CN1656890A - Ground beetle fast breeding method - Google Patents

Ground beetle fast breeding method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1656890A
CN1656890A CN 200510032927 CN200510032927A CN1656890A CN 1656890 A CN1656890 A CN 1656890A CN 200510032927 CN200510032927 CN 200510032927 CN 200510032927 A CN200510032927 A CN 200510032927A CN 1656890 A CN1656890 A CN 1656890A
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soil
feed
ground bettle
pond
feeding
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CN 200510032927
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Chinese (zh)
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周维官
周维海
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周维官
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Abstract

A method for high-speed breeding ground bettles includes such steps as choosing excellent variety, preparing incubating soil, warm incubating, classifying, preparing composite feed and culturing soil, and culturing for 8 months while preventing and treating diseases. Its advantages are short period, high survival rate, and low cost.

Description

Ground beetle fast breeding method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of medicinal insect raising technology, specifically be breed and the propagation method of ground bettle.
Background technology
Ground bettle claims ground beetle, soil unit, dustpan worm etc. again, and formal name used at school is Eupolyphaga Sinensis Walker, and in the classification, it is subordinate to Arthropoda, Insecta, Blattaria, Corydiidae, Eupolyphaga.
Ground bettle is a China tradition rare traditional Chinese medicine, and all on the books on the herbal books in successive dynasties and present each edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia, its nature and flavor are salty, and are cold, return Liver Channel.It is a key medicine commonly used promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, has effects such as dissipating blood stasis with potent drugs, reunion of fractured tendons and bones.Modern pharmacology studies show that ground bettle has effects such as anticoagulation, thrombolysis, reducing blood lipid, the increase heart, brain tissue hypoxia-bearing capability and adjusting blood pressure, simultaneously, liver cancer, stomach cancer cell etc. is also had inhibitory action.Be used for the treatment of clinically traumatic injury, injury of tendon and muscle fracture, pain caused by ecchymoma, blood stasis through close, sick (diseases) such as coronary heart disease, cerebral thrombus, chornic arthritis, hepatitis, hemiplegia, hemiplegia, and be used for the supplemental treatment of leukemia, liver cancer, osteocarcinoma, cancer of the stomach and acute tumour.Along with the development of China's traditional Chinese medicine with to deepening continuously that ground bettle is studied, the application of ground bettle is more and more extensive.The Chinese patent drug of forming with the ground bettle compatibility that records according to the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2000 version (an one) has Dieda Wan, pain relieving Zijin ball, shaolin plaster for rheumatism and wound, apoplexy return of spring sheet, red medicine plaster, huoxue zhitong powder, huoxue zhitong san and Dieda Huoxuesan powder for curing fracture and injury etc.In current 62 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines in short supply, ground bettle is listed in wherein.
Ground bettle is wild insect, and all there is distribution all parts of the country.In the past by catching as medicament sources.In recent years, owing to get rid of the 4 pests, pay attention to hygiene, make it lose natural breeding site, add in agricultural and production of forestry and more and more widely use chemical fertilizer and agricultural chemicals that make the living environment of ground bettle be subjected to serious threat, its wild resource amount is fewer and feweri, the purposes of ground bettle is more and more wider simultaneously, domestic demand medicinal and outlet increases year by year, thereby causes imbalance between supply and demand outstanding, procurement price rise in successive years.At present, the wholesale price of several big medicinal materials market, whole nation ground bettle is 45~50 yuan/kilogram.Higher-priced tendency like this has promoted the development of ground bettle aquaculture to a certain extent.But always; the domestic overwhelming majority's plant, culture per family according to changes of seasons throughout the year and carry out traditional breed; the feed of being thrown something and fed is single wheat skin or corn, without the science preparation, thereby concerning the ground bettle of cold-blooded poikilotherm; its speed of weight increment is slower; growth cycle is long, needs 12~14 months when the ground bettle larva goes out to support behind the shell to the adult specification, thereby causes production cost too high; economic benefit is not obvious, can't form large-scale production.The technology of the present invention solves existing practical problem in the above-mentioned ground bettle breed exactly, has very strong specific aim, and the development that promotes the ground bettle aquaculture is had obvious facilitation.
