CN115299300A - Rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method - Google Patents

Rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN115299300A
CN115299300A CN202210804050.XA CN202210804050A CN115299300A CN 115299300 A CN115299300 A CN 115299300A CN 202210804050 A CN202210804050 A CN 202210804050A CN 115299300 A CN115299300 A CN 115299300A
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China
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ridge
ditch
ridges
months
soil
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Inventor
胡光荣
叶晶晶
吴建梅
李可贤
曹宁宁
刘惠民
刘星宇
刘露民
张剑飞
石洪康
李林波
马勇
胡祚忠
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Sericultural Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Sericultural Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Priority to CN202210804050.XA priority Critical patent/CN115299300A/en
Publication of CN115299300A publication Critical patent/CN115299300A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Marine Sciences & Fisheries (AREA)
  • Animal Husbandry (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Zoology (AREA)
  • Mycology (AREA)
  • Soil Working Implements (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a rice fruit mushroom relay cropping method, which comprises the following steps of modifying and distributing the soil: ditching and ridging the farmland, arranging ridges around the farmland, and connecting one end of each ridge with the ridge, so that fruit trees can be managed and harvested and transported conveniently from the ridge to the ridge; the distance between the other end of the ridge and the opposite ridge is the width of a ditch, so that the ditches of the whole land are communicated with each other, and irrigation and mechanical cultivation are facilitated; the layout of adjacent ridges can be the same, and the positions of the furrows can also be changed; a pond or/and a deep water ditch are/is arranged in the middle or at one side or one corner of the field soil, so that fishes in the field soil in the mushroom planting period can survive conveniently; adding water into the ditch for planting the rice in 5-9 months; water in the dry ditch is drained from 10 months to 4 months in the next year, and the mushroom is planted in the ditch with the drained water; and planting fruit trees on the ridges and the ridges. The method is not only suitable for the paddy-upland interplanting rotation of new farmlands, but also can be used for improving the soil of the originally planted fruit trees and mulberry trees, and has important significance for increasing the grain yield and improving the yield per unit area while having little influence on the planted economic crops.

Description

Rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of crop cultivation, in particular to a rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method.
Background
In recent decades, some farmlands are planted with economic crops, the grain planting is reduced, and the grain safety is endangered, so that the problem that grain crops are planted in grain fields and the income of economic crops can be increased is urgently needed to be solved.
The first people eat the food as the day and eat the meal, so the farmland must be dominated by the grain; secondly, fruits and vegetables also need to be developed; thirdly, the fact proves that the economic benefit of singly planting crops is not high; fourthly, a large number of fruit trees and mulberries are planted in the whole country at present to occupy the grain field, and the fruit and grain transformation is needed; fifthly, waterlogging prevention and reconstruction are carried out on waterlogging-prone low-lying areas of planted fruit trees and mulberries. Therefore, the method for interplanting the land for planting the economic crops on the basis of not influencing the grain yield is provided, and has important significance for improving the acre yield of the farmland and stabilizing the grain yield.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a rice fruit mushroom relay cropping method, which is a high-benefit interplanting method for simultaneously planting various fruits and edible mushrooms on the premise of providing a set of land and grain-preserving planting, and can improve the acre output value of a farmland by 3-10 times. In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
a method for relay intercropping of Volvariella oryzae, comprising the steps of,
transforming and laying out the field soil: ridging 3 a furrow 4 in the field soil, arranging ridges around the field soil, connecting one end of each ridge 3 with the ridge 2, setting the distance between the other end of each ridge and the opposite ridge to be a furrow width, and arranging adjacent ridges 3 in the same or opposite positions;
adding water into the ditch 4 for planting rice in 5-9 months; draining water in the dry ditch 4 in 10 months to 4 months of the next year, and draining the mushroom in the ditch 4 with the water; and planting fruit trees 6 on the ridges 3.
Specifically, the method further comprises:
a pond 11 or/and a deep water ditch 5 are/is arranged in the center or a certain side or a certain corner of the field; the width of the pond 11 or/and the deep water ditch 5 is 2-6m, and the depth of the ditch is more than 0.8m;
the pond 11 or/and the deep water ditch 5 are used for water-discharging fish culture, wherein when water is added into the ditch (4) from 5 months to 9 months for planting rice, the fish swim in the whole rice field; when dried seed mushrooms are placed in the furrow 4 from 10 months to 4 months of the next year, smaller fish or fish for seeding continue to grow and propagate in the pond 11 or/and the deep water furrow 5.
Specifically, the transformation layout of the field soil is realized, including new farmland transformation, the transformation of the barren land can increase the yield of grains in the existing orchard, and the transformation of the mulberry orchard, which is easy to waterlog in the low-lying land, can prevent waterlogging;
the width of the ridge 3 is 0.8-1.5m, the width of the ditch 4 is 1.5-2.5 times of the width of the ridge 3, and the depth of the ditch 4 is 0.3-0.8 m.
