a polysilicon film and an amorphous film is equally good. N doped with an impurity such as phosphorus on the active active layer + An amorphous silicon layer is formed. Next, a video signal wiring and a drain electrode are formed so as to overlap a part of the active active layer. In the case of FIGS. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, the drain electrode and the liquid crystal drive electrode (4) are simultaneously formed of the same metal material. As shown in FIG. 34, after forming the passivation film after forming the drain electrode, it is also possible to open the drain through hole and electrically connect the drain electrode and the liquid crystal driving electrode. After forming the passivation film, in FIG. 11, an alignment film (14) made of polyimide is formed, and the surface is rubbed. Similarly, a liquid crystal composition containing rod-like liquid crystal molecules (9) and (10) is encapsulated between a counter substrate (47) on which an alignment film (43) having a rubbing treatment is formed on the surface and the active matrix substrate. A polarizing plate is arranged on the outer surface of the two substrates to complete the liquid crystal cell in the transverse electric field direction.
[0040]
The basic conceptual diagram of the present invention is shown in FIGS. FIG. 31 shows the layout of the liquid crystal drive electrode (4) and the common electrode (3) when using a positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal (9) and the relationship between the rubbing alignment axis direction (6) with respect to these electrodes. Is shown.
FIG. 32 shows the layout of the liquid crystal drive electrode (4) and the common electrode (3) when the negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal (10) is used, and the relationship between the rubbing alignment axis direction (6) with respect to these electrodes. Is shown. As shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the conventional electrode shape arrangement is an electrode shape with the center of the pixel being rotationally symmetric, but in the case of the present invention, the electrode shape having the center axis of the pixel as the axis of line symmetry. It becomes. In the bent portion at the center of the pixel, each electrode protrudes in the direction of the bent convex portion, and in the peripheral portion of the pixel, each electrode is bent in the bent concave portion direction. The number of bends may be one bend as shown in FIGS. 31 and 32 in one pixel, or two or more bends. The orientation method may not be a rubbing method. An alignment method using a UV alignment film may be used. In the case of the present invention, since there are two directions of rotation of the liquid crystal molecules in one pixel in one pixel, no color shift occurs in principle. For this reason, a conventional unidirectionally rotating lateral electric field type liquid crystal panel cannot reduce the color shift without using a liquid crystal having a small refractive index anisotropy Δn, but the value of Δn can be reduced by using the electrode of the present invention. It became possible to set freely. Since Δn can be increased, the drive voltage can also be reduced. The alignment film can also be selected without being governed by the pretilt angle.
[0041]
[Embodiment 2] In FIGS. 33 and 34, the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode are bent with a pixel period with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules, and the peripheral electrode in each pixel is placed in the convex direction of the bend. The electric field distribution formed by the bent liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode is a distribution with the scanning signal wiring as the line target axis or the video signal wiring with the line symmetry axis. It is a top view of the unit pixel in the case. A set of two adjacent pixels expresses the same function as the unit pixel of the first embodiment. Although the electrode structure of Example 1 is necessary for a computer display, the electrode structure shown in FIGS. 33 and 34 is sufficient when displaying a moving image such as a television. 33 and 34 have a structure in which the common electrode is arranged in parallel without crossing the scanning signal wiring. This is the same arrangement as in FIG. 5, FIG. 6 and FIG. 9 in the first embodiment. As shown in FIGS. 7, 8, and 10, a structure arranged in parallel without crossing the video signal wiring is also possible. The liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode in one pixel in FIG. 33 are not bent in one pixel unlike FIGS. 5 and 6, and thus the light transmittance can be increased.