Through retrieval, the cultural method of finding the disclosed ground bettle of scientific and technical literature has following: 1.[autograph] artificial culture technology [author] Ma Yusheng [mechanism] Zhangqiu City, Shandong Province bureau of animal husbandry [periodical name] Shandong feed .2002 (11) .[digest of ground bettle] ground bettle cries ground beetle, first, the dustpan worm of soil again, is a kind of important traditional Chinese medicine.Female worm all is used as medicine, and also can be used as medicine before the last decortication of male worm, and is cold in nature, flavor is salty, has multiple efficacies such as broken hard knot, lactagogue, the pain relieving of change cancer.Adopt artificial foster ground bettle simple and convenient and easy to study, low, the high efficiency of cost is well suited for the farmyard scale and raises, and foster ground bettle is the good project of of farmer richness.2.[autograph] artificial three-dimensional high-density breeding soil first technology [author] Li Xiang [mechanism] Bozhou Wan Bei soil unit cultures Co., Ltd's [periodical name] .2002 of specialist (6) .-24-24[digest] density and the temperature of raising.Stocking density needs to plant an ovum 0.35Kg (insect pests rate 70%-80%) for every square metre, when it grows into 4-5 during age, can utilize the polypide temperature to control receptacle temperature (receptacle can be built according to three-dimensional constant temperature method) and be hibernation period for general 0 ℃, need not heat; 0-25 ℃ is unsuitable vegetative period; 25-32 ℃ is the most suitable vegetative period; It more than 40 ℃ death phase.Reach certain stocking density,, just can grasp the humidity of feeding soil by the activity of ground beetle.3.[autograph] ground beetle propagate the extraordinary economic animals and plants .2002 of [author] Jiao Xiaoping [periodical name], 5 (5) .[digests artificially] pond supports: support in the pond, plane is the predecessor that the pond is raised in three-dimensional greenhouse.The pond of building the high 40-50M of square or rectangular with brick on indoor concrete floor, because of aisle 1m, build on pond or the indoor full block on both sides, the boarding operation of walking about on the pond.Feed: the feeding habits of ground beetle are wide, and wheat bran, rice chaff, dish leaf, melon, beans, leaf all are the feeds of ground beetle.Feeding soil: ground beetle can adapt to and grows in all kinds of soil property ores, generally with garden mould, mountain mud, leaf with growing soil.Earlier sieve removes big soil block, the impurity of leaf, ash or the sawdust of tripping 30%-50% in the soil of threading, and sawdust should be piled up abundant fermentation to black, also can adopt use in pig manure after the fermentation, the cow dung tripping soil, and effect is fine.Humidity after mixing can be agglomerating to grab, and a dozen are broken being advisable.
But the shortcoming that the method that the ground bettle of above-mentioned open source literature report is cultured exists is: cultural method adopts traditional normal temperature to culture, hatch, the hay varieties of throwing something and feeding is simple, do not adopt manufactured feed as single with Mai Pi or corn etc., do not note regulation and control temperature, humidity, poor management, disease harm is serious, and survival rate is low, and production cost is higher, the breeding process overlong time generally needs 12~16 months (wherein about 2 months incubation periods) could gather in the crops adult from the hatching beginning.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art part, find out a cover ground bettle fast breeding new technology and be applied to production,, reduce production costs, obtain optimum economic benefit to improve the survival rate and the price of deed, shortening culture-cycle.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that ground beetle fast breeding method comprises that kind is selected, hatching, raising, the disease prevention and cure of ootheca and process such as gather.It is to select good ground bettle as breed variety that described kind is selected; The hatching of described ootheca be hatch soil and ootheca in 0.5~1.5: 1.5~0.5 ratio mixes, and hatches under 22~36 ℃ temperature.Described raising is that the nymph (claiming larva again) that will hatch is put into container and supported several days temporarily, treat that it has sloughed off for the first time skin after, move into branch pond raising in larva raising pond or the Breeding container again; Described nursing is to divide the ground bettle that has sloughed off behind the skin for the first time pool cultivated in feeding soil, and the process of input vegetable feed and feed of animal origin nursing, described disease prevention and cure are by the generation of the ash control flour mite of the weight adding 10~80% of hatch soil or feeding soil and the process of harm; Described gathering is male worm to be removed keep the process that female worm is dried or dries.
The hatch soil that adopts in the hatching process of above-described ootheca is that the ratio of sawdust and ash is 1: 1 with the mixture of sawdust and ash.
Need in the above-described breed in grades process to build and raise the pond and put into feeding soil, the specification of raising the pond is wide 50~100cm, high 30~40cm, the pond that length is made by oneself.The prescription of feeding soil is to cooperate in the ratio of the earth 10~30% that contains humus, plant fiber powder 10~50%, animal argol 20~80%, and this feeding soil more suits activity and the nutritional requirement thereof of ground bettle, and the ground bettle that raises is full and be rich in gloss; Described plant fiber powder is sawdust or powder of straw; The described earth that contains humus also can be used the earth of paddy field plow layer preferably through the wastes of crops of stacking fermentation or through checking harmless garbage tankage; Described animal argol animal is selected for use and does cow dung or dried pig manure, dried sheep excrement.