In particular to orchard anti-waterlogging improvement for improving existing orchards to increase yield of grains and for orchard and mulberry gardens with low-lying areas and high waterlogging tendency, which comprises,
aiming at the field soil with small relative row spacing, namely planting density among rows: selecting fruit trees 6 around the planting field as ridges 2, and digging out one fruit tree at intervals for the fruit trees at the end parts of the ridges 2;
digging a row of fruit trees in an interlaced manner to serve as a ditch 4; the fruit trees which are not dug are taken as ridges 3; one end of each ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, the distance from the other end of each ridge 3 to the opposite ridge 2 is a furrow width, and the layout positions of the adjacent ridges (3) are the same or opposite.
In particular to orchard waterlogging prevention modification for improving existing orchards to increase yield of grains and for low-lying areas to easily waterlog orchards,
aiming at the field soil with larger relative row spacing, namely the field soil with small planting density between rows, selecting the fruit trees 6 around the field soil as ridges 2, and digging out one fruit tree at intervals from the fruit tree at the end part of the ridge 2;
ditching and ridging are carried out between the rows of the fruit trees, and the ditches and the end parts of the ridges 2 are staggered with each other for digging out the fruit trees; the ridge corresponds to the position of the fruit tree dug at the end part of the ridge 2;
one end of each ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, the distance between the other end of each ridge 3 and the opposite ridge 2 is the width of one fruit tree, and the arrangement positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same or opposite.
Specifically, the layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same or opposite, specifically,
said ridges 3 comprise a first end and a second end, wherein,
the same layout position of the adjacent ridges 3 means that the first end parts of the adjacent ridges 3 are connected with the ridges 2, and the distance between the second end parts of the adjacent ridges 3 and the opposite ridge 2 is a ditch width;
the opposite layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 mean that the first end of one ridge of the adjacent ridges 3 is connected with the ridge 2, and the distance between the second end and the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch;
the distance from the first end of the other ridge of the adjacent ridges 3 to the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch; the second end is connected to the ridge 2.
In particular, the improvement layout of the field soil also comprises,
the width of the ridge 2 around the field is larger than that of the ridge 3; the ridges 3 are of the same or different heights;
the bottoms of the ditches 4 are on the same horizontal line, and the depths of water in the ditches 4 in the same field are consistent or the heights of the water depths to the water surface lines 7 are consistent when the ditches 4 are used for planting rice;
the ridge of the field comprises at least one notch, and the notch is used for draining water to prevent the rice seedlings from being submerged when meeting heavy rain during the rice planting period or discharging water in a shallow ditch when planting mushrooms;
keeping the top soil covering the upper layer of the ridge 3 when the ditch 4 is taken out, adding 1/3 of the top soil at the bottom of the ditch 4 on the side ridge 3 when the ditch is dug, and restoring 2/3 of the top soil in the ditch 4 after the bottom of the ditch is dug for about 10 cm;
the surface soil of the trench 4 is dug and moved to the ridge 2, when one side is dug to a half, the dug soil is placed on the ridge 2, and the ridge 2 is widened and heightened;
and after the soil is dug to the set depth of 5cm downwards, continuously digging a layer downwards, adding 2/3 of surface soil dug in the other ditch 4 into the ditch dug firstly, uniformly mixing the surface soil with bottom soil, and adding mixed organic fertilizer when the bottom soil is turned over.
Specifically, the fruit tree 6 is a low-dry fruit plant, and includes any one of mulberry, leaf-dual-purpose mulberry, low-dry citrus or other fruits and vegetables.
Specifically, the low-dry fruit plant is preferably a mulberry;
the mulberries are germinated, bloomed and fruited in 2-3 months, and the mulberries are ripe and harvested in 4-5 months;
and (4) transplanting seedlings in the ditch during picking the mulberry, and performing mulberry shoot cutting at the bottom of 5 months and in the last 6 months after picking the mulberry.
Specifically, the fruit mulberry is dormant from 10 months to 3 months in the next year, and beans or vegetable crops with short growing time are planted under the mulberry.
Specifically, dry mushroom seeds are put in the ditch from 10 months to 4 months in the next year by water, specifically,
draining water in the ditches in 10 months to 4 months in the next year, forming a shallow ditch with the width of 20cm in each ditch, forming two shallow ridges, and planting mushrooms on the shallow ridges;
specifically, the mushroom is edible mushroom, including any one of dictyophora indusiata, stropharia rugoso-annulata, morchella esculenta or other edible mushrooms;
the edible fungus interplanting needs to be changed at intervals of 1-2 years.
In particular to planting mushroom in shallow ridges, which also comprises,
filling mulberry twigs and crop straw scraps into a mushroom culture medium;
the ramulus Mori is pulverized ramulus Mori completely, or a mixture of pulverized ramulus Mori and small segments of 5-30cm cut from part of ramulus Mori.
The invention has the technical effects and advantages that:
1. the invention provides a set of high-benefit interplanting method for simultaneously planting various fruits and edible mushrooms on the premise of grain-preserving planting in land, which can improve the acre output value of a farmland by 3-10 times.
2. The interplanting method is not only suitable for the paddy-upland interplanting rotation mode of new farmlands, but also can improve the land where rice is originally planted to carry out interplanting of the rice and the fruit mushrooms so as to improve the acre yield value of the farmlands.