[0042]
[Embodiment 3] As described in Embodiments 1 and 2, in the liquid crystal display panel of the horizontal electric field type, when the rotational movement direction of the liquid crystal molecules is simultaneously generated in the left direction and the right direction, It is better not to include a chiral dopant material. If there is a difference between the left and right rotational driving forces, the disclination will be generated in the region where the rotational force is weaker in the structure where the disclination occurs at the bent part of the electrode as shown in FIGS. The image quality will be degraded. As the disclination area is enlarged, the contrast is lowered and the afterimage phenomenon is observed. The occurrence of disclination can be prevented by designing the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode so as to intersect each other at the bent portion as shown in FIGS.
[0043]
[Embodiment 4] FIG. 7, FIG. 8, FIG. 10, FIG. 36, and FIG. 12 are a plan view and a cross section of a structure in which a part of a liquid crystal driving electrode is sandwiched by covering an insulating film with a scanning signal wiring and a common electrode. FIG. With this structure, the storage capacity of the liquid crystal drive electrode can be increased, so that the bulk area of the common electrode and the liquid crystal drive electrode within the effective pixel can be reduced. This can enlarge the aperture ratio of the pixel. In the case of FIG. 36, since the video signal wiring and the common electrode intersect with each other through the passivation film (46), the passivation film (46) is 1.5 times larger than that of the structure of FIGS. It is necessary to make it about twice as thick. By forming a passivation film with a thickness of about 4000 to 6000 mm by using a plasma CVD apparatus in two steps, a short circuit due to a pinhole can be drastically reduced.
[0044]
[Embodiment 5] FIG. 5, FIG. 6, FIG. 9, and FIG. 11 are a plan view and a sectional view of a structure in which a common electrode and a liquid crystal drive electrode are separated by two or more insulating films. First, a common electrode (3) is formed on a glass substrate (11), and then a base insulating film (44) is deposited using a plasma CVD apparatus. Next, a scanning signal wiring (1) is formed, a gate insulating film (45) is deposited, and then a semiconductor layer (12) and an impurity doped n + An amorphous silicon layer is continuously formed. The liquid crystal drive electrode (4) and the video signal wiring (2) are formed simultaneously using the same metal material. After depositing a passivation film (46) on these, a liquid crystal alignment film (14) is formed by flexographic printing. As can be seen from the cross-sectional view of FIG. 11, the common electrode (3) and the liquid crystal drive electrode (4) are separated from each other by two insulating films. This structure can also be applied to the conventional electrode structure plan views 1 and 3. In the conventional case, since the scanning signal wiring (1) and the common electrode (3) are simultaneously formed in the same layer, there is a very high probability that the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode will be short-circuited if a pattern defect due to dust or foreign matter occurs. The yield was high and bad. Further, since the common electrode (3) and the liquid crystal drive electrode (4) are insulated and separated only by the gate insulating film (45), they are short-circuited if a pinhole is present, and this pixel becomes a point defect. According to the present invention, since the layers are separated by the two insulating films, the short circuit between the common electrode (3) and the liquid crystal drive electrode (4) is drastically reduced, and the short circuit between the scanning signal wiring (1) and the common electrode (3). Drastically reduced, and a significant improvement in yield can be realized.
[0045]
[Embodiment 6] FIGS. 13 and 15 are plan views of a structure in which the common electrode is arranged to bend over two rows crossing the scanning signal wiring. Although it intersects in units of one pixel, it may intersect in units of two or more pixels. When the ideal dot inversion driving method is adopted, the arrangement is as shown in FIGS.
19 and 20, voltage signals having opposite phases are applied to the common electrodes separated into the odd-numbered group and the even-numbered group in accordance with the period of the scanning signal, and are opposed to the odd-numbered group and even-numbered group common electrodes. The common electrode is a drive voltage waveform diagram that applies the video signal waveform of opposite phase to the liquid crystal drive electrode. With this driving method, horizontal crosstalk does not occur and a good image can be obtained.
Since a large voltage can be applied to the liquid crystal phase by applying a voltage having a phase opposite to that of the video signal waveform to the common electrode, the amplitude is 1 than the video signal driving amplitude in the case of the conventional dot inversion driving in which the common electrode potential is fixed. / 2 or less can be reduced. As a result, an inexpensive 5V driving IC can be used, so that the cost can be reduced.