Above-described feed kind: comprise vegetable feed (comprising green fodder), feed of animal origin and mineral matter.Wherein vegetable feed accounts for 79~91%, comprise corn, rice, paddy, wheat skin, rice bran, soya-bean cake, groundnut cake, soya bean, soybean etc., green forage accounts for 5~13% and comprises that various green vegetables (Chinese cabbage, cushaw leaf, sweet potato leaves), melon and fruit class account for (as Ipomoea batatas, potato, radish, pumpkin, watermelon, wax gourd etc.); Animal-based feed accounts for 3~7%, mainly is as fish meal; Mineral matter accounts for 1%, comprises bone meal and salt etc.
Below be described in detail the method for ground bettle fast breeding of the present invention:
One, kind is selected
Select first kind in two kinds of ground bettles that " The People's Republic of China's pharmacopeia " 2000 editions (first one) record, formal name used at school is Eupolyphaga Sinensis Walker.The male and female stalwartness, individual big, full, be rich in gloss.
Two, the hatching of ootheca
The hatching of ootheca may further comprise the steps:
(1) select ootheca: its color is that sepia or brown, no deformity, grain are full greatly, and it is flexible that the appearance light has slight rag, hand is pinched ootheca, pinches the serum that can see white after mashed.
(2) selection of hatch soil and modulation:
1, the selection of hatch soil: select for use quality to loosen, be as good as the sawdust (as pine tree end etc.) of smelling flavor and ash as hatch soil.As be fresh sawdust, must place it in to take out after being soaked in water in the pond 7 days and dry, screen out decontamination with 17 purposes after, packing, standby.
2, the modulation of hatch soil: water is modulated into humidity with sawdust or ash and is about 20% (be hand is grabbed agglomerating, that looses one's grip and touch promptly looses), hatch soil.Or in the ratio of sawdust and ash be prepare at 1: 1 after, it is 20% to get final product that water is modulated into humidity.
(3) Fu Hua container: the container of hatching usefulness is various, and available raising pond also can be with replacements such as big plastic basin, plastic box and wooden cases.
(4) hatching of ootheca: hatching divides the natural temperature hatching and the hatching of manually heating.
1, natural temperature hatching: when outside air temperature is higher than 25 ℃ (in summer, autumn), utilize natural temperature to hatch.Its concrete operation method is: with hatch soil and ootheca in 0.5~1.5: 1.5~0.5 ratio mixes, and can hatch.
2, the hatching of manually heating: when outside air temperature is lower than 24 ℃ (in early spring, winter and late fall), adopt the hot-water bottle hatching of heating, its method is: 1., 32~33 ℃ clean waters are poured in human rubber insulated bag or the plastic sack, tighten or tighten sack, the degree of being with water-tight, make a bag surface temperature remain on 30~32 ℃ simultaneously, standby.2., ootheca is put into incubator box (as bubble chamber, carton) or plastic basin, and then above-mentioned heat preservation hot water bag placed the central authorities of ootheca, and cover hot-water bottle with ootheca.
3, incubation period management: in hatching process, during as discovery hatch soil overdrying, should sift out the hatch soil that is mixed with ootheca with 17 mesh sieves, add and admix again after water mixes up humidity; Or admix after mixing up humidity with new hatch soil.The compound of hatch soil and ootheca respectively stirred 1 time in morning every day, evening.When the hot-water bottle surface temperature drops to 29~30 ℃, change the water in its bag, bag is gone into 32~33 ℃ of clean waters again.
4, separate nymph (claiming larva again): length and the temperature of incubation period have confidential relation, temperature constant, and the incubation period is also more stable.The incubation period is 50~60 days in the time of 25 ℃; The incubation period is 35~45 days in the time of 30 ℃; Optimum incubation temp is 30 ℃~32 ℃.
Through inventor's test, (temperature is 5~27 ℃) in the winter time, when adopting hot-water bottle to carry out artificial incubation ground bettle ootheca, hatching by 40 days just has the part larva to go out shell, arrives out the worm peak period in 43 days, and larva had all gone out in 46 days, and incubation rate reaches 91.5%.And the ootheca that carries out the nature hatching same period is hatched and was not seen have larva to go out shell as yet in 90 days.This shows, adopt the hot-water bottle hatching method, have simple to operate, easy grasp, temperature constant, cost low, can obviously shorten advantage such as incubation period, can in real work, promote the use of.