3. The invention provides a new land improvement and grain increasing relay intercropping mode for improving the land required for fruit and grain reconstruction when the original planted fruit trees and mulberries occupy the grain field.
4. The invention provides a waterlogging prevention and increased interplanting mode for waterlogging prevention and transformation of low-lying lands which are planted with dry crops and are easy to waterlog.
5. According to the method, the mulberry twigs and fruit twigs cut every year are crushed, then are prepared nearby, and are laid on the shallow trenches to serve as raw materials of the edible fungi, so that the cost for planting the edible fungi is reduced, and meanwhile, the cut mulberry twigs and fruit twigs are prevented from breeding insect pests in the corners of the fields; particularly, a part of branches are crushed, and a part of branches are cut into sections and added into the crushed materials without being crushed, so that the weight of the unit culture material is increased, and the crushing cost is reduced.
Therefore, the method for interplanting the land for planting the economic crops on the basis of not influencing the grain yield is provided.
Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in the written description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is an overall layout of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the ground of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of corner pond-adding and cultivation route according to the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a field layout with a smaller row spacing, i.e., a higher inter-row planting density, for a mulberry or fruit tree that has been planted into a forest in the prior art according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a field layout with a large row spacing, i.e., a low inter-row planting density, for a mulberry or fruit tree that has been planted into a forest.
In the figure: 1. a passageway into the field; 2. carrying out ridge making; 3. ridging; 4. grooving; 5. deep water ditches; 6. fruit trees; 7. water line; 8. a base layer; 9. water or a spreading layer; 10. planting a soil layer; 11. a pond; 12. The cultivation route is schematic.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In order to solve the defects of the prior art, the invention discloses a rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method which comprises the following steps,
transforming and laying out the field soil: ridging 3 ridges of a field soil ditching 4, wherein the width of each ridge 3 is set according to the type of fruits, the width of each ridge 3 is set to be 0.8-1.5m, the width of each ditch 4 is 1.5-2.5 times of the width of each ridge 3, the depth of each ditch 4 is 0.3-0.8m, and the depth of each ditch 4 is the height difference between the bottom of each finger ditch 1 and the horizontal plane of each ridge 2; one end of the ridge 2 is connected with the ridge 6, so that fruit trees can be managed and harvested and transported conveniently from the ridge 2 to the ridge 3; the other end of the ridge 3 is not connected with the opposite ridge 2, and the distance between the ridge and the opposite ridge 2 is one furrow width, so that the furrows of the whole land are communicated with the furrows 4, and irrigation and mechanical cultivation are facilitated; the layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same or opposite; a pond 11 or/and a deep water ditch 5 can be arranged in the middle of the field or on one side or one corner of the field according to needs, the width of the ditch of the pond or the deep water ditch 5 is 2-6m, and the depth of the ditch is more than 0.8m.
Further, in the preferred embodiment of the present application, with reference to fig. 1, a channel 1 for entering the field is provided on the ridge 2 around the field soil, and the ridge 2 around the field soil has a width larger than the ridge 3; keeping the top soil covering the upper layer of the surface of the ridge 3 when the ditch 4 is taken out, and when the ditch 4 is dug, 1/3 of the top soil at the bottom of the ditch 4 is added on the side ridge 3, and 2/3 of the top soil returns to the ditch 4 after the bottom of the ditch is dug for about 10 cm; digging surface soil of the ditch 4 to a ridge, and placing the dug soil to the ridge 2 when one side of the ditch is half dug, wherein the dug soil is used for heightening the ridge 2; after digging to the set depth and downwards 5cm, continuously digging a layer downwards, adding 2/3 of surface soil dug by the other ditch into the ditch 4 dug firstly, uniformly mixing with bottom soil, and adding mixed organic fertilizer when turning the bottom soil.
Furthermore, the ridges 3 comprise a first end part and a second end part, wherein the arrangement positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same, that is, the first end parts of the adjacent ridges 3 are connected with the ridges 2, and the distance from the second end parts of the adjacent ridges 3 to the opposite ridges 2 is a ditch 4 in width; the opposite layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 mean that the first end of one ridge of the adjacent ridges 3 is connected with the ridge 2, and the distance between the second end and the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch; the distance from the first end of the other ridge of the adjacent ridges 3 to the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch; the second end is connected with the ridge 2.
Furthermore, a ditch is widened by 1-2m (depending on the size of the field) in the middle or on one side of the field, the depth of the ditch is further increased by more than 0.5m for fish culture by widening the ditch by 1-2m in the middle, and a deep ditch (or a small square pond, as shown in figure 3) can also be dug at one corner of or the whole field.
The fish in 5-9 months of the paddy rice in other ditches 4 can swim in the whole paddy field, and when dry-seed mushrooms are put in the ditches 4 from 10 months to 4 months of the next year, the smaller fish or the fish for seed can continue to grow and breed in the deep ditch 5 (the deep ditch keeps water for a long time).
Further, water is added into the ditch 4 for planting rice in 5-9 months; draining water in the ditch 4 for planting mushroom in 10 months to 4 months in the next year; feeding fish into the ditch 4, and in the pond 11 or/and the deep water ditch 5; wherein, when water is added into the ditch from 5 months to 9 months for planting the rice, the fish swim in the whole rice field; when dried strain mushrooms are put into the ditch in 10 months to 4 months in the next year, a part of large fishes are fished for sale, and the rest smaller fishes or fishes for use as seeds continue to grow and breed in the pond.