[0046]
[Embodiment 7] FIGS. 14 and 16 are plan views of structures in which common electrodes arranged so as to be bent over two rows intersecting with scanning signal wirings are separately separated. Three types of electrodes, that is, a common electrode separated separately from the scanning signal wiring and the video signal wiring, are connected to the electrostatic countermeasure connection electrode on the outer peripheral portion by a static countermeasure nonlinear element. FIGS. 21 and 22 show video signals having phases opposite to those of the common electrode in the liquid crystal drive electrode facing the bent common electrode while changing the applied voltage polarity to the common electrode separately separated and independent for each field period. It is a drive voltage waveform figure which applies a voltage waveform, respectively. By separating the common electrodes separately and applying a unique voltage waveform as in the present invention, the conditions relating to the timing of the polarity change of the common electrode become very gentle. Before the scanning signal wiring is turned on, the polarity may be switched according to the scanning signal wiring several lines before. The switching voltage waveform may change slowly, which greatly expands the degree of freedom in selecting the metal material for the common electrode. This eliminates the problem of the wiring resistance of the common electrode.
FIGS. 21 and 22 show the most basic driving waveform of the common electrode. If there is a change in the polarity of the potential of the common electrode for each field period, the driving waveform is sufficient. The voltage waveform in the period until the next field polarity change occurs is completely free and there is no limit on the frequency.
[0047]
[Embodiment 8] FIG. 17 shows that the common electrodes are separated into an odd group and an even group, and voltage signal waveforms having opposite phases are applied in accordance with the scanning signal period, and the common electrodes of the odd group and even group are opposed to each other. A video signal waveform having a phase opposite to that of the common electrode is applied to the liquid crystal drive electrodes. Unlike Example 6, the scanning signal wiring is a drive system in which two lines are turned on simultaneously. Even in this structure, video signals with different polarities are applied to odd and even numbers of video signal wiring, so that an image without crosstalk can be realized. Since a delta arrangement can be realized as the color arrangement of the color filters, an image with good color mixing can be obtained.
[0048]
[Embodiment 9] FIG. 18 is a plan view of a structure in which common electrodes are separated separately. Three types of electrodes, the common electrode separately separated from the scanning signal wiring and the video signal wiring, are connected to the antistatic connection electrode on the outer periphery by a non-static element for electrostatic countermeasures. In the case of the structure of FIG. 18, unlike the seventh embodiment, the drive system is such that two scanning signal lines are simultaneously turned on. The operation principle is almost the same as that of the seventh embodiment.
[0049]
[Embodiment 10] In FIGS. 28 and 35, thin film transistors are alternately connected to a liquid crystal drive electrode over two rows before and after one scanning signal wiring, and a common electrode facing the liquid crystal drive electrode is shown in FIG. FIG. 3 is a plan view of a structure in which each row is separated and independent. In FIGS. 29 and 30, a signal voltage is applied to a common electrode separated and independent for each row at a period twice the field period, the applied voltage polarity is changed for each field period, and the common electrode is opposed to the common electrode. It is a drive voltage waveform diagram that applies the video signal voltage waveform in the opposite phase to the common electrode to the liquid crystal drive electrode. The operating principle is the same as in the seventh embodiment.
[0050]
[Embodiment 11] FIG. 23 is a sectional view when a conventional aluminum electrode is used as a scanning signal wiring. In order to prevent hillocks in aluminum, refractory metal (29) is used as a cap metal. When the length of the inclined surface of the aluminum side wall becomes longer than 1 μm, hillocks are generated from the side wall. In order to prevent this, there is a method in which a metal such as neodymium is mixed by about 1 to 2 atomic percent. However, it is very difficult to make an aluminum alloy target with a large area, and it is impossible to make a uniform composition. The use of pure aluminum as the scanning signal wiring is very important in making a large-screen liquid crystal display panel. In the present invention, in order to prevent side hillocks of pure aluminum, aluminum oxide is formed on the side walls of aluminum using a high temperature steam oxidation method. FIG. 24 is a sectional view thereof. As another method, it is also possible to prevent side hillocks by ion implantation of oxygen ions, nitrogen ions, phosphorus ions, or the like into the side walls of the refractory metal and aluminum using an ion implantation technique.