In the hatching later stage, there is larva to pip successively, sieve from the larva that go out shell with 17 purposes this moment.According to going out what of borer population amount every day, generally be to separate larva once, till whole larvas has been separated every 1~2 day.The larva that separates is put into container earlier and supported several days temporarily, treat that it has sloughed off for the first time skin after, move into the middle raising in larva raising pond (basin) again.
Three, raise
(1) build the pond: 1, be built into wide 50~100cm with brick, cement and sand, high 30~40cm, the pond that length is made by oneself, the pond inwall is criticized into smooth shape with cement, in case ground bettle runs away.For making full use of the space, available wood, iron or brick are made stereoscopic multi-layer and are raised frame, and every layer height 60cm generally can do 4 layers.In raising the pond, put the feeding soil that thickness is 10~20cm, standby.
(2) feed intake and feeding method: 1~3 age the nymph polypide little, a little less than the mobility, generally be not unearthed and look for food, but look for food, and focus mostly at the edge of raising the pond on the top layer of feeding soil.Feeding method is feed to be spread in the surface of feeding soil.Above nymph can both be unearthed and be looked for food 4 ages, and at this moment, available food dish or newspaper is placed on the feeding that feeds intake above the feeding soil fed intake 1 time every 1~2 day, generally was before to feed intake between the lights, and showing a small surplus with feed to the next morning is principle.The humidity of material is agglomerating to grab with hand, and promptly the loosing of touching of loosing one's grip is degree.
Four, management
(1) the receptacle air is fresh: note indoor ventilation, in the season that temperature is high, all will open door, window ventilation every day; The season that temperature is low, all want suitable ventilation at noon every day, raise the fresh of room air with frequent maintenance.
(2) receptacle and raising soil temperature, humidity control: the optimum temperature of ground bettle growth is 25 ℃~32 ℃, is higher or lower than this temperature range, and growing of it all is affected.
(3) do indoor health well: receptacle will be swept health every day once, with sanitation and hygiene in the holding chamber.In time remove feeding soil remaining food-residue in surface and dead worm,, induce an illness with anti-pollution feeding soil.
(4) breed in grades: divide the pond to raise according to the size of polypide, carry out different management methods.Can avoid like this that the strong bullying the weak, strong worm eats weak worm, and adult eats the generation of phenomenons such as worm's ovum, helps polypide and evenly grows.Generally be every about 2 months, separate with 17 orders, 12 orders, 6 orders, 4 orders and 2 purposes sieve respectively, make the polypide size in each pond approaching substantially according to the size of polypide.
(5) breed of heating of ground bettle: ground bettle is cold-blooded poikilotherm, will enter hibernation-like state when outside air temperature drops to 10 ℃.When ground bettle enters hibernation, do not eat motionlessly, do not grow, body weight also can alleviate sometimes.Under natural temperature, the hibernation period of ground bettle is 2~4 months in the south of China, is 3~5 months in the central plain area, reaches 5~7 months in the north, this shows, hibernation has restricted the quick growth of ground bettle.Facts have proved, by the people for heating, when making the interior temperature of receptacle remain on more than 20 ℃, will break the hibernation habit of ground bettle, but equal throughout the year growth and breeding, thereby make ground bettle support to culture by traditional normal temperature and shortened to 6~8 months, the culturing economic remarkable benefit in required 12~14 months to the adult specification from going out larva behind the shell.
By manually heating with coal, firewood, charcoal or boiler, simultaneously, adopt stereoscopic multi-layer to raise the pond and raise, can make full use of space and heat like this, reduce aquaculture cost.
(6) preparation feeding soil: ground bettle not only perches in feeding soil, also picked-up part nutriment in feeding soil.Requirement to feeding soil:
1, soil property is fertile, and contains rich nutrient substances, can replenish the ground bettle feed a part.
2, the soil is porous, is convenient to ground bettle like this and pierces, climb out of.
3, feeding soil humidity is moderate, water content about 20% (promptly agglomerating with holding, that looses one's grip and touch promptly looses).
4, the feeding soil particle is moderate, can keep in the feeding soil air sufficient and fresh like this.
(7) selection of feeding soil and preparation:
1, respectively with fertile mud, sawdust, cow dung, dry, pulverize, remove impurity after, separately packing is standby.
2, think that through inventor's research the feeding soil prescription of ground bettle is: fertile mud 10~30%, sawdust 10~50%, dried cow dung 20~80%.