Further, low-dry fruit plants 6 are planted on the ridges 3, including mulberries, dual-purpose mulberries of fruit leaves or low-dry citrus, and other low-dry fruits.
Further, the low-dry fruit plant is preferably a mulberry; the mulberries are germinated, bloomed and fruited in 2-3 months, and the mulberries are ripe and harvested in 4-5 months; and (4) transplanting seedlings in the ditch during picking the mulberry, and performing mulberry shoot cutting at the bottom of 5 months and in the last 6 months after picking the mulberry. The fruit mulberry is dormant from 10 months to 3 months of the next year, and beans or vegetable crops are planted under the mulberry.
And further, draining dry-planted mushrooms in the ditches 4 from 10 months to 4 months of the next year, specifically, draining the water in the ditches 4 from 10 months to 4 months of the next year, forming a shallow ditch with the width of 20cm in the middle of each ditch 4, forming two shallow ridges, digging soil from the shallow ditches to generate the shallow ridges, and planting mushrooms or rice on the shallow ridges.
Further, the mushroom is edible mushroom, and comprises any one of dictyophora indusiata, stropharia rugoso-annulata, morchella esculenta and straw mushroom; the edible fungus interplanting needs to be changed at intervals of 1-2 years. The method comprises the following steps of planting mushrooms on the shallow ridges, and filling mulberry branches and crop straw scraps into mushroom culture base materials; the mulberry branches are completely crushed mulberry branches, or a mixture of the completely crushed mulberry branches and small sections of which the parts of the mulberry branches are cut into 5-30 cm.
The rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method of the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific examples. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that the following described embodiments are only illustrative of the present invention and are not intended to limit the same in any way.
According to the improved layout of the field soil shown in the figure 1, ridges are arranged around the field soil, channels 1 entering the field are arranged on the ridges 2, ridges 3 and ditches 4 are arranged in the ridges 2 when being staggered, and a pond 11 or a deep water ditch 5 is arranged at any optional position in the ridges 2; one end of the ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, so that the management of fruit trees and the picking and transportation of fruits from the ridge 2 to the ridge 3 are facilitated; the distance between the other end of the ridge 3 and the opposite ridge 2 is a ditch width, so that the ditches 4 of the whole land are communicated with the ditches 4 completely, and irrigation and mechanical farming are facilitated; the arrangement of the adjacent ridges 3 can be the same, or the positions of the grooves 4 can be opposite, and the ridges 3 at the other end are connected with the ridges 2 at the other end. Adding water into the ditch 4 for planting rice in 5-9 months in the ditch 4; draining water in the ditch 4 for planting mushroom in the next 4 months from 10 months; the mode of planting on the ridge 3 and the ridge 2 is that the ridge 2 is used for planting low-dry fruits in principle, so that the shading of crops in a ditch is reduced, fruit mulberries or fruit leaves can be planted simultaneously, low-dry oranges and the like can also be planted, and the low-dry fruits can be cultivated in a low-dry mode no matter what kind of crops are. The pond 11 or the deep water ditch 5 is used for culturing fish, when fish of 5-9 months planted with rice in the ditch 4 can swim in the whole paddy field, and when dry-planted mushrooms are placed in the ditch 4 of 4 months of the next year, a part of big fish is caught for sale, the rest of small fish or fish for planting continue to grow and breed in the deep water ditch 5, and the water in the deep water ditch 5 is kept for a long time.
The layout of the adjacent ridges 3 can be the same, and the layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 can also be opposite, specifically, the ridges 3 comprise a first end part and a second end part, wherein the layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same, namely, the first end parts of the adjacent ridges 3 are connected with the ridges 2, and the distances from the second end parts of the adjacent ridges 3 to the opposite ridges 2 are a ditch 4 in width; the opposite layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 mean that the first end of one ridge of the adjacent ridges 3 is connected with the ridge 2, and the distance between the second end and the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch; the distance from the first end of the other ridge of the adjacent ridges 3 to the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch; the second end is connected to the ridge 6.