[0051]
[Embodiment 12] FIG. 25 is a sectional view of a color filter substrate of a horizontal electric field type liquid crystal display device. A BM (black mask) is formed on the glass substrate, and then a color filter layer is formed. About 0.1 to 1.0% alkali metal oxide is mixed in the glass substrate. Furthermore, the pigments and dyes of the color filter layer contain many impurities, and these mobile ionic substances have the property of moving according to the direction of the electric field when an electric field is present. The overcoat layer (41) for flattening is mainly made of organic material, but this film does not have the ability to prevent electric field movement of mobile ions. Examples of films that are often used as mobile ion passivation films include silicon nitride films, silicon oxynitride films, and aluminum oxide films. In the present invention, as shown in FIG. 25, these passivation films are formed on the color filter layer using the plasma CVD technique or the sputtering technique to prevent the mobile ions from moving to the liquid crystal layer or the alignment film surface. is doing. With this structure, even if a lateral electric field acts on the color filter layer and the glass substrate, the outflow of mobile ions can be prevented by the passivation film (40). Thereby, the alignment defect of the alignment film and the afterimage problem do not occur.
[0052]
[Embodiment 13] FIGS. 26 and 27 are a sectional view and a plan view of a color filter substrate of a liquid crystal display device of a horizontal electric field type. Static electricity is generated on the alignment film during the rubbing process in the liquid crystal cell process, causing various troubles. In the present invention, a conductive electrode is formed on the overcoat layer (41) in a mesh shape or a stripe shape, and this potential is set near the intermediate value of the video signal voltage on the TFT substrate side. Blocks the effects of static electric fields. By making the width of the conductive electrode on the overcoat layer smaller than the BM width, the liquid crystal drive electrode of the TFT substrate is not adversely affected even when the alignment accuracy between the color filter substrate and the TFT substrate is poor. Yes.
[0053]
[Embodiment 14] As shown in FIG. 5, the distance between the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode is not uniform within one pixel, but is formed by a combination of two or more kinds of distances between electrodes. By increasing the distance between the electrodes closest to the video signal wiring, the influence of the video signal wiring can be reduced and the vertical stroke can be reduced. In combination with the bent electrode structure of the present invention, the best image without color shift and crosstalk can be obtained.
[0054]
【The invention's effect】
According to the present invention, firstly, there is obtained an image having a good viewing angle characteristic in which there is no gradation inversion of the image and no color shift occurs from any position. Secondly, it is possible to produce a reliable and reliable image display device with no disclination and no afterimage. Third, since an inexpensive 5VIC can be used for the video signal driving IC and a conventional liquid crystal member can be used, an image display apparatus with low cost and high productivity can be provided. Fifth, it becomes possible to realize an ultra large large screen liquid crystal display device using a conventional metal material.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a conventional electrode structure for preventing disclination.
FIG. 2 is an orientation diagram of a conventional linear pixel electrode and a positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal.
FIG. 3 is a plan view of a conventional electrode structure for preventing disclination.
FIG. 4 is an orientation diagram of a conventional linear pixel electrode and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal.
FIG. 5 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 9 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 10 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 11 is a sectional view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 12 is a sectional view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 13 is a plan view of a pixel arrangement of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 14 is a plan view of a pixel array of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 15 is a plan view of a pixel arrangement of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 16 is a plan view of a pixel arrangement of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 17 is a plan view of a pixel array of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 18 is a plan view of a pixel array of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 19 is a drive voltage waveform diagram of the horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 20 is a drive voltage waveform diagram of the horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 21 is a drive voltage waveform diagram of the horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 22 is a drive voltage waveform diagram of the horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 23 is a sectional view of a conventional scanning signal wiring.