Substantive distinguishing features of the present invention and obvious improvement:
One, select the ground bettle ootheca of high-quality for use, science preparation hatch soil and feeding soil utilize the hot-water bottle hatching ootheca of manually heating in the winter time, and this method is simple to operation, has shortened the incubation period.
Two, make full use of local feed resource advantage such as rice bran and corn etc., the manufactured feed of science preparation ground bettle, the clear and definite required feed nutrition levels of the different growth and development stages of ground bettle, and work up corresponding feed formula, daily gain and survival rate have been improved, shorten the culture-cycle, reduced food consumption, reduced production cost.
Three, utilization is manually heated in the winter time, make the temperature maintenance of culturing in the house at 20~30 ℃, thereby broken the hibernation habit of ground bettle, like this, ground bettle can both grow throughout the year, thereby, made 12~14 months that the ground bettle culture-cycle cultured by traditional normal temperature to shorten to 6~8 months, obviously shorten the culture-cycle, obtained remarkable economic efficiency.
Four, in hatch soil or feeding soil, add an amount of ash, can effectively control generation and the harm of flour mite.
Five, by adopting comprehensive nursing and administrative skill, controlled the generation of ground bettle common disease effectively and spread, guaranteed ground bettle health, growth apace.
Six, by implementing abovementioned technology, improved the incubation rate of ground bettle, reduced the death of polypide, accelerated its growth rate, shortened the culture-cycle, reduced aquaculture cost, thereby reached the purpose of obviously increasing economic efficiency.
Below be the culture efficiency of specific implementation process of the present invention:
One, different feeding soils are cultured comparative trial to ground bettle
The inventor adopts different feeding soils that ground bettle is cultured comparative trial respectively, and the prescription of its feeding soil is: I group be 100% sawdust, II group be the fertile mud of 50% sawdust+50%, III group be 100% do cow dung, IV group be 50% sawdust+50% do cow dung, V group be 50% fertile mud+
What 50% dried cow dung, VI organized is that 20% fertile mud+30% sawdust+50% is done cow dung, and each is organized the compound feed prescription of being thrown something and fed and manages all identical.Culturing time ended 8 totally months in 30 days from April 1 to November.Its result sees table 1 for details.
The different feeding soils of table 1 are to the information slip that influences of ground bettle growth
Annotate: 1. 0.5 kilogram of larva is by 1 kilogram of whole larva that ootheca hatched, about totally 15 ten thousand.
2. during off-test, female polypide Weight Calculation method is: have 30% to be winged male worm in the ground bettle polypide, can fly, and very easy to be dead
Die, therefore, all male worm is removed (medicinal all is female worm also, and without male worm) when weighing, only calculate the weight of female worm.Down together.
3. cost is meant 1 kilogram of required expense of every weightening finish, comprising purchasing cow dung, sawdust, three expenses of feed, does not comprise and purchases ootheca
With plastic basin, artificial, build other expenses such as pond.
4. the reason that survival rate is low is: 30% male worm is arranged in the polypide, remove, only calculate the quantity of female worm, so survival rate is lower.Down together.
As seen from the above table, no matter be speed of weight increment, the survival rate of ground bettle, or the price of deed, cost, be best all with VI group (i.e. the dried cow dung of 20% fertile mud+30% sawdust+50%).
Two, the selection of ground bettle feed and preparation thereof:
(1), feed kind: ground bettle is an omnivorous insect, and feeding habits are wide, and feed resource is convenient.Vegetable feed comprises corn, rice, paddy, wheat skin, rice bran, soya-bean cake, groundnut cake, soya bean, soybean etc., and green forage comprises various green vegetables (Chinese cabbage, cushaw leaf, sweet potato leaves), melon and fruit class (as Ipomoea batatas, potato, radish, pumpkin, watermelon, wax gourd etc.); Animal-based feed (as fish meal) and mineral matter (as bone meal) etc.
(2), feed formula: growing and breeding equally with other animals of ground bettle all needs nutritional factors such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral matter.Nutritious in the feed, full price could satisfy the needs of its each growth period, therefore, must determine its feed nutrition level, and work up suitable feed formula.
Through inventor's test, gross protein value and feed formula thereof see Table 2 in its desired feed of ground bettle in the different length of times:
Different desired trophic level of ground bettle in the length of time of table 2 and feed formula table (%)
Three, the inventor adopts the feedstuff feeding that contains different thick protein levels to carry out culture experiment for the ground bettle of different growth and development stages respectively, cultures to November 30 since April 1 and ends, and 8 totally months, it the results are shown in Table 3, table 4.