Further, with reference to the schematic cross-sectional view of the land in fig. 2, the ridge forming mode is as follows: the width of the ridge 3 depends on the fruit species, generally about 1m, and the width of the ditch 4 is about 2 times of the width of the ridge 3; the depth of the ditch 4 is lower than the waterline, and the height difference between the ditch bottom and the ridge surface is about 0.5 m; the ridge 2 around the field is wider than the ridge 3; keeping the top soil covering the upper layer of the surface of the ridge 3 when the ditch 4 is taken out, and digging the ditch 4, wherein 1/3 of the top soil at the bottom of the ditch 4 is added on the side ridge 3, and 2/3 of the top soil returns to the ditch 4 after the bottom of the ditch 4 turns over soil for about 10 cm; digging surface soil of the ditch 4 to the ridge 2, and when one side is half dug, placing the dug soil to the ridge 2 to widen and heighten the ridge 2; after digging to the set depth of 5cm downwards, continuously digging downwards to plough a layer, adding 2/3 of surface soil dug by the other ditch 4 into the ditch 4 dug firstly, mixing the surface soil with the substrate layer 8 uniformly, and adding mixed organic fertilizer when turning the substrate soil. Meanwhile, the deep ditch 5 in the middle of the field is widened by 1-2m (depending on the size of the field block), the middle part is widened by 1-2m, and the depth of the ditch is deeper than that of the ditch 4 by more than 0.5m, so that the ditch is used for culturing fish. When the fish in 5-9 months of the paddy rice in the ditch 4 can swim in the whole paddy field and the dry-seeded mushroom is put in the ditch 4 from 10 months to 4 months of the next year, the smaller fish or the fish for seeding continuously grow and breed in the deep ditch 5 (the deep ditch keeps water for a long time). The planting soil layer 10 in the ditch 4 is used for planting rice or mushroom plants; the water or the spreading layer is the layer section added with the edible fungus culture material after water is drained when the section is used for planting rice; the base layer is the lowermost layer of the trench.
Fig. 3 shows the ponds and the cultivation routes added at the corners, fig. 3 shows another embodiment of the soil layout of the present application, in fig. 3, the soil is reformed and laid according to fig. 1, ridges 2 are arranged around the soil, channels 1 for entering the field are arranged on the ridges 2, ridges 3 and ditches 4 are arranged inside the ridges 2 when staggered, deep ditches 5 are arranged in the middle of the ridges 2, and ponds 11 are arranged at the corners of the ridges 2; one end of the ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, so that the management of fruit trees and the picking and transportation of fruits from the ridge 2 to the ridge 3 are facilitated; the distance between the other end of the ridge 3 and the opposite ridge 2 is the width of a ditch, so that the ditches 4 of the whole land are completely communicated with the ditches 4, and irrigation and mechanical cultivation are facilitated; the arrangement of the adjacent ridges 3 can be the same, or the positions of the grooves 4 can be opposite, and the ridge 3 at the other end is connected with the ridge 2 at the other end. Adding water into the ditch 4 for planting rice in 5-9 months in the ditch 4; 10. draining water in the ditch 4 from month to 4 months in the next year to plant mushroom; the planting modes of the ridge 3 and the ridge 2 are that the ridge 2 is used for planting low-dry fruits in principle, shading of crops in a ditch is reduced, and fruits such as mulberries, mulberries leaves and low-dry oranges can be planted, and the crops can be cultivated according to low dryness. The pond 11 or the deep water ditch 5 is used for culturing fish, when the fish in 5 months to 9 months growing rice in the ditch 4 can swim in the whole paddy field, and when dry-seeded mushroom is put in the ditch 4 in 4 months from 10 months to the next year, smaller fish or seeded fish continue to grow and breed in the deep water ditch 5, and water is kept in the deep water ditch 5 and the pond 11 for a long time. The arrows 12 in the figure indicate the cultivation path, mainly for rice cultivation, with a layout of open furrows in the entire field block by machine cultivation. The method has the advantage that the soil layer for planting the rice can be ploughed up at one time in the direction indicated by the arrow or in the reverse direction without obstruction.
The heights of the ridges 3 can be different, but the furrows 4 and the furrows 4 are required to be on the same horizontal line so as to ensure that the depth bases of water in the furrows in the same field are consistent when the rice is planted;
at least one gap is reserved in each closed field, so that water can be drained when heavy rain is met during rice planting to prevent rice seedlings from being submerged, and water in shallow ditches can be drained when mushrooms are planted.
For the layout of the field soil of the mulberry or fruit tree originally planted into a forest, the invention also provides a specific embodiment, aiming at the field soil with lower topography, such as the field soil with easy flooding in plain or hilly ditches, furrowing and ridging are carried out according to the mode shown in fig. 4 or fig. 5, so as to prevent flooding of the mulberry and increase the planting of rice and edible mushroom in the ditches, wherein fig. 4 aims at the situation that the relative row spacing is smaller, namely the planting density between rows is large, except that a tree is dug at the end part, a row of trees are dug in an interlaced way, and further, aiming at the field soil with smaller relative row spacing, namely the planting density between rows is large: selecting fruit trees 6 around the planting field as ridges 2, and digging out one fruit tree at intervals for the fruit trees at the end parts of the ridges 2; digging a row of fruit trees in an interlaced manner to serve as a ditch 4; the fruit trees which are not dug out are taken as ridges 3; one end of each ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, the distance between the other end of each ridge 3 and the opposite ridge 2 is a furrow width, and the layout positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same or opposite.
FIG. 5 shows that for the relatively large row spacing, namely the planting density among rows is small, only one tree is dug at the end part, furrowing and ridging can be carried out among rows, for the relatively large row spacing, namely the planting density among rows is small, the fruit trees 6 around the planted field are selected as ridges 2, and the fruit trees at the end parts of the ridges 2 are dug at intervals; ditching and ridging are carried out between the rows of the fruit trees, and the ditches and the end parts of the ridges 2 are staggered with each other for digging out the fruit trees; the ridges correspond to the positions of the fruit trees dug at the end parts of the ridges 2;
one end of each ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, the distance between the other end of each ridge 3 and the opposite ridge 2 is the width of one fruit tree, and the arrangement positions of the adjacent ridges 3 are the same or opposite.