FIG. 24 is a sectional view of a conventional scanning signal wiring.
FIG. 25 is a cross-sectional view of a color filter for a horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 26 is a sectional view of a color filter for a horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 27 is a plan view of a color filter for a horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 28 is a plan view of a pixel array of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 29 is a drive voltage waveform diagram of the horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 30 is a drive voltage waveform diagram of the horizontal electric field mode liquid crystal display device of the present invention.
FIG. 31 is a plan view of the structure of the electrode for preventing occurrence of disclination according to the present invention and an orientation diagram of positive dielectric constant anisotropic liquid crystal.
FIG. 32 is a plan view of the structure of the electrode for preventing occurrence of disclination according to the present invention and an orientation diagram of a negative dielectric constant anisotropic liquid crystal.
FIG. 33 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 34 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 35 is a plan view of a pixel array of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
FIG. 36 is a plan view of a unit pixel of a lateral electric field type thin film semiconductor substrate of the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
1-Scan signal wiring
2--Video signal wiring
3--Common electrode
4--LCD drive electrode
5--Thin Film Transistor (TFT) element
6—TFT substrate side liquid crystal alignment axis
7—An intersecting angle between positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal molecules (P-type liquid crystal molecules) and pixel electrodes (common electrode and liquid crystal drive electrode)
8—An intersecting angle between negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal molecules (N-type liquid crystal molecules) and pixel electrodes (common electrode and liquid crystal drive electrode)
9-Positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal molecules (P-type liquid crystal molecules)
10—Negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal molecules (N-type liquid crystal molecules)
11-TFT side glass substrate
12-Semiconductor layer
13-n doped with impurities + Amorphous silicon layer
14—Alignment film
15--Connecting electrode for driving odd-numbered common electrode
16--Connecting electrode for driving even-numbered common electrode
17—Anti-static element
18--Scan signal wiring lead-out terminal
19--Video signal wiring lead-out terminal
20-Common electrode lead-out terminal
21—Connecting electrode for static electricity countermeasures
22-nth scan signal wiring drive waveform
23-Odd number common electrode drive waveform
24-Odd number video signal waveform
25-(n + 1) th scan signal wiring drive waveform
26--even video signal waveform
27-Even-numbered common electrode drive waveform
28—Aluminum (or aluminum alloy) scanning signal wiring
29-Refractory metals (or refractory metal silicide compounds, refractory metal compounds)
30-side wall aluminum oxide
31-(n-1) scan signal wiring drive waveform
32--m common electrode drive waveform (straight connection type)
33-No. m common electrode drive waveform
34-(m + 1) common electrode drive waveform (straight line connection type)
35--Connecting electrode lead-out terminal for static electricity countermeasures
36-(m-1) common electrode drive waveform
37-(m + 1) common electrode drive waveform
38-Black Mask
39-Color filter layer
40-Color filter passivation film
41-Flattened membrane
42-Conductive film (or semiconductor film) for countermeasures against static electricity
43-Color filter side liquid crystal alignment film
44-Underlying insulating film
45--Gate insulation film
46-TFT passivation film
47--Color filter side glass substrate
48-drain through hole

Claims (6)

  1. A scanning signal wiring and a video signal wiring on a substrate, a thin film transistor formed at each intersection of the scanning signal wiring and the video signal wiring, a liquid crystal driving electrode connected to the thin film transistor, and at least a part of the liquid crystal driving electrode A liquid crystal display device comprising: an active matrix substrate having a common electrode formed opposite to the substrate; a counter substrate facing the active matrix substrate; and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the active matrix substrate and the counter substrate. The liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal drive electrode are bent with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules, and the bent portion at the center of the pixel is substantially parallel to the scanning line from the bent electrode portion. In addition, each electrode protrudes in the direction of the bent convex portion, and each electrode is in the vicinity of the pixel adjacent to the scanning line. However, the electric field distribution formed by the liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode is bent in a direction opposite to the protruding direction of the central portion, and the axis parallel to the scanning line is in the center of the pixel. A liquid crystal display device having a distribution with a line symmetry axis