The table 3 experimental group feed nutrition level of throwing something and feeding
Annotate: the wheat skin that control group is is all thrown something and fed single from 0~8 monthly age, its gross protein value are 13.2%.
Table 4 feed nutrition level is to the ground bettle information slip that increases weight
Annotate: cost is meant one kilogram of required feed cost usefulness of every weightening finish, does not comprise expenses such as purchasing cow dung, artificial, ootheca.
Table 4 shows that the ground bettle of experimental group is all high according to group aspect speed of weight increment, survival rate and the price of deed, and cost reduces by 9.6% than control group.
Therefore, according to the different growth and development stage of the ground bettle corresponding manufactured feed of throwing something and feeding, than the single wheat skin of throwing something and feeding of conventional cultivation, its economic benefit is much higher.
Four, the thickness of feeding soil: according to the length of time and the size of ground bettle, the relation of its density and feeding soil thickness sees table 5 for details.
The thickness of table 5 feeding soil and the ground bettle length of time and density meter thereof
Five, feeding and management:
(1), feed intake and feeding method: 1~3 age the nymph polypide little, a little less than the mobility, generally be not unearthed and look for food, but look for food, and focus mostly at the edge of raising the pond on the top layer of feeding soil.Feeding method is feed to be spread in the surface of feeding soil.Above nymph can both be unearthed and be looked for food 4 ages, and at this moment, available food dish or newspaper is placed on the feeding that feeds intake above the feeding soil fed intake 1 time every 1~2 day, generally was before to feed intake between the lights, and showing a small surplus with feed to the next morning is principle.The humidity of material is agglomerating to grab with hand, and promptly the loosing of touching of loosing one's grip is degree.
(2), the receptacle air is fresh: note indoor ventilation, in the season that temperature is high, all will open door, window ventilation every day; The season that temperature is low, all want suitable ventilation at noon every day, raise the fresh of room air with frequent maintenance.
(3), receptacle and raising soil temperature, humidity control: the optimum temperature of ground bettle growth is 25 ℃~32 ℃, is higher or lower than this temperature range, and growing of it all is affected.
(4), do indoor health well: receptacle will be swept health every day once, with sanitation and hygiene in the holding chamber.In time remove feeding soil remaining food-residue in surface and dead worm,, induce an illness with anti-pollution feeding soil.
Six, breed in grades: divide the pond to raise according to the size of polypide, carry out different management methods.Can avoid like this that the strong bullying the weak, strong worm eats weak worm, and adult eats the generation of phenomenons such as worm's ovum, helps polypide and evenly grows.
Generally be every about 2 months, separate with 17 orders, 12 orders, 6 orders, 4 orders and 2 purposes sieve respectively, make the polypide size in each pond approaching substantially according to the size of polypide.
Seven, the breed of heating of ground bettle: ground bettle is cold-blooded poikilotherm, will enter hibernation-like state when outside air temperature drops to 10 ℃.When ground bettle enters hibernation, do not eat motionlessly, do not grow, body weight also can alleviate sometimes.Facts have proved, in the winter time by the people for heating, when making the interior temperature of receptacle remain on more than 20 ℃, will break the hibernation habit of ground bettle, but equal throughout the year growth and breeding, thereby make ground bettle support to culture by traditional normal temperature and shortened to 6~8 months, the culturing economic remarkable benefit in required 12~14 months to the adult specification from going out larva behind the shell.
The inventor only carries out 7 months by a definite date manually heat altogether from April 30 October 1 to next year and cultures ground bettle test (5~28 ℃ of outside air temperatures), and it the results are shown in Table 6.
Table 6 is manually heated to the information slip that influences of ground bettle growth winter
During bundle Survival rate (%) ??54.7 ??48.8
Total feed consumption (kilogram) ??254.37 ??50.32
Meat feed ratio (1 :) ??2.51 ??4.45
Cost (unit) ??5.74 ??8.40
As seen from the above table, the output of experimental group is 4.53 times of control group, and the cost of 1 kilogram of living worm body of every weightening finish reduces by 31.7% than control group, as seen, the breed ground bettle of manually heating winter, remarkable in economical benefits is worthy to be popularized.
Eight, ground bettle common disease pest control:
At present, in the ground bettle breeding process, modal damage by disease and insect is a flour mite.