As can be seen from figures 4 and 5, ridges 2 are located around the field, ridges 3 and furrows 4 are arranged inside the ridges 2 when they are staggered, one end of each ridge 3 is connected with the ridge 2, the ridge 3 is provided with a mulberry tree or fruit tree 6 which is originally planted into a forest, when 5-9 months of fishes growing in the furrows 4 can swim in the whole rice field, and when dry-planted mushrooms are put in the furrows 4 from 10 months to the next 4 months, smaller fishes or fishes for planting continue to grow and breed in the deep water furrows 5 (the deep water furrows are kept without water break all the year round). The planting soil layer 10 in the ditch 4 is used for planting rice or mushroom plants; the water or the spreading layer is the layer section added with the edible fungus culture material after water is drained when the section is used for planting rice; the base layer is the lowermost layer of the trench. The arrow is the plowing line of the inter-furrow plough, and the inter-furrow plough can also run in the reverse direction. The field soil layout can fully utilize the field soil of the mulberry or fruit tree which is originally planted into the forest, and the transformation of fruits and grains is realized.
According to the method for interplanting straw mushrooms in this example, interplanting experiments were performed in the cooperative society of agricultural and agricultural industries in the city of Pengan and the agricultural development Co., ltd of Yinghun, with the following methods for soil improvement and interplanting:
TABLE 1 field soil improvement and interplanting mode
Figure BDA0003735816250000111
Note: the furrow width is the width of furrows between the ridges for planting rice/stropharia rugoso-annulata and culturing fish; the ridge height and the furrow depth are the height of the furrow and the ridge surface; the rice ditch with the water surface height is the water surface height of the planting ditch and the water storage height of the water surface of the fish ditch when the rice is planted. The oranges and fruit mulberries are both originally planted on the soil blocks for 3 years.
The land reclamation method of the test is a method for reforming the original land where the fruit mulberry and the citrus fruit are planted (the same reclamation method for the fruit mulberry and the citrus fruit are planted at the beginning), namely, furrowing is carried out between the citrus fruit and the fruit mulberry (actually, the soil between ridges is taken and added to the ridges to deepen the soil of the original shallow ridges).
The interplanting intercropping mode is as follows: sowing and cultivating rice seedlings in other fields, namely planting the cultivated seedlings in shallow ridges with water and ploughing in the middle and last ten days of 4 months or the last ten days of 5 months by adopting a seedling throwing mode, carrying out field management on the rice field according to the common management technology of rice for weeding, fertilizing and preventing diseases and insects, harvesting the rice before and after 9 months, draining water in shallow ditches, forming a shallow ditch with the width of 20cm in the middle of each ditch to enable each ditch to form two shallow ridges, and planting mushroom on the shallow ridges.
Taking stropharia rugoso-annulata as an example: the formula (1) is as follows: mulberry twig: 70%, chaff: 17%, wheat bran: 10%, gypsum: 2% of lime; 1%, and adjusting the ph value to 5-7.
(2) According to the formula, the mulberry twig sawdust, the rice husk and the like are proportionally added with water and uniformly mixed, so that the water content in the compost reaches 70-75%, the compost is pinched tightly by grabbing a base material with hands, and water drops out but does not flow linearly to be proper in dryness and wetness.
(3) The stropharia rugoso-annulata can be sowed at the temperature of 8-30 ℃ generally, the optimal temperature is 15-26 ℃, the sowing and cultivation season is suitable for being carried out in 9-10 months, the temperature is suitable after sowing, the hypha grows fast, and 4-6 months are needed from sowing to fruiting and harvesting in general.
A furrow is made on the ground, the furrow is shaped into a turtle back shaped furrow bed with the width of about 1.1m, the height of 20cm and the unlimited length, the distance between the furrow and the furrow is 20-40cm, drainage ditches are made, and the drainage ditches are also made around the furrow, and the ditches are deeper than the bottom of the furrow bed. After the bed is opened, spraying pesticide and sterilizing agent to make insecticidal sterilization treatment
(4) Firstly, laying a layer of fermented mulberry branch sawdust culture material on a bed with the thickness of about 8-10cm, then hole-sowing a layer of stropharia rugoso-annulata strain on the material surface, breaking the strain into pigeon eggs, dibbling by adopting a plum blossom with the hole distance of 10-12cm, then laying a layer of mulberry branch sawdust culture material with the thickness of 10-12cm, flattening and compacting the material surface by using a wood board after sowing, and tightly combining the strain and the culture material so as to facilitate germination and feeding growth of the strain. Covering the material surface with a straw curtain and a film, and keeping warm, moisturizing and spawn running.
(5) Observing the temperature and humidity change of the piled materials every day, uncovering the film for ventilation when the temperature of the materials is higher than 30 ℃, and spraying water for cooling. The ridge surface is dry, water is sprayed for moisturizing, and the water is required to be leakproof.