  2. A scanning signal wiring and a video signal wiring on a substrate, a thin film transistor formed at each intersection of the scanning signal wiring and the video signal wiring, a liquid crystal driving electrode connected to the thin film transistor, and at least a part of the liquid crystal driving electrode A liquid crystal display device comprising: an active matrix substrate having a common electrode formed opposite to the substrate; a counter substrate facing the active matrix substrate; and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the active matrix substrate and the counter substrate. The liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal drive electrode are bent with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules, and the bent portion at the center of the pixel is bent to the video signal wiring. Each electrode protrudes in the direction of the convex part which is almost parallel and bent, and in the pixel peripheral part close to the video signal wiring The electric field distribution formed by the liquid crystal drive electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal drive electrode is bent in the direction opposite to the direction in which each electrode protrudes at the center, and the video signal wiring A liquid crystal display device having a distribution in which an axis parallel to the axis is an axis of line symmetry
  3. A scanning signal wiring and a video signal wiring on a substrate, a thin film transistor formed at each intersection of the scanning signal wiring and the video signal wiring, a liquid crystal driving electrode connected to the thin film transistor, and at least a part of the liquid crystal driving electrode A liquid crystal display device comprising: an active matrix substrate having a common electrode formed opposite to the substrate; a counter substrate facing the active matrix substrate; and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the active matrix substrate and the counter substrate. The liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode are bent at the pixel period with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules, and the video signal wiring is arranged in the direction orthogonal to the scanning signal wiring. Within the pixel of the liquid crystal drive electrode that is bent at a period and is close to the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode that faces the liquid crystal drive electrode The peripheral electrode is bent in the convex direction in which the video signal wiring is bent and parallel to the scanning line, and the electric field distribution formed by the liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode is scanned. A liquid crystal display device characterized by having a distribution with the signal lines as axes of line symmetry
  4. A scanning signal wiring and a video signal wiring on a substrate, a thin film transistor formed at each intersection of the scanning signal wiring and the video signal wiring, a liquid crystal driving electrode connected to the thin film transistor, and at least a part of the liquid crystal driving electrode A liquid crystal display device comprising: an active matrix substrate having a common electrode formed opposite to the substrate; a counter substrate facing the active matrix substrate; and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the active matrix substrate and the counter substrate. The liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode are bent at a pixel cycle with respect to the alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules, and the scanning signal wiring is arranged in the direction perpendicular to the video signal wiring. In the pixel of the liquid crystal drive electrode that is bent at a period and is close to the video signal wiring and the common electrode that faces the liquid crystal drive electrode An electric field distribution formed by the liquid crystal driving electrode and the common electrode facing the liquid crystal driving electrode is formed by bending the peripheral electrode in the convex direction in which the scanning signal wiring is bent and in the direction parallel to the video signal wiring. A liquid crystal display device having a distribution with the video signal wiring as a line symmetry axis
  5. 2. A liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the active matrix substrate and the counter substrate does not contain a chiral tomato material.
  6. 2. The liquid crystal display device according to claim 1, wherein the liquid crystal display device has a structure in which a part of the liquid crystal driving electrode is sandwiched between the scanning signal wiring and the common electrode through an insulating film.
JP33928197A 1997-10-21 1997-10-21 Liquid crystal display Expired - Fee Related JP3831863B2 (en)

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JP33928197A JP3831863B2 (en) 1997-10-21 1997-10-21 Liquid crystal display
TW87117228A TW544538B (en) 1997-10-21 1998-10-19 Active matrix-type liquid crystal display device

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