Flour mite: flour mite multiplies in the wheat skin easily, makes feed rotten.Breed very fast high temperature, super-humid conditions flour mite.As find that flour mite is arranged in the feeding soil, available newspaper is loaded onto very thin one deck and is fried fragrant wheat skin, is placed on above the feeding soil, just flour mite gathers Mai Pishang after smelling fragrance, at this moment, the wheat skin is taken out processing together with newspaper get final product.Also available banana skin, sugarcane are put into the raising pond and trap and kill.Generally be to feed intake by day, then according to the flour mite aggregate amount how much decide the time of getting material and the number of times that feeds intake, can trap and kill the flour mite in the feed soil repeatedly several times.If when the acarid in the feeding soil is serious, then will in time change feeding soil.
Embodiment
Embodiment one
1, preparation hatch soil and feeding soil:
1. hatch soil: sawdust is dried, remove impurity with 17 mesh sieves after, standby.
2. feeding soil: respectively with sawdust, cow dung and fertile mud dry, pulverize, remove impurity with 12 mesh sieves after, mix afterwards standby by 3: 5: 2 ratios.
2, ootheca hatching:
After the Ching Ming Festival (being April 5), soft-shelled turtle worm's ovum sheath 1000 grams (about 1.7 ten thousand) fetch earth, being 20% hatch soil with water content, evenly to be placed on base diameter be 60cm, high for carrying out the nature hatching in the plastic basin of 35cm by mixing with it at 1: 1, respectively stirs ootheca and hatch soil every day sooner or later.Changed once new hatch soil (water content 20%) every 7 days, hatch larva successively after 45 days, reached the worm peak period in 48 days, larva had all gone out in 53 days.When having larva to go out shell in the basin, according to larva quantity what, to sieve from larva with 17 purposes every 1~3 day, the larva after the separation is placed on to raise in the pond and raises, and the ootheca that does not go out worm continues hatching, till larva has gone out.Incubation rate reaches 90.2%, incubate altogether larva 615g (15.5 ten thousand).
3, ground bettle is cultured:
1. water is modulated into feeding soil after water content is 20%, place and raise in the pond, thickness is: the larva at 0~2 monthly age is 7cm, and the middle worm at 3~5 monthly ages is 10cm, the tiger at 6~11 monthly ages, adult are 18cm, the above-mentioned larva that hatches is put in the feeding soil raise then.
2. feed formula: 1~3 instar feed formula (%): corn 38 rice brans 40 fish meal 5 groundnut meals 9 green vegetables 7 bone meal 0.7 salt 0.3; 4~7 instar feed formulas (%): corn 42 rice brans 38 fish meal 4 groundnut meals 5 green vegetables 10 bone meal 0.7 salt 0.3; 8~11 instar feed formulas (%): corn 41 rice brans 38 fish meal 3 groundnut meals 5 green vegetables 12 bone meal 0.7 salt 0.3.
3. the modulation of feed and throwing something and feeding: with clean water feed is modulated into water content and is 20% (being half-dried wet), agglomerating to grab with hand, promptly the loosing of touching of loosing one's grip is degree.
Feeding method is: feed is dispersed in the surface of feeding soil, allows the insect free choice feeding.Generally be every afternoon feeding once get final product.
4, daily management:
1. cultivation density: in feeding soil thickness is 15cm, and every square metre of breeding density is: 160,000 of 1~3 instars; 2.2 ten thousand of 4~7 instars, 10,000 of 8~11 instars.
2. the ground bettle in the different length of times is used corresponding feed formula.
3. eliminate the remaining feed in feeding soil top layer every morning one time, pollute feeding soil (feed is perishable for summer especially, weather sweltering heat), make polypide that disease take place in order to avoid go mouldy.
4. raise the pond and begin to raise and count from the ground bettle larva is put into, every next but two moon respectively with 12 mesh sieves, 6 mesh sieves, 4 mesh sieves and 2 mesh sieves with polypide size separately, breed in grades, be that each polypide size of raising in pond is close, avoid individuality to differ big or small, and influence activity and search for food.
5. temperature, humidity regulation: indoor temperature is controlled at 10~36 ℃, will open door, window when temperature surpasses 36 ℃ or carry out ventilation, the watering cooling with electric fan; To close door and window when temperature is lower than 10 ℃ or heat; Humidity is 75~85%.
6. disease prevention and cure: culturing ground bettle modal is flour mite harm.Its method of preventing and treating is: the ash of adding 30% can effectively be controlled the generation of flour mite between the incubation period in hatch soil; During as larva, middle worm, adult stage generation flour mite, can in raising the pond, put into bajiao banana skin, bagasse, polypide will accumulate on bajiao banana skin, the bagasse after smelling fragrant and sweet flavor, it is taken out with boiling water then and scald extremely or burn, every day as stated above, induce flour mite once, carry out continuously the flour mite in the feeding soil all to be removed in 3 days.