(6) The stropharia rugoso-annulata cultivation needs covering soil to produce good mushrooms, generally, after seeding for 30 days, namely hypha basically grows over a material layer, the soil is covered, the thickness is 2-3cm, and the compost is completely covered. The soil for covering is required to be loose, good in air permeability and water retention performance, rich in humus, 5.5-6.5 in PH and about 30% in water content. Fruiting is started 15-20 days after the soil is covered, temperature adjustment, moisture preservation and illumination management are needed to be done at the moment, namely, the temperature is kept between 12 ℃ and 25 ℃; the soil is kept in a wet state all the time, so that the relative humidity of air in the mushroom shed is between 85 and 95 percent; strong scattered light
(7) When the pileus of the stropharia rugoso-annulata fruiting body is not cracked or just cracked and the pileus is still bell-shaped, the stropharia rugoso-annulata fruiting body can be harvested, and the method comprises the following steps: holding the base of the mushroom stem with a hand, and slightly rotating and picking off the mushroom stem. And filling the harvested mushroom pit with soil, and repairing a soil covering layer to prepare for the growth of the next mushroom. The harvested mushrooms are sold on the market after the mushroom with soil is removed, and can also be frozen for fresh-keeping or dried for mushroom outlet
The stropharia rugoso-annulata generally grows at the ground temperature of more than 15 ℃, the higher the air temperature and the ground temperature is, the faster the fruiting is, and most of the areas in China are suitable for sowing at the temperature of 20-30 ℃ in 9 and 10 months; the temperature can be raised to 15-25 ℃ in 2-4 months in the next year, and the fruiting can be realized in 30 days as long as the temperature is 15-25 ℃ in the period, so that the rice can be replanted in 4-5 months.
Meanwhile, the field soil which is not modified into the form is used for carrying out a comparative test, the time and the water depth of putting water and drying water in the control field are basically consistent with those of the intercropping, and the rice planting and interplanting intercropping are completely consistent with the method.
Test results and score
The results of this test are shown in the following table: unit area is m 2 The yield is kg, the unit yield is kg/m 2
Table 2: patent method comparison test statistical table
Figure BDA0003735816250000131
As can be seen from the table above, the yield per unit of mulberry produced by Fangan county agricultural machinery and farming specialized cooperative society in a patent manner is increased by 2.79kg/m 2 The yield per unit of rice is increased by 0.02kg/m 2 The yield of Stropharia rugosoannulata is increased by 9.86kg/m 2 . Yingchangxi Tang agricultural development Limited company in Yingxian county adopts a patent mode to increase the yield of oranges by 4.16kg/m 2 Increase yield per unit of rice by 0.1kg/m 2 The yield of the stropharia rugoso-annulata is increased by 0.25kg/m 2 . The rice fruit mushroom relay intercropping method is proved to be feasible.
Finally, it should be noted that: although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications may be made to the embodiments or portions thereof without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (13)

1. A relay intercropping method of straw mushrooms is characterized by comprising the following steps of,
the method comprises the following steps of (1) modifying and distributing the field soil: ridging (3) a furrow (4) of the field soil, arranging ridges (2) around the field soil, connecting one end of each ridge (3) with the ridge (2), enabling the distance between the other end of each ridge and the opposite ridge (2) to be one furrow width, and enabling the layout positions of adjacent ridges (3) to be the same or opposite;
adding water into the ditch (4) for planting rice in 5-9 months; water in the dry ditch (4) is put in 10 months to 4 months in the next year, and mushroom is planted in the ditch (4) in which the water is put;
and planting fruit trees (6) on the ridges (3).
2. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushrooms according to claim 1, further comprising:
a pond (11) or/and a deep water ditch (5) are/is arranged in the middle of or on one side or one corner of the field; the width of the pond (11) or/and the deep water ditch (5) is 2-6m, and the depth of the ditch is more than 0.8m;
the pond (11) or/and the deep water ditch (5) are used for water-discharging fish culture, wherein when water is added into the ditch (4) from 5 months to 9 months for planting rice, the fish swim in the whole rice field; when dry-species mushrooms are put into the ditch (4) in the next 4 months from 10 months to the next year, the smaller fishes or the fishes for species continue to grow and propagate in the pond (11) or/and the deep water ditch (5).
3. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushroom according to claim 1,
the method comprises the steps of carrying out transformation layout on the field soil, including new farmland transformation, original barren land transformation, orchard and mulberry field waterlogging prevention transformation, wherein the existing orchard transformation is used for increasing the yield of grains, and the waterlogging of a low-lying land is easy to occur;
the width of the ridge (3) is 0.8-1.5m, the width of the groove (4) is 1.5-2.5 times of the width of the ridge (3), and the depth of the groove (4) is 0.3-0.8 m.
4. The interplanting method for straw mushrooms as claimed in claim 3, wherein the transformation of existing orchards to increase yield of grains and the transformation of low-lying orchards to prevent waterlogging, which is prone to waterlogging, into mulberry orchards, comprises,
aiming at the field soil with small relative row spacing, namely planting density among rows:
selecting fruit trees (6) around the field to be planted as ridges (2), and digging out one fruit tree at intervals on the fruit tree at the end part of the ridge (2); digging a row of fruit trees in an interlaced way to serve as a ditch (4); the fruit trees which are not dug are taken as ridges (3); one end of each ridge (3) is connected with the ridge (2), the distance between the other end of each ridge (3) and the opposite ridge (2) is the width of one ditch, and the layout positions of the adjacent ridges (3) are the same or opposite.