5, the gathering and processing of ground bettle:
Support to November, when temperature drops to 15 ℃, adult, tiger (generally be every kilogram 500~1000 of polypides are arranged) are told with 2 mesh sieves or 4 mesh sieves, be placed in bigger cylinder, bucket, the basin, scald after death, be placed on to spread out on the straw mat and dry with boiling water, bag, finished product is sold.As not reaching adult polypide specification as yet, then to stay to raise and continue in the pond to raise, the back of surviving the winter was raised when promptly reaching the adult specification in 3~4 months and is gathered, processes.
Generally be the larva that 1000 gram oothecas are hatched, the raising through 8 months can be gathered in the crops 100~150 kilograms of fresh and alive polypides.
Embodiment two:
Artificially controlling temperature hatching ootheca: heat with the hot-water bottle method, specific practice is: when outside air temperature is lower than 24 ℃ (in early spring, winter and late fall), adopt the hot-water bottle hatching of heating, its method is: 1,32~33 ℃ clean water is poured in human rubber insulated bag or the plastic sack, tighten or tighten sack, the degree of being with water-tight makes a bag surface temperature remain on 30~32 ℃ simultaneously, and is standby.2, ootheca is put into incubator box (as bubble chamber, carton) or plastic basin, and then above-mentioned heat preservation hot water bag is placed the central authorities of ootheca, and cover hot-water bottle with ootheca.
Adopt this law to hatch ootheca in 1~February, can hatch larva 3~April, through 8~9 months raising, feeds with the inventive method, and overwhelming majority polypides have reached the adult specification during to November, can gather, processing and utilization, takes effect high efficiency then.If adopt normal temperature hatching ootheca, begin hatching April, hatch larva June, raise and enter hibernation period (this moment, the polypide overwhelming majority did not reach the adult specification as yet) after 5 months, must could gather, process to August next year through after surviving the winter.This hatching cultural method, benefit is relatively poor.

Claims (4)

1. ground beetle fast breeding method, comprise processes such as kind selection, hatching, breed in grades, the disease prevention and cure of ootheca, the processing of gathering, it is characterized in that: it is to select good ground bettle as breed variety that described kind is selected, described ootheca hatching be with hatch soil and ootheca in 0.5~1.5: after 1.5~0.5 ratio mixes, place under 20-35 ℃ the temperature and hatch; Described breed in grades is the nymph that hatches to be put into container supported several days temporarily, after treating that it has sloughed off for the first time skin, move into again in larva raising pond or the Breeding container and raise, and the process of input vegetable feed and feed of animal origin nursing, described disease prevention and cure are by the generation of the ash control flour mite of the weight adding 10~80% of hatch soil or feeding soil and the process of harm; The described processing of gathering is male worm to be removed keep the process that female worm is dried or dries.
2. ground beetle fast breeding method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the hatch soil that adopts in the ootheca hatching process is that the ratio of sawdust and ash is 1: 1 with the mixture of sawdust and ash.
3. ground beetle fast breeding method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: need in the described breed in grades process to build and raise the pond and drop into feeding soil, the specification of raising the pond is wide 50~100cm, high 30~40cm, the pond that length is made by oneself; The feeding soil prescription is: the ratio in the earth 10~30% that contains humus, plant fiber powder 10~50%, animal argol 20~80% cooperates; Described plant fiber powder is sawdust or powder of straw; The described earth that contains humus is through the wastes of crops of stacking fermentation or through checking harmless garbage tankage, perhaps the earth of paddy field plow layer; Described animal argol animal is selected for use and does cow dung or dried pig manure, dried sheep excrement.
4. ground beetle fast breeding method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described feed kind comprises vegetable feed, feed of animal origin and mineral matter, wherein vegetable feed accounts for 79~91%, comprises corn, rice, paddy, wheat skin, rice bran, soya-bean cake, groundnut cake, soya bean, soybean; Green forage accounts for 5~13%, comprises various green vegetables, melon and fruit; Animal-based feed accounts for 3~7%, comprises fish meal; Mineral matter accounts for 1%, comprises bone meal and salt.
CN 200510032927 2005-01-28 2005-01-28 Ground beetle fast breeding method CN1656890A (en)

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CN104396894A (en) * 2014-11-24 2015-03-11 毛艳玲 Artificial feeding method of ground beetle
CN104521901A (en) * 2014-11-24 2015-04-22 桑金全 Eupolyphaga egg hatching method
CN105010240A (en) * 2014-12-22 2015-11-04 上海辰农生物科技有限公司 Eupolyphaga sinensis production and cultivation process
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