5. The interplanting method for straw mushrooms according to claim 3, wherein the improving of existing orchards for increasing yield of grains and the improving of waterlogging prevention of orchards and mulberry gardens with low-lying areas and high water logging tendency further comprises,
aiming at the field soil with larger relative row spacing, namely the field soil with small planting density between rows, selecting the fruit trees (6) around the field soil as ridges (2), and digging out one fruit tree at intervals from the fruit tree at the end part of the ridge (2);
ditching and ridging are carried out between the rows of the fruit trees, and the ditches (4) and the end parts of the ridges (2) are staggered; the ridge (3) corresponds to the position of the fruit tree dug at the end part of the ridge (2);
one end of each ridge (3) is connected with the ridge (2), the distance between the other end of each ridge (3) and the opposite ridge (2) is the width of one fruit tree, and the layout positions of the adjacent ridges (3) are the same or opposite.
6. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushroom according to claim 1,
the layout positions of the adjacent ridges (3) are the same or opposite, in particular,
said ridge (3) comprising a first end and a second end, wherein,
the arrangement positions of the adjacent ridges (3) are the same, namely, the first end parts of the adjacent ridges (3) are connected with the ridges (2), and the distance from the second end parts of the adjacent ridges (3) to the opposite ridges (2) is one furrow width;
the arrangement positions of the adjacent ridges (3) are opposite, namely, the first end part of one ridge of the adjacent ridges (3) is connected with the land ridge (2), and the distance from the second end part to the opposite land ridge (2) is one furrow width;
the distance from the first end of the other ridge of the adjacent ridges (3) to the opposite ridge (2) is the width of a ditch; the second end part is connected with the ridge (2).
7. The method for interplanting straw mushroom according to claim 1, wherein the improvement of the land comprises,
the width of the ridge (2) around the field is larger than that of the ridge (3); the ridges (3) have the same or different heights;
the bottoms of the ditches (4) are on the same horizontal line, and the depths of water in the ditches (4) in the same field are consistent or the heights of the ditches from the water surface line (7) are consistent when the ditches are used for planting rice;
the ridge of the field comprises at least one notch, and the notch is used for draining water to prevent the rice seedlings from being submerged when meeting heavy rain during the rice planting period or discharging water in a shallow ditch when planting mushrooms;
keeping the surface soil covering the upper layer of the surface of the ridge (3) when the ditch (4) is taken out, adding 1/3 of the surface soil at the bottom of the ditch (4) on the side ridge (3) when the ditch is dug, and returning 2/3 of the surface soil in the ditch (4) after 8-12cm of soil is turned at the bottom of the ditch;
the surface soil of the trench (4) is dug and moved to the ridge (2), when one side is dug to a half, the dug soil is placed on the ridge (2), and the ridge (2) is widened and heightened;
after the soil is dug to the set depth and is downward 3-8cm, continuously digging a layer downwards, adding 2/3 of surface soil dug in the other ditch (4) into the ditch dug in advance, uniformly mixing the surface soil with bottom soil, and adding mixed organic fertilizer when the bottom soil is turned.
8. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushroom according to claim 1,
the fruit tree (6) is a low-dry fruit plant, and comprises any one of mulberry, dual-purpose mulberry of fruit leaves, low-dry citrus or other fruits and vegetables.
9. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushroom according to claim 8,
the low-dry fruit plant is preferably mulberry;
the mulberry sprouts and blooms and fruits in 2-3 months, and the mulberry is collected after 4-5 months;
and (4) transplanting seedlings in the ditch during picking the mulberry, and performing mulberry shoot cutting at the bottom of 5 months and in the last 6 months after picking the mulberry.
10. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushroom according to claim 9,
the fruit mulberry is dormant from 10 months to 3 months in the next year, and beans or vegetable crops with short growth period are planted under the mulberry.
11. The interplanting method of straw mushroom according to claim 1, wherein the dry seed mushroom is put in the furrow from 10 months to 4 months of the next year by water, specifically,
and (3) draining water in the ditches in 10 months to 4 months in the next year, forming a shallow ditch with the width of 15-25cm in the middle of each ditch, forming two shallow ridges, using soil dug out from the shallow ditches to generate the shallow ridges, and planting mushrooms on the shallow ridges.
12. The relay intercropping method of straw mushrooms according to claim 11, wherein the mushrooms are edible mushrooms, including any one of dictyophora phalloidea, rugoso-annulata, morchella esculenta or other edible mushrooms;
the edible fungus interplanting needs to be changed at intervals of 1-2 years.
13. The interplanting method of straw fruit mushroom according to claim 12, wherein mushroom is planted in the shallow ridges, further comprising,
filling mulberry twigs and crop straw scraps into a mushroom culture medium;
the mulberry branches are completely crushed mulberry branches, or a mixture of the completely crushed mulberry branches and small sections of which the parts of the mulberry branches are cut into 5-30 cm.